The herbaceous plant Turnip (Brassica rapa) can be an annual or perennial and is a member of the Cabbage genus of the Cabbage or Cruciferous family. This very ancient crop comes from Western Asia. Turnip began to be cultivated about 4 thousand years ago. In Ancient Greece and Egypt, this vegetable was considered the main food of slaves and the poor, but in the Roman Empire, it was used to prepare dishes for all classes. On the territory of Russia turnip for many centuries considered the most important food, even in the ancient chronicles there is mention of this crop.
It was not until the 18th century that turnips were superseded by potatoes imported from America.
Turnips are a valuable vegetable crop that has powerful medicinal properties. This root vegetable is used for baking, boiling, stuffing, and is also added to salads. It has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, diuretic and wound-healing effects. And turnips also improve appetite, speed up digestion and increase intestinal peristalsis.
- Sowing. Sow turnip seeds in the open ground immediately after the snow melts for summer consumption and in July or the first days of August for winter storage. This culture can be sown under the winter, do it shortly before the onset of hard frosts. Sprouts are sown in the middle of March and planted in the open ground from the middle to the end of May. A suitable site should be well lit.
- Ground. Turnips grow well in clayey light neutral soil.
- Pouring. Water turnips abundantly and systematically. Water 0.
5 to 1 bucket of water per square meter of bed. Water the turnip-tree on the average 1 or 2 times per 7 days, in the early morning or in the evening after the sun goes down.
- Fertilizer. During the vegetation period such a crop is fertilized 1 or 2 times, for this purpose organic fertilizers or mineral complex are used. The turnip responds best to feeding with wood ash.
- Replication. Seed method.
- Pests. Cruciferous fleas and bugs, cabbage flies, cabbage moth, cabbage aphid, cabbage moth, cabbage moth, cabbage and turnip whitefly, cabbage stem weevil, or stealth weevil.
Killa, fomosis, mucous and vascular bacterioses, blackleg and gray rot.
Features of turnips
Repa has a root, which is a fleshy thickened rootstock. The tall stem is strongly pubescent. The green root stiffly hairy leaf plates, have long petioles and a lyre-like, feathery-overlapping shape. The sessile, ovate, stem leaves are somewhat pubescent or glabrous and can be entire or serrated.
During the first year of growth, only an edible root crop and a root-like leaf rosette develop. In the second year of growth, the root grows a foliose stem on which a shield-shaped inflorescence forms; later it transforms into a cyst-shaped inflorescence. The flowers have petals that are painted a matte yellowish or golden yellow. The fruit is an erect, short, knotty pod with brownish-red seeds which mature in an irregular ball shape.
All varieties of turnip are divided into fodder and table varieties.
Forage varieties are called turnips. Turnips are considered a relative of the following vegetable crops: white cabbage, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, red cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Beijing cabbage, radish, radish, etc.
Growing turnips from seed
Sowing turnip seeds
Sow turnip seeds for seedlings six to eight weeks before planting in open soil. Before you start sowing, you should go through the seed, selecting all traumatized, hollow and deformed seeds. Then it should be immersed in a salt solution (5%), its preparation should be a combination of 100 milligrams of water at room temperature and 5 grams of salt.
The seeds should be thoroughly mixed, which will remove air bubbles from their surface. Bad seeds will float and good seeds will sink to the bottom.
The seeds should be disinfected afterwards because 80 percent of the diseases are transmitted through the seed. It is best to warm them well, using hot water for this purpose. The seeds are poured into a cloth bag, which is placed in very warm water for a third of an hour (52 to 54 degrees), then it is immediately dropped into very cold water for 2-3 minutes.
Seeds can also be disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate (6.38 grams of the substance per 100 milligrams of room temperature water), immerse them for a third of an hour.
Well-washed seeds should be placed in water for several days to swell, and the liquid should be replaced 2 times a day. It is recommended to sow the seeds rather densely, but experts advise using peat tablets for this purpose. To begin with the pills should be soaked in water to swell, then in each of them put 2 or 3 seeds.
The tablets are placed under a transparent dome and transferred to a well-lit place, which is protected from direct sunlight. As soon as the seedlings appear, the cover should be removed.
Growing turnip seedlings
High humidity under the cover is great for turnip seedlings. Sprouts are transferred to a cool place (5 to 15 degrees), so it is recommended to keep them on an unheated veranda or a glazed loggia. After the opening of the seedlings seedlings should be thinned using scissors, weak seedlings are cut at the level of the substrate surface, so they can not take nutrients from the stronger plants.
Provide turnip seedlings with timely watering, feeding and loosening the substrate surface, which should be carried out very carefully.
Harden the seedlings start half a month before planting in open soil. For this purpose, they are moved outdoors for a while every day, and the duration of the session should be increased gradually. Once the seedlings are able to stay outdoors 24 hours a day, they can be planted in a bed.
Picking for turnip seedlings is not recommended, as this crop reacts extremely negatively to transplanting.
Therefore it is recommended to use peat pellets for sowing, and when the seedlings have grown strong enough, they should be transplanted into open soil at least 0.3m apart.
Sowing turnips in the open ground
What time to plant
Repeats can be grown through seedlings, but sowing directly into the open ground is more popular among gardeners. Many gardeners wonder at what time to sow turnips in the middle latitudes? The time of sowing such a crop in the open ground is influenced by the climatic characteristics of the region, as well as the purpose of its cultivation. For example, in the Moscow region for summer use, turnips are sown in the last days of April, or in early May, or in the first days of June.
If the turnips are sown from the last days of June to mid-July, they can be used for cooking various dishes and for winter storage. To be able to get turnips 15-20 days earlier than usual in the spring time, winter sowing is used for this purpose. Seedlings appear already at a temperature of 2 to 5 degrees, but if the air warms to 18 degrees or higher, sprouts can show after only three days.
A neutral light clay soil is ideal for growing this crop. An acidic soil should therefore always be lime treated, as otherwise the sturdiness of the root crop will be considerably reduced.
Before planting, the soil should be carefully prepared. Regardless of when the sowing is planned, the site should be prepared in the autumn. Good predecessors for this plant are tomatoes, potatoes, beans and cucumbers. And after such crops as: watercress, daikon, horseradish, any kind of cabbage, radish, radish and turnip can not grow turnips, as all these plants have the same pests and diseases. The soil should be deep-cultivated, 2 to 3 kg of compost or humus (do not use fresh manure), 10-15 grams of phosphate and nitrogen fertilizers and 15-20 grams of potassium fertilizer per one square meter of soil.
Rules for planting in the open ground
Prepared seed should be sown in double rows, with a distance of about 20 centimeters between the rows. Immediately before sowing, the soil on the plot is well loosened, and then it is rolled. Only then can furrows 10 to 20 millimeters deep be made on the bed. The density of the seeds should be approximately 2 pieces per 10 millimeters. Carefully fill the furrows and water the crops.
Sow turnips for winter shortly before persistent frosts begin. During the winter time, the seed will pass through natural stratification and the spring will bring friendly sprouts to the bed. When sowing seeds under the winter conditions, it is necessary to bury them in the soil a little deeper than when sowing in summer or spring. For the backfilling of furrows it is necessary to use pre-prepared sand or peat. It is recommended to install a marker on the edges of the bed, so that in the spring you can easily find the area with seeds.
Cover the crops with snow as soon as it falls, but make sure that the layer is even.
Growing turnips in your garden is very easy. As soon as the seedlings appear, you should thin them out by pulling out all the weak seedlings. Then the surface of the plot should be covered with a layer of wood ash, this will protect the turnip from cruciferous flea.
By the bed in which turnips are grown, experts advise to grow peas or beans.
When the plot will be covered with ashes, it should be covered with a layer of mulch (straw or hay), this will reduce the number of loosening the soil surface on the bed. But despite the mulch, the plot will still need to be systematically loosened and weeded. When the first thinning is finished, there should be a second one in half a month.
How to water properly
This crop is a humid one and as such must be watered systematically and abundantly, even more so if there is a long dry spell. On average, it should be watered once or twice every 7 days.
The amount of water taken per square meter of land directly depends on the phase of turnip development, as well as on weather conditions and varies from 5 to 10 liters of water. If the plants lack water, the root crops will be rough and tough, and the flesh will acquire a bitter taste.
The crop needs timely watering most of all during germination of seeds, as well as during the formation of true leaf plates and during the stage of active root crop growth. Once the roots have reached the desired volume, the amount of water used for watering should be reduced, otherwise they may start to crack.
Water the repus early in the morning or in the evening after the sun has gone down.
Cold water should not be used. It is recommended to install a large container on the site, in which tap water can stand and warm up in the sun. Young plants should be watered with a watering can with a fine strainer, mature plants should be watered with a hose.
Feed 1 or 2 times during the growing season. You can use a mineral complex, or you can only use organic fertilizer.
Most gardeners are convinced that the turnip responds best to feeding with wood ash. Therefore, while preparing a bed for turnips, a fire is lit on it. The remaining charred logs should be scattered over the plot and then the plot should be recultivated with them.
After the plants begin to show the first real leaf plates, it is recommended to feed them with herbal organic fertilizer.
Diseases and pests
All members of the Cabbage family have the same diseases and pests, therefore it is highly undesirable to grow them near or in the vicinity of each other.
The most frequent pests of repug are cruciferous fleas and bugs, cabbage moths, cabbage moth, cabbage aphid, cabbage moth, cabbage moth and turnip moth, cabbage stem weevil or covert robin. This plant can be affected by kila, fomosis, mucus and vascular bacteriosis, blackleg and gray rot.
Treatment of turnips
To protect this plant from pests and diseases, you must be sure to follow crop rotation rules.
- Sowing material should be obligatory pre-sowing preparation as well as pickling;
- seedlings should be obligatory thinned;
- weeding should be done in time;
- in autumn time it is necessary to clean the plot from vegetation residues that should be burnt;
- the bed should be well recultivated after harvesting.
If the bushes are still affected by the fungal disease, the diseased plants should be dug up as soon as possible, and folk remedies should be used to treat the remaining turnips.
However, if the bushes are very sick, then the area should be sprayed with fungicides, for example: Topsin, Fundazol or other means of similar action. To kill the pests it is also recommended to use folk remedies, for example, decoction of potato or tomato haulm. For its preparation the potato tops combine with water and boil for 30 minutes, after which the decoction should be strained with water at a ratio of 1:3. Then dissolve 40 grams of soap grinded on a grater in a bucket of water. This remedy will help get rid of a variety of pests, including squirrels, flies, moths and moths.
If turnips are very badly infested, they should be sprayed with insecticides such as Actellic, Carbophos, Metaphos etc.
Harvesting and storing turnips
If you do everything right when planting and growing turnips, you will get a rich crop of this root vegetable. It has already been said above that only turnips sown from the end of June to the last days of July can be used for winter storage. In Russia, there was a tradition of harvesting on the Exaltation, namely, September 27. If you delay long with the harvesting of turnips, the root vegetable will overgrow and lose its taste.
Harvesting should begin on a dry sunny day, and care should be taken not to injure the turnips, as damaged root vegetables often rot during storage. The dug-up turnips should be trimmed and the remaining petioles should be about 10-20 mm long, cut off all the woody roots. Remove any soil residue from the root crops and place them in a shaded area where they will need to dry out. After sorting, they should be stored for the first time under a layer of straw, which should be mixed with soil about 10 centimetres thick. The turnips should then be placed in a cellar or basement where they should be stored at a temperature of 0-3 degrees.
Before placing them in the cellar, the turnips should be placed in boxes filled with peat crumbs or dry sand, and they should be placed so that the turnips do not touch each other. If everything is done correctly, the late turnips will retain their freshness for several months. If there are not enough root crops, they can be wrapped in plastic wrap and stored on the shelf of the refrigerator. Turnips wrapped in clingfilm can be placed in storage on the balcony. Root vegetables on the balcony and in the refrigerator will be able to retain their freshness for about one month.
At room temperature, turnips are stored for about half a month, then their flesh takes on a bitter taste. The best preserved freshness during storage is due to root vegetables reaching a cross section of at least 50 mm.
Petrovskaya 1 turnip variety, description, growing experience.
Repipe Varieties and Types
All turnip varieties are divided into feed and table varieties. Among the table varieties, however, there is a group of salad varieties.
Their peculiarity is that in table varieties only the root vegetables are used as food, while in salad varieties the root vegetables and leaves are used as food. Also all varieties are divided according to the time of ripening into:
- early-ripening - ripen in 40-60 days;
- medium-ripening - ripen in 60-90 days;
- late-ripening - ripen in 90 days and longer.
All varieties are also divided by taste. The following varieties are most popular:
- Petrovskaya-1. This medium-early variety is characterized by good storability, unpretentiousness and yield.
Its juicy yellow roots are rounded, slightly flattened, and have a sweet taste. The Czech medium ripening variety is a productive crop. Roots weigh about 0.5 kg and are white in color, as is the juicy flesh.
An early variety of Japanese salad turnip, kokabu is frost-resistant and productive. The round-shaped white rootlets have a mass of about 200 grams, they do not have the spicy-bitter taste that is characteristic of this plant, also the tender leaf plates are used for preparing salads.
- Snowmaiden. An early high-yielding variety of salad turnip, it has small rounded white rootlets weighing about 60 grams, covered with a thin skin, and its flesh is tender and juicy. The leaves, rich in vitamins, are used to make salads.
- May yellow greenhead. This early-ripening variety is not suitable for storage, its root vegetables have tender and juicy flesh.
- Sapphire. This kind of salad turnip has the juicy, smooth and tender leafy plates most appreciated.
This is an early shade-loving and frost-resistant salad variety. Mass of rounded root crops about 80 grams, they are white like their flesh, it is very tasty juicy dense and tender.
- Golden Ball. A medium maturing, consistently yielding variety that is frost-resistant and unpretentious. Its yellow, rounded root vegetables weigh approximately 150 grams and have a tender, smooth, thin skin.
The flesh is firm and juicy. This variety is very popular. The white root crops have a rounded shape, they reach 8 to 12 centimeters across, and their weight is 65-90 grams. Their tops are colored purple and the flesh is sweet juicy and has a white coloration.
The following turnip varieties are also very popular with gardeners: Khrusta, Tokyo Cross, Tiani-Tolkai, Pull-pull, Snezhok, Snowball, Russian Size, Russian Tale, Orbit, Presto, Rattle, Luna, May White, Red Riding Hood, Lira, Lepeshka, Nurse, Comet, Dunyasha, Burnt Sugar, Holland White, Gribovskaya, Dedka, Vnuchka and others.
How to grow sweet turnips: tips from "Dacha"