The yarrow is a very large genus belonging to the Asteraceae or Complexiflorum family. There are about 150 species in this genus. Cut grass or Achillea millefolium is a generic species of the genus Yarrow. The name of this plant was derived from the name of Achillea, this mythical hero who healed wounds with yarrow. Because of the many segments of the leaf plate this plant has received such a species epithet ("mille" - thousand, "folium" - leaf).
This plant is widespread in Asia and Europe and has also been introduced to other continents. It prefers to grow in the steppe, forest and forest-steppe zones, among shrubs, in thin forests, on waste grounds, on the banks of reservoirs, in meadow steppes, on margins, along roads, in ravines and on the edges of fields. Yarrow is cultivated as a medicinal, ornamental, and spicy plant.
Features of yarrow
The herbaceous perennial plant, yarrow is rhizomatous and well foliated. Its upright shoots vary in height from 0.
5 to 0.9 m or slightly curved at the bottom. The baskets are part of luxuriant corymbiform or cluster-like inflorescences, reaching 15 centimeters across. The baskets consist of tubular flowers in white or yellow and short-lanceolate marginal flowers, which may be colored pink, yellow, white or red. The successive leaflets may be pinnately dissected or entire.
The fruit is a flattened ovoid or oblong shaped achene.
Medicinal Yarrow (herbal). Medicinal, useful properties, uses of yarrow
How to grow ornamental yarrow in the open field
Sowing yarrow seeds for seedlings is done in the last days of February. A container should be filled with a fine-grained soil mixture that should be combined with river sand (1:1). As a container is recommended to use not very deep container of plastic.
Moisten the soil mixture and distribute the seeds on its surface in rows, spacing them 30-50 mm. Cover the seeds with a 2 cm layer of the same mixture. Carefully water the crops with a sprinkler, making sure that the seeds are not washed onto the surface of the substrate. A container should be covered with a film on top, and then it is transferred to a well-lit and warm place. Remember to ventilate the seeds regularly, and to moisten the substrate if necessary.
The seedlings should show after 10-12 days after sowing. After that, the cover should be removed from the container and it should be moved to a very well-lit place, but there should be no direct sunlight. After the seedlings grow the first true leaf plate, they should be subjected to picking, for this use peat cups filled with light substrate, saturated with nutrients. Since these plants are characterized by their fragility, transplanting should be carried out with extreme caution. Then you only have to water the plants moderately and in a timely manner, as soon as the top layer of substrate dries out.
Remember, it's not advisable to water the seedlings more than twice every 7 days. When the plants are 10-12 centimeters high, they are hardened, and then planted on the garden plot. As a rule, the time of planting is the last days of April or the first days of May.
Original perennial yarrow
Rules of planting in the open ground
Best of all these plants grow in sunny places, but they successfully enough grow in shady places too. The soil on the plot can be anything.
Planting yarrow in open soil is not at all difficult.
A plot should be made wells, the depth of which should be about 10 centimeters. In the middle of the well, you need to put the plant together with the pot, with the remaining voids should be filled with soil. If the seedlings were grown in a common container, it will be necessary to very carefully pull out the seedling together with a lump of soil (try not to injure the root system), and then it is placed in a hole, which should be covered with soil. When all the seedlings are planted, the surface of the plot should be tamped and then abundant watering is done.
Shrubs grown from seed begin to bloom in the last days of August.
Garden yarrow care
Yarrow will only need regular watering if the summer is dry. In this case the shrubs should not be watered more than once every 7 days. If the summer is not very hot or if it's rainy, water very seldom. In some cases, high-growing varieties have to be tied down.
In the autumn time, the bushes should be shortened to 10-15 centimetres. In areas with a warm climate, it is not necessary to cover yarrow. But if you expect a frosty and snowy winter, you should cover the area with brushwood or cover it with a layer of dry fallen leaves. Every 3 or 4 years you should take the shrubs out of the ground, divide them into parts and plant them in new places. This crop has a very important disadvantage: Yarrow shrubs can grow very big and can climb into places where they won't be planted.
To prevent this is quite simple, to do this, you need to promptly remove those inflorescences that have just begun to fade. In this case, you will be able to prevent the reproduction of yarrow by self-seeding, as well as preserve the spectacular appearance of the bushes.
Gather the grass of yarrow should be during its flowering period. The fact is that at this time the plant has the most powerful healing properties, and the top part of the shrub accumulates the most essential oil. To collect the herb is suitable for a cloudless and dry day, with the dew from the leaves should completely evaporate.
You can use a secateurs, sickle or a very sharp knife to cut the grass, or a scythe if you want to collect a very large quantity of herbs. Only the top part of the bush should be cut about 0.2 m long. Rough shoots without leaves are not suitable for medicinal use. If next season you want to collect yarrow again, you can not pluck the bushes together with the roots.
Prepared raw material for drying should be placed in a clean and dry room, and you can also place it in the fresh air under a shed. Note that during drying the herb should not be exposed to direct sunlight because it destroys the essential oils and chlorophyll in the raw material. It should be spread in a thin layer, and during drying the grass should be systematically turned over, this will not let it begin to wither. Also from the grass, if desired, you can make bundles, which are hung under the roof to dry. When it is dry, all the stems should be cut off.
You can tell when yarrow is dry because its shoots break off easily and its leaves and inflorescences crumble. Only the leaf plates, flowers and shoots, which should not exceed 15 centimeters in length, should be put away. All thick shoots should be cut off and thrown away. Ready-made raw material has a very strong flavor, but it has a slightly bitter taste. For storage, such a medicinal herb poured into canvas bags, paper bags, cardboard boxes or glass jars, which are stored in a cool, dry and dark place.
The herb retains its healing properties for 2 years. If very well sealed, it can be kept for up to 5 years.
Yarrow Species and Varieties with photo
There are many species of yarrow, most of which are cultivated by gardeners. The most popular species and varieties will be described below.
Noble Yarrow (Achillea nobilis)
In nature, this species can be found throughout the Caucasus, Western Siberia, the south of European Russia and Western Europe, and it prefers to grow in meadows, limestone, rocky slopes, pine forests and steppes.
The height of this perennial is about 0.65 m. Thinly-stemmed shoots may branched at the top or simple, densely pubescent with a greenish-gray tint. Lower stem and root leaf plates are oblong-elliptic or ovate, twice or thrice pinnatipartite and petiolate. The compound dense corymbiform inflorescences consist of baskets.
The marginal flowers are light yellow or white. Cultivated since 1561.
The slender shrub is decorated with shields that reach 6-14 centimeters across and are white in color. The straight, foliated shoots vary in height from 0.35 to 0.
6 m. The lanceolate entire leaf plates are bipinnate.
Thistle shrub (Achillea filipendulina)
In nature, this species can be found only in Central Asia and the Caucasus. The height of this perennial is about 1.2 m.
The peristome-separate, openwork leaf plates are green-gray in color. The baskets are 0.5 centimeters across and form part of a flat, corymbiform inflorescence, which is about 13 centimeters in diameter. The baskets are composed of yellow tubular median flowers and gold-tinted lingual marginal flowers. The following varieties are cultivated:
- Coronation Gold.
The bush is about 0.8 m tall. Shield-shaped inflorescences are very dense and reach 15 centimeters across.
- Eltgold. The inflorescences have a color similar to old gold with a touch of copper.
They look beautiful against the green-gray leaf plates.
- Flowers of Self. The baskets have a sulphur-yellow coloration and the leaf plates are greenish-gray.
- Gold Plate. The bush is about 1.
2 m tall. The convex shield-shaped inflorescences have a dark yellow coloration.
- Parker. The height of this tall variety is about 1.2 m.
The color of the shield-shaped inflorescences is yellow-gold.
- Munshine. The bush varies in height from 0.4 to 0.6 m.
Shield-shaped inflorescences have a yellow-lemon coloration.
- Swellenburg. The bush varies in height from 0.2 to 0.4 m.
The Achillea ptarmica, or sneezing grass
In nature, this species is found in European Russia and Central Europe. This perennial plant has a creeping rhizome. The height of the compact bush is about 100 cm. Straight shoots are foliated. The alternately arranged sessile small entire leaf plates are linear-lanceolate in shape and have a serrated edge.
Tight corymb-like inflorescences consist of nacreous-white baskets, 15 mm across. Cultivated since 1542. This species used to be very popular. There are several varieties and garden forms. Varieties of terry form:
- Burr (Pearl).
The bush is about 0.75 m tall. The terry-shaped baskets are colored white and reach 20 mm across.
- Boule de Nege. The bush varies in height from 0.
45 to 0.6 m.
- Perry's White. The bush is 0.8-1 m tall.
It is adorned with terry florets.
- Perl Blaupunkt and Ballerina. The bush is 0.5 to 0.6 m tall, and they are adorned with terry inflorescences.
It is noteworthy that the Balerina variety's inflorescences relatively quickly acquire a dirty-grayish color tint.
- Stephanie. This variety came into the world not so long ago. Its mauve-colored, terry-shaped inflorescences.
Achillea tomentosa (Achillea tomentosa)
In natural conditions, this species can be found in Southeastern Europe and Western Siberia.
Gardeners usually cultivate it in alpinaries because it promotes the formation of carpets. The shrubs are only 0.15 m tall but grow strongly in width, reaching about 0.45 m across. The silvery, pinnately dissected leaves have pubescence on their surface.
The leaves do not die back in winter, but cling very densely to the surface of the site. Shield-like inflorescences, reaching 70 mm across, consist of lemon-yellow baskets. The most popular variety is Aurea (Mainerd's Gold), which is about 0.2 m tall and has baskets of deep yellow color.
Thistle (Achillea millefolium), or common yarrow
In natural conditions this species can be found in the Far East, Western and Eastern Siberia, the European part of Russia, the Caucasus, Western Europe and Ukraine.
Straight shoots reach up to 0.8 m in height. The alternately arranged, twice or thrice pinnatipartite leaf leaves have many lanceolate segments. The upper leaflets are sessile and the lower ones have petioles. When the leaves are crushed, a specific odor can be smelled.
Shield-like inflorescences consist of small baskets, reaching 0.7 cm across. The baskets consist of yellow tubular flowers and pink, white or purple lingual flowers. Cultivated since 1440 It is cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental plant. The most attractive varieties:
The marginal florets are red-cherry, and they burn out in the sun over time.
- Red Velvet. The baskets are colored in ripe cherry. The coloration remains intense until the flowers fade.
- Walter Funch.
Shield-shaped inflorescences have the color of salmon roe.
- Great Exhibition. The baskets are colored deep yellow.
- Mary Ann. Shield-shaped inflorescences are colored in a light lemon color.
- Terracotta. The coloration of the lingual florets is orange-brown.
- Light Beauty. The baskets are colored in classic lilac.
Shield-shaped inflorescences have a deep crimson color.
- Sammer Pastels. The baskets are colored orange or soft pink.
- Appleblossom. The bush grows very fast and reaches 0.
4 m in height. The brush-like inflorescences are colored pinkish-white.
- White Beauty. The baskets are colored snow-white.
- Seritage Queen.
The marginal florets have a cherry color.
Other species that gardeners sometimes cultivate are: yarrow ptarmicolistid, atrata, ageratolistid, golden-haired, or goldenrod, umbrella, Keller, Serbian, erba-rotta, alpine, spreading, Sudetes, etc.
Yarrow: - what diseases it cures, the benefits and possible harm of yarrow.
The properties of yarrow: harm and benefits
The useful properties of yarrow
The fact that yarrow has medicinal properties has been known for a very long time. Therefore, this plant has been used for centuries in non-conventional medicine.
Yarrow contains tannides, which are anti-inflammatory, fixative, antibacterial and sedative. Such substances tone the skin and eliminate irritation, so they are recommended for use with porous and blackheaded skin, with sweating, with oily face seborrhea, as well as a means to strengthen the hair. Yarrow also contains vitamin K, which increases the strength of capillaries, stops bleeding and bleeding, and also heals wounds and ulcers. Because this herb contains carotene, it helps eliminate hair and nail breakage, peeling, dryness and keratinization of the skin and prevents the appearance of acne and wrinkles.
Ether herb contains essential oils, alkaloids, phytoncides, flavonoids, glycosides, bitterness, vitamin C, esters, choline, acetic acid, isovaleric acid and formic acid.
Therefore, it helps stimulate appetite and liver function, increase bile secretion, accelerate absorption of substances, and improve digestion. It is used for diarrhea, dysentery, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, thrombosis and any bleeding as a styptic, and for gastritis and enteritis as an anti-inflammatory. Preparations made on the basis of yarrow are used for colds and fevers as a diaphoretic. Such a plant can help in various diseases, for example: it treats pulmonary tuberculosis, catarrh and stomach ulcer, kidney stone disease, malaria, female diseases, enuresis, anemia, headaches, hypertension.
Yarrow can be made into various medicinal preparations, for example: infusion, ointment, liquid extract, juice, decoction and oil.
Some of these remedies can be made by hand, while others are sold in pharmacies.
- Decoction. 1 tbsp. just boiled water should be combined with 1 small spoonful of crushed herbs of such a plant. Boil the mixture over low heat for 5 to 10 minutes.
The cooled decoction should be strained. Drink the remedy should be ½ tbsp. three times a day for stomach ulcers and gastritis.
- Tincture. In a vessel made of dark glass, should be poured 30 grams of dried yarrow herb, and then pour into it 100 milligrams of medical alcohol.
Tightly corked vessel put away in a cool and dark place. Infusion will be ready after 10 days. Alcohol can be replaced by vodka, but in this case it will be ready in 12 days. When bleeding and painful sensations, the remedy is taken internally by 30-40 drops, which must first be combined with 50 milligrams of water. This remedy is suitable for treating wounds as well as for making compresses.
- Ointment. Take a handful of fresh inflorescences and leaves of yarrow. They must be well grinded in a mortar and combined with melted unsalted lard in a ratio of 1:1. This remedy is used for bruises.
Medications made from yarrow should not be used with increased blood clotting and related conditions.
The juice of this plant cannot be used during pregnancy. If you have absolutely no contraindications, you should remember that if such preparations are used for a long time, it may cause the development of poisoning: a rash appears on the skin surface, and you feel dizzy...