White Cornus (Cornus alba), also called white swede or white lead, or white telicrania, is a species of the genus Cornelia belonging to the dogwood family. Also this plant is considered a very close relative of the silky whistle, or scion. Under natural conditions this plant can be found in China, Mongolia, Korea, and it also grows in the territory stretching from Japan and the Far East to the European part of Russia. This plant prefers to grow in the undergrowth of dark coniferous swamp forests.
The name of the genus in white turf means "horn".
In this genus, white turf is the most widespread shrub, which is why it is often used in urban landscaping.
Brief description of cultivation
- Flowering. The shrub blooms lushly from early to mid-summer. It reblooms in the first weeks of fall.
In the fall during leaf fall or in the spring before the sap starts to flow.
- Watering. As long as the plant is young, water once or twice every 7 days. Mature plants should only be watered twice or three times a month during a long dry spell, usually with 15 to 20 liters of water per plant.
If the soil is nutritious, the turf can grow normally without fertilizers. In depleted soil in the spring time, 100 to 150 grams of mineral complex fertilizer should be applied to the soil under the bush. And in the summer months, 5 to 7 kilograms of humus should be applied under the bush.
- Trimming. After the white turf turns 3 years old, it begins to be pruned regularly.
This is done twice a year, in July and August to be exact. Species and varieties which have a deep bark should be cut at the very beginning of spring, but only once every few years. By branches, by seed and by cuttings.
- Pests. Aphids and comma-like scabs.
- Disease. Mildew.
Peculiarities of white turf
White turf is a strongly branching shrub. Its bare and straight branches are quite flexible, and over the years they begin to arch. Branches can be reddish-black, red-coral or reddish-brown in color.
The shrub can grow up to 300 cm tall. The elliptical leaf blades are full, opposite to each other, with petioles and surface pubescence. They vary in width from 10 to 70 mm and in length from 20 to 100 mm. On the surface of the plate, three to five arc-shaped veins are clearly distinguishable. The front surface of the foliage is dark green in color, while the underside is pale bluish.
Lush apical corymbose inflorescences reach 30-50 mm across, they consist of white small flowers, which have only 4 petals each. Lush flowering of the shrub occurs at the beginning to the middle of the summer period. And in the first weeks of autumn there is repeated flowering. The fruit is a berry-like knuckle. Immature fruits are pale blue, but change to blue-white as they ripen.
When mature, the kernels become flattened. White wood asks for fruiting and flowering after it has reached the age of two or three years.
This plant is resistant to heat and cold, tolerates winter well, can grow in the shade, can grow in any kind of ground and feels good in the city. It is because of its unpretentiousness and spectacular appearance that this shrub has gained great popularity among gardeners.
White turf: features, planting and care - 7 Dacha
Planting white turf in the open ground
What time to plant
The white turf seedling is planted in the open ground in early spring, and it should be time before the sap starts to flow.
This procedure can also be carried out in autumn during the leaf fall. Most gardeners prefer to plant such a shrub in the fall, because in early spring, fully engrafted and rooted seedlings immediately begin to grow actively. When planting a seedling in the open ground in the spring, experts advise to try during the transfer to the hole to take the roots together with a large clod of soil (the bigger the clod, the better). Thanks to this, you will be able to save the plant from the stress that can occur after transplanting.
Because white turf is a shade-tolerant plant, it is often planted in shaded areas or even in the shade, for example: along blind fences and walls or under large trees.
But you should remember that varieties and species with variegated leaves need plenty of light otherwise their leaves may lose their decorative effect. It grows well in stony soil, light sandstone and heavy loamy soil. But note that the soil must always be neutral.
It is best to use seedlings that are no more than four years old for planting, as they root faster, and if they are cut - they will grow a large number of young shoots. Before planting the seedling, its root system is immersed in water, where it will stay for several hours.
During this time, the roots will have time to absorb a sufficient amount of moisture, so they will better tolerate transplanting. If a seedling with a closed root system is used for planting, there is no need to soak it beforehand.
The size of the hole should be ¼ the volume of the root system taken together with the root ball. If the soil on the plot is swampy, white turf will be able to grow normally on it only if you provide it with good drainage. To do this, at the bottom of the planting hole should make a drainage layer of sand, which is combined with crushed stone or pieces of bricks.
The thickness of such a layer should reach about 15 centimeters. Note that if the groundwater on the site is quite deep or the soil on the site is dry, then no drainage is made at all in the planting hole or the bottom is covered with a layer of sand only.
After the seedling is placed in the planting hole, it should be covered with a soil mixture consisting of humus, compost and the top layer of soil (left after preparing the hole). When the bush is planted, compact the surface of the soil in the root circle and water it with plenty of water. When the liquid has been absorbed, cover the soil surface around the bush with a layer of mulch (organic material).
Make sure that the root neck after planting is in line with the surface of the plot.
Derenium. Planting, care and enjoyment.
Care for white turf
Although white turf is unpretentious, it must still be well cared for. It should be cared for just like any other garden crop.
Water young, immature bushes in particular. They should be watered regularly once or twice every 7 days. Older shrubs only need watering during prolonged droughts. So, in summer during a drought, it will be enough to pour under each bush from one and a half to two buckets of water 2 or 3 times a month. When the shrub has been watered, loosen up the ground in the growing bed and pull out all the weeds.
However, if you want the shrub to be powerful and abundantly flowering then in spring 100 to 150 grammes of mineral complex and in summer 5 to 7 kg of humus or compost should be introduced into the soil in the root zone.
After the bush is 3 years old, systematic formative pruning should be done. If this rule is neglected, the white turf will soon begin to gradually bare the lower part of the shrub. To ensure that the shrub is always compact and attractive, every third or fourth stem should be cut off completely. Also cut out all weakened, injured and diseased branches, leaving only the strongest and most developed ones.
If white turf is to be used as a hedge, the first trimming should be carried out in July and the second in August (when the stems have grown back).
If you grow brightly coloured varieties, they should only be cut once a few years and in early spring before the buds open. In this case, the bush should be shortened to 20 centimeters from the soil surface, which will rejuvenate it: it will begin active growth of a large number of young branches.
The crown of a turf can be shaped in different ways. The most popular are the following options: arc, cube, column, hemisphere and ball.
Even the crown of such a shrub can be formed in the form of a stem tree (1 trunk). Some varieties and varieties of this plant do not need shaping pruning, as even without the form of their crowns is quite attractive. However, even such shrubs are still regularly pruned.
Diseases and pests
The powerful white turf bush is highly resistant to diseases and pests. But when it is young it is often infested with powdery mildew and pests such as aphids and blotch beetles can settle on it.
A plant affected by powdery mildew will develop a whitish patina on its leaves in the springtime. Cut off all diseased branches as soon as possible and treat the plant with a solution of Fondazole or Bordeaux mixture (1%). And to get rid of pests, spray the bush with an acaricide solution such as Actellic, Bankol, Actara, Acarin or Biotlin.
Breeding white turf
Growing white turf can be done both generatively (by seeds) and vegetatively (by cuttings and grafts).
Growing from seed
Seeding this plant is very germinating (about one hundred percent).
The seeds are sown in the fall time as soon as they are harvested. Since the seeds retain their germination for about 5 years, the sowing can be postponed to the spring, but then they need stratification: in winter they are kept at 5 degrees for at least eight weeks. When sowing, remember that there should be no more than 5-15 seeds per 1 square meter of land, which is sunk into the soil by 40-50 mm. Seedlings you will not see soon, they often appear only in the second or third year after sowing. And in another 5-8 years, the bush, grown from seed, will have a standard size for this plant.
This is why most gardeners prefer to use vegetative propagation.
Propagation by cuttings
From a vigorous and healthy plant, the lightly woody stems should be cut in the first days of June, with 7 to 9 buds on each cuttings. Plant the cuttings for rooting in a container filled with a suitable potting soil. The cuttings root best in the greenhouse. During the rooting process, remember to water the cuttings in a timely manner, as well as to feed them with mineral fertilizers and organics.
By the first few weeks of autumn the cuttings should be well rooted and can be planted in the garden.
GREEN GROWTH PROPERTIES
The easiest way to propagate white turf by grafts. Select a stem on the bush that is very low to the ground during the fall. Dig a small ditch and fix the stem in it, leaving only the top part outside. Backfill the ditch with fertile soil.
Throughout the summer, water and feed the shoots regularly. In deep autumn, it is recommended to cover the ditch with a layer of lapnik or fallen leaves. In the spring or following autumn, separate the offshoot and plant it in a new permanent location.
Sorts of white turf
White turf has a large number of varieties and several ornamental garden forms. The following garden forms are distinguished:
The bark of this shrub is red and its green foliage has a whitish-cream border. In the autumn, the leaves are colored in a carmine-red shade. Most appreciated by gardeners is the Elegantissima variety: its stems are three meters tall and it has an irregular creamy-whitish border and cream stripes and speckles on its leaves.
- Sibirica. This stunted shrub has stems painted a deep red hue.
The greenish foliage changes its color to brownish red in the fall. Popular varieties:
- Sibirica Variegata - The two-meter shrub has foliage decorated with a broad border of creamy hue, and also cream strokes and spots, it turns purple in the fall, the variety is similar to Elegantissim, but it grows more slowly, which allows it to decorate small gardens;
- AureaThe two-meter bush has pale red stems, light yellow foliage, whitish-cream inflorescences, and white-blue fruit.
- Керн. The surface of the green foliage has spots of yellow hue.
This form was born about 100 years ago. The bush is about 200 cm tall, its stems are reddish-brown, and the green foliage is decorated with an irregular border of yellow-golden hue. In fall, the foliage turns a purplish hue.
- Kesselringi.The stems are colored black-purple or reddish-black.
The following varieties are popular:
- Astrosangwinea. The one-and-a-half-foot bush has crimson stems and green foliage.
- Allemans Compact. While the stems are young, they are colored with a red hue. The coloring of the leaves is deep green.
- Aurea Elegantissima. The two-meter shrub is adorned with yellow-petaled foliage.
- Blood Hood. The shrub varies in height from 200 to 300 cm. The color of the foliage and stems is coral-red.
- Gowchulti (Guhalti, or Gusholti). The blood-red stems grow slightly drooping leaf plates of green color with spots of pink, white or red hues.
- Avory Haylow. The ball-shaped crown consists of red-colored stems and green leaf plates decorated with a creamy-white broad border.
- Sibirica Ruby.
The stems are red-coral in the 1.5-meter bush. Dark green rounded foliage, turns purple-red in fall.
Plants of minimal care. Derry - a review of species and varieties.
White derryn in landscape design
White derryn is often used to create hedges, as it is very plastic and tolerates pruning well. Alone or in groups it looks very attractive with its beautifully flowered and variegated forms and varieties.
Also this plant is often used to strengthen the banks of artificial reservoirs as it does not suffer from stagnant liquid in the soil and looks good next to hostas and other coastal perennials. Also, this shrub is often planted in areas with multi-level complex relief. Also such a plant is often planted in the shadow of large trees.
And also white turf looks favorably on the background of evergreens, as it has spectacular foliage and stems. This crop retains its attractiveness throughout the vegetation period, which is its main advantage.White turf is a very attractive plant..