The wild orchid, scientifically called the orchid, is extremely rare in gardens in the middle latitudes. Not so long ago one could find entire thickets of the orchid in the forests, but today it is very rare.
This unusual perennial plant is included in the Red Book. However, the orchid is widespread in culture, and all thanks to its lacy inflorescences, the shape of which resembles a candle. It is grown both as an ornamental crop and for obtaining medicinal raw materials.
The orchid requires a lot of care but despite this, it is very popular with gardeners.
Peculiarities of the orchid
The orchid is also commonly referred to as the wild orchid, the orchis or the cuckoo's tears. This red-listed plant can be a real highlight of any garden plot. During the flowering period, this crop stands out from all other garden plants with its unusual beauty.
If you decide to decorate your garden with a wild orchid, then remember that on no account should you look for a seedling in the wild.
The fact is that this endangered plant is protected by the state. Even if you unexpectedly encounter the jatryshnik in the wild, the only thing you can do is to admire its beauty.
But in your garden you can freely grow garden jatryshniks. They have been bred by breeders for industrial cultivation as well as for cultivation as an ornamental plant. Of course, it is not easy to buy a seedling or seeds of the orchid, but it is quite possible.
Most often it is enough to make an order from a catalog. Buying seedlings on the market or from a gardening acquaintance, try to find out where this orchid was grown. The fact is that for participating in the reduction of the population of such a red-listed plant, you can be punished by law.
The bush reaches a height of about 50 centimeters. The thickened rhizome is egg-shaped, which is why the plant is called the Jatropha angustica.
The shrub has many upright shoots, which are decorated with long, lanceolate-shaped leaf plates. They taper toward the petiole and seem to "hug" the stem. The shape of the leaves of the orchid and the cereal orchid are very similar. However, the wild orchid stands out strongly from many other garden crops with its bright green foliage.
The plant has a Latin name Orchis derived from the ancient Greek ὄρχις, which means "testicle".
The fact is that a pair of orchis tubers looks very much like testicles. There are several versions of exactly how the Russian name of this plant occurred. The etymological dictionaries have at least 3 versions of the origin of the name of the plant:
- it came from the dialect word "yatro", which translates as "egg";
- the root of this plant was used to prepare a love potion (flower yatrova);
- B. Dahl believed the name came from the word "yadrishnik", which means "kernel".
In the common people this plant is often called "tears", or "cuckoo's tears".
This plant is most decorative during flowering. At this time tall peduncles grow on the tops of which inflorescences form spike-like flowers, their length varies from 15 to 20 centimeters. Each inflorescence is densely packed with several compound flowers, which are highly decorative. Although the flowers are only about 20 mm in size, their beauty is often compared to that of an orchid. The petals of the inner and outer circle join together to form a kind of "helmet".
The lip of the flower is tripartite, and the petals below and above can have different sizes and shapes. Often there are spots on the surface of the lip, and the flower looks incredibly graceful because it has a spur, which is the same size as the ovary.
Duration of flowering depends on the species of the orchid and can last from 15 days to several months. In low-growing varieties and species, the beginning of flowering is in April-May and in June for high-growing ones. Most of the species do not have fragrant inflorescences, but they give off a faintly pleasant vanilla odor.
Jatrachis I Uses and Benefits I They will not tell you this at the drugstore
Growing from seed
Yatrachis seed can be sown whenever you wish (regardless of the season). The first seedlings may appear after one or three months, or they may have to wait longer. Therefore, the wild orchid seedlings can be sown even in summer.
Fill the box with moist, nutritious and loose soil mixture. Only put the seeds into the substrate very lightly.
Put the seeds in a well-lit place and make sure they are at a suitable temperature (18-24 degrees).
As a rule, the emergence of seedlings is uneven and they also differ in the rate of development. When the seedling has formed several true leaves, it is very carefully transplanted into an individual container. Digging up the seedling, try not to traumatize the neighboring plants and not sprouted seeds. Planting seedlings in the garden is carried out in spring after the age frosts are left behind and warm weather settles in.
Planting the Jatrychnica seedlings is done so that there is a distance of at least 10-15 centimeters between bushes.
Yatrychnica can be multiplied by separating a substitute tuberous root. This method is the most popular among gardeners because it is simple and reliable.
In the fall after the above-ground part of the shrub has been cut, remove the rhizome from the ground and separate the replacement tuber from it. When planting the division into a new hole, do not forget to pour the soil from the old hole into it.
The fact is that this soil contains special fungi, without which the division may not take root. And the more soil you take from the old hole, the better for the plant.
Growing the Orchid as a business idea
Grooming the Orchid
The Orchid, also called the wild orchid, grows very well in the open ground. And the garden varieties have more spectacular blooms than the wild orchids. However, you need the right conditions for a good and long flowering time.
Beautifully, it will grow in a light semi-shade and with diffuse lighting. Unlike wild species, garden varieties also grow well in sunny areas, the only thing is that they should not be planted in the shade. But remember, the more sunlight on the plot, the harder it is to take care of such a plant.
Jatrum will only grow well in nutritious and moist soil, and it must be very loose. It must also be well drained.
Pay particular attention to the moisture content of the soil. The wild orchid reacts extremely negatively to the stagnation of liquid in its roots, but it prefers to grow in moist cool soil, and it should remain so even on hot summer days. Worst of all, such a flower grows in dense soil, as well as in soil fertilized with fresh manure. When preparing a hole for planting, it is advisable to mix the soil removed from it with peat (1 part) and sand (0.5 parts).
If, however, it is watered infrequently, flowering will be sparse and short-lived. And it is also necessary to water regularly those bushes, which are grown in an area with depleted soil.
If a moist loose soil has been selected for planting such a flower, then it will be necessary to water it only if necessary. During prolonged drought, be sure to water the wild orchid, preventing the soil from drying out and overheating.
Water such a culture should be so that the soil on the site was constantly slightly moist.
The plant is equally detrimental to over-drying the soil and stagnant liquid in the root system.
Fertilizing garden yatrushnik with mineral fertilizers is extremely undesirable. For a spectacular and lush flowering, it is advisable to feed the shrubs with organic fertiliser. They not only make up for the lack of nutrients in the soil, but also improve its structure.
Fertilizing this plant is excellent for needles and compost.
It is recommended to introduce them into the soil during the preparation of the site for planting the barnyard. They are also used as mulch, for this purpose, the soil surface around the bushes is covered with a thick mulch layer (at least 50 mm) 2 times during the season. It is recommended to mulch the bushes in mid-spring and in the first days of September.
Wild orchid is not a heat-loving plant. It is quite frost-resistant and will survive the winter uncovered even in mid-latitudes.
However, it is necessary to prepare the plant for wintering because it can suffer from stagnant moisture in the ground as well as from sudden temperature changes during thaws.
Preparation of the butterbur should be done in the fall. When you notice that the above-ground part of the shrub has begun to dry out, it should be completely cut down to the base. In this case, wait until the stems are completely withered and themselves die is extremely undesirable. All experienced gardeners recommend, by all means, to carry out a cardinal pruning, without fear of damaging the plant.
After pruning, the root system will be well prepared and will not be afraid of any winter.
Diseases and pests
Jatrums are incredibly resistant to various diseases. They are not affected by fungal diseases and do not fear most pests.
The only thing that can harm a wild orchid is various leaf-eating pests such as slugs, snails and others. That is why it is advisable to place special traps or straw circles next to flowers.
Jatnip species with photos
The genus Jatniphus combines approximately 100 different species that are similar to each other in type of flowering. Most of the species and varieties are highly ornamental and are grown outdoors.
Spotted orchis maculataa
This species is the most popular among gardeners. To this day, however, experts still argue about which species this plant belongs to. The fact is that its roots are palmate-separate while practically all other species are ovate.
Most specialists today classify this plant as a spotted herbicide (dactylorhiza maculata). But there is no particular difference between these plants, only a broader leaf blade and a broader palette of colors. They can be taken care of in exactly the same way. The plant is nowadays included in both genera at the same time.
It doesn't matter what exactly this plant is called or to which genus it belongs as it is very ornamental.
The roots of this herbaceous perennial are finger-like and thickened. The height of its stems can vary from 0.15 to 0.6 m. This flower looks very effective and graceful.
The slender cluster consists of upright stems and lanceolate, ovate leaf plates tapering into a petiole and enclosing the shoots.
Tops of the foliated stems have pedicels on which inflorescences are formed in the form of spikelets. The highly decorative flowers have a three-lobed lip and a cone-shaped spur. They have a rather unusual color: white, pale purple or bright purple with small spots of dark hue. Often the leaf plates of such a plant are also decorated with an unusual pattern.
The beginning of flowering is in mid to late May. Its duration depends on the growing conditions of the plant and can be 15-30 days.
One of the basic species of the orchis mascula is cultivated in the open ground are those described below.
Male orchis (Orchis mascula)
This species is among the most highly ornamental. The surface of its leaves and shoots are decorated with spectacular speckles of purple hue.
The inflorescences consist of lovely pink-purple flowers, which have a distinct deep-slit lip with a spectacular white blurred spot at its base. The flowers are also decorated with small spots of a darker shade. Flowering begins in April or May. This species is often used by breeders to produce new varieties and hybrids.
Magenta purpurea (Orchis purpurea)
His flower stalks are brown in color, the broad lily-shaped leaf plates are painted a deep green color.
The dense spike-like inflorescence looks more like a fringe. The snow-white flowers have a large lip that is flattened and deeply parted. The flowers are adorned with many small dots of a darker shade.
Monkeyberry (Orchis simia)
The dense inflorescences have a pyramidal shape, and they look lacy. The bush reaches about 50 cm in height, its leaf plates are long, and the flowers smell like honey.
They consist of elongated petals of a faint, almost white color. The flowers are ornamented with spectacular mottling, and they have stripes along the edge. The appearance of the flower strongly resembles a monkey's face.
Hatcher (Orchis punctulata)
The bush is decorated with rich green foliage as well as spectacular inflorescences of a lettuce-yellow hue.
Jatrachis maxima (Orchis maxima)
This species differs from the others in that it is the tallest: the bush is about 0.
7 meters tall. The fragrant sturdy inflorescences consist of flowers whose lip and helmet are decorated with fine mottling. There is a deep notch on the lip, and the color of the flowers is unusual: it features watercolor transitions from delicate white to purple. Today, this plant is not considered a separate species; it is a variety of Purple Orchis (Orchis purpurea).
Pale Orchis (Orchis pallens)
A low bush, usually reaching no more than 0.
3 m in height. The rather broad, obovate-shaped leaf plates are about 11 centimeters long. Lush spike-like inflorescences consist of large flowers in light orange, deep yellow or purple. The bracts are lanceolate in shape and have a very unusual smell, somewhat like elderberry.
Provence elder (Orchis provincialis)
The foliage of this species is decorated with dark spots.
The dense inflorescences consist of large whitish-yellow flowers with a dark mottled surface.
Green-brown Hymenoptera (Orchis viridifusca)
This plant is a subspecies of Spitzel's Hymenoptera (Orchis spitzelii). The shrub reaches about 0.3 m in height, its broad leaf plates colored with a marshy hue. The narrow elongated elongated spike-like inflorescences consist of purple with greenish flowers, which have a large-sized lip and a spectacular helmet.
This can also include the greenish-yellow Orchis chlorotica (Orchis chlorotica, or Anacamptis collina), which is a fellow of the green-brown Orchis; their inflorescences are lettuce-yellow.
The Orchis dremlik (Orchis morio)
This species can compete with violets. Its height varies from 15 to 20 centimeters. Pale bluish leaf plates grow at the bottom of the stems. During flowering, short spike-like inflorescences with showy purple-purple flowers are formed.
The shape of the flowers is very similar to a bull terrier's muzzle. A peculiarity of this species is that during the first two years the flower lives underground. It is not until the third year of growth that flower stalks and foliage grow above ground.
Hatcher's helmet-shaped (Orchis militaris)
Flowers are decorated with a mottled lip of purple and white color, it has very thin lobes. The pinkish helmet is much larger than the lip.
Some of the species cultivated by gardeners as Jatrychnid actually belong to genera such as Neotinea and Anacamptis, which are also part of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae). In the literature, such plants are often found under both new and old names, e.g. Neotinea tridentata.
The shrub may vary in height from 0.
2 to 0.4 m. The narrow leaf plates have a lanceolate shape. The cylindrical elongated inflorescences consist of flowers whose lip is deeply parted and there is a pointed helmet. The coloration has complex transitions from brownish-purple with purple speckles at the top of the petals to white and pale green at the base.
Anthrax nervulosa (Orchis nervulosa)
It is very similar to the previous species, but its flowers smell more pleasant and there is a pattern of dark veins on the surface of the narrow leaf plates.
Athrax nervulosa (Orchis fragrans)
It is about 50 cm tall. Its purple-colored flowers are gathered in openwork inflorescences. They smell pleasantly of vanilla, and are decorated with a showy helmet and a rather long medial lobe on the lip.
Jatrum laxiflora (Orchis laxiflora)
The inflorescences are not thick, almost double-sided.
They include purple flowers.
An orchis pseudolaxiflora)
This is a subspecies of Orchis laxiflora. It begins to bloom very early. The bush is about 0.6 m tall and forms tall inflorescences that consist of widely spaced, deep purple flowers.
Marsh orchis palustris
Similar in appearance to the previous species. It is about 0.7 m tall, with graceful and long leaves. The lacy, loose inflorescences include mauve-colored flowers, which are decorated with a large skirt-like lip. The beginning of blooming is May-June.
An orchis caspia (Orchis caspia)
This miniature plant is decorated during blooming with a loose elongated inflorescence consisting of dark purple florets.
Hotspot (Orchis picta)
The bush reaches a height of about 0.3 m and is highlighted by dark purple colored flowers.
Jatrum tridentata (Orchis tridentata)
The bush forms dense, almost ball-shaped inflorescences. The flowers have a pale lilac coloration.
Burned Orchis (Orchis ustulata)
The dense spike-like inflorescences are mace-like in appearance and consist of pale pink flowers. The bush is about 0.3 m tall.
Jatricum Medicinal Properties