Tulips: Planting And Care In The Open Field, Photos With Varieties And Names

The tulip (Tulipa) belongs to the genus bulbous perennials and to the lily family. This flower is very popular and is happily grown by florists in private gardens as well as by specialists on an industrial scale. This lovely flower comes from Central Asia, and the name tulip comes from the Persian word "turban", as the flower itself has a similar shape to it. In Persia they first began to grow this flower, where it paid a lot of attention to many poets, especially Hafiz. But in Turkey, however, tulips became especially popular, as they were grown in huge quantities by the spouses of the sultan in the seraglio.

In a kind of competition, women tried to prove their boundless love. In Europe - to be exact in Augsburg - such plants have been cultivated since 1554, and from that time they slowly began to spread over the European territory, gaining more and more popularity every year. Titled persons also began to collect different varieties of tulips. They paid exorbitant sums of money for a new variety of such a flower. Among these tireless collectors were: Cardinal Richelieu, Count Pappenheim, Voltaire, Emperor Franz II and Louis XVIII, who loved to host the so-called "Tulip Feast" in Versailles.

So, the year 1630 is remarkable because at that time almost everyone in the Netherlands was very keen on breeding such plants. Many were breeding brand new varieties and selling them to various countries for a lot of money. Speculators were not left out. And soon a rather complicated situation called "tulip mania" emerged. Buying and selling bulbs of these flowers was a daily occurrence, and almost all the inhabitants were involved in this.

They were also traded on exchanges, and the lawyers did not have time to come up with new trading rules in time. As a result, the cost of the bulbs reached unprecedented heights... and then everything collapsed.

And the end was as sudden as the beginning. So, demand became much less than supply, and this led to a panic on the stock exchange. The Dutch government had to intervene to deal with the situation. So, as a result of the new law that came out, trade in tulip bulbs became illegal. And after some time, tulips regained their former status as pretty spring flowers.

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

The black tulip is considered the most successful creation of breeders. Varieties of Harlem tulips possessing a dark purple color appeared in the middle of the 17th century, and this event was not overlooked by the writers of the time. The all-black tulip was bred in February 1986, the director of the Netherlands Institute of Floristry announced at a press conference. He reported that the Dane Gert Hageman was able to breed such an unusual tulip. This experiment lasted about three hundred years and cost $400,000.

Peculiarities of the tulip

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

The tulip varies in height from 10 to 100 cm. Adventitious roots grow from the base of the bulbs, and they are the root system of this plant. Every year these roots die off. The young bulbs develop hollow stolons, which are lateral shoots that can grow both vertically downward and sideways. A daughter bulb appears at the bottom of these shoots.

The erect stem is cylindrical in shape. The lanceolate, elongated, alternately arranged leaves have a coating of wax on their surface, turning them a greenish-blue. At the very top is the smallest leaf blade, called the flag leaf. And at the bottom is the largest leaf. As a rule, the plant has 1 flower.

But there are species that grow 3 to 5 or even more flowers. They have a regular shape. The perianth includes 6 leaves, with the same number of stamens possessing an elongated anther shape. The most common color of the flower is red, rarer is yellow and quite rare is white. Tulips can be painted in many different colors.

So, there are purple, yellow, almost black, red, snow white, purple. There are also varieties in which flowers can be painted in several different hues, and the variations of their combinations is very diverse. The florets can also have a variety of shapes, such as cup-shaped, oval, star-shaped, calyx-shaped, lily-shaped, peony-shaped, fringed, etc. Depends on the variety also depends on the size of flowers. Some flowers are about 12 centimeters long and their diameter can vary from 3 to 10 centimeters, but during full opening it will reach 20 centimeters.

The buds open when the sun is shining in the sky and close in the evening. In cloudy weather the buds do not open at all. After the plant blossoms, a fruit is formed, which is a box that has 3 facets. It has triangular brownish-yellow flat seeds inside.

Cultivation features

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

In order to successfully grow such extraordinarily beautiful flowers, you should definitely learn how to properly care for them.

The rules for taking care of tulips are not very complicated, and even a florist with very little experience can cope with their cultivation.

Tulips: cultivation, care, propagation

General rules

  1. Fertilizer must be added 3 times during intensive flower growth.
  2. You can tell exactly what fertilizer your plant is missing by its appearance. If, for example, the leaves are less wide and cannot stand upright, you need nitrogen. When it turns blue around the edges it means that it is deficient in potassium and also in phosphorus.

  3. Sick tulips should be pulled out of the soil with their bulbs. To disinfect the soil, it is necessary to pour a just boiled solution of potassium manganese into the formed hole.
  4. Treat the soil in the immediate vicinity of the flower should be carefully. The reason is that you can very easily damage the leaf plates or roots of the plant, and then the bulb can lose nutrition.
  5. If you want to enjoy the look of a fairly large flower next year and not allow the bulb to split up into several smaller ones, you should definitely pick the wilted flower before the fruit appears.

  6. Dry the dug up bulbs in a shady spot as they react very badly to direct sunlight.
  7. Feeding fresh manure can cause the bulbs to rot and fungal diseases to appear.
  8. If it is cold and there is little snowfall during the winter, you should mulch the soil using peat, sawdust, humus or straw.
  9. If you cut the flower from the plant, leave at least 2 leaves. In this way, the bulb can receive enough nutrition to develop properly.

  10. When choosing a soil for planting, tulips should be planted in a place where they have not been planted for at least 3 years.

Planting tulips in the open air

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

What time should you plant them

For the plant to develop properly, it is necessary to plant them in the soil in time. So, remember to put the bulbs in the ground in the autumn and do not forget that they need at least 3-4 weeks to take root. If the bulbs are planted later, they will grow and develop more slowly than they should in the spring, and they will also form very small bulbs. They will also bloom less spectacularly.

If they are planted in the ground too early, the bulbs may sprout. The first frost will kill the plants. The optimal time for planting tulips is recommended to calculate by the temperature of the soil. Thus, it should be measured at a depth of about 10-12 centimeters. If it is equal to 10 degrees, you can safely carry out planting.

As a rule, this time falls in the middle of September.

Right planting of tulips

Plotting bulbs in spring time

Flowers with considerable experience assure that you can also plant bulbs in spring time if you did not have time to do this in autumn months. However, you definitely will not be able to count on a lot of flowers this year. It will be good if only a few specimens will bloom. Before planting the bulbs, they should be placed on the refrigerator shelf overnight and then treated in a weak solution of manganese potassium (hold for about 30 minutes).

Prepare the bed should be done after the snow melts. So, using a fork, you need to dig over the ground and make furrows. For large bulbs, the distance between the furrows is 25-30 centimeters, and for baby bulbs - from 10 to 15 centimeters. Before planting the bulbs, it is necessary to water the furrows with a freshly boiled solution of manganese potassium.

When choosing a place for tulips it should be considered that it must be sunny, protected from strong gusts of wind.

The soil should be well-drained and slightly alkaline or neutral. Loamy sandy soil is ideal, in which you must make the decomposed compost in spring, as well as wood ash (200 g per 1 m 2 ). If the soil is very heavy, it can be improved. To do this you need to add compost, river sand and nutrient-rich loose earth. To enhance drainage, you need to pour a three-inch layer of washed coarse sand at the bottom of the prepared furrows during planting.

Large bulbs should be deepened into the soil to a depth of 10 to 15 centimeters, and small (baby) bulbs - from 5 to 7 centimeters. The bulbs should be slightly pressed into the soil and then covered with soil and tilled with a rake. Mulching with peat will help prevent the soil from cracking.

Autumn planting

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

In the fall season, it is important to plant tulips correctly and provide them with the necessary care. The fact is that winter is coming soon and how the plants will overwinter and bloom in the spring depends on how well you did in the autumn.

Before planting tulips, you need to conduct a thorough inspection of their bulbs. So, those that have signs of any disease or damage should be destroyed. Experienced florists recommend planting by variety. In this case, caring for the plants will not be so difficult, and it is easier to dig up the bulbs. Before planting, the bulb should be soaked for half an hour in a 5% solution of manganese potassium.

Plant them in the same way as in the spring. In light soil, plant the bulb to a depth equal to its 3 diameters, and in heavier soil - to 2 diameters. It is necessary to mulch the soil surface. Peat, straw, dry leaves, and sawdust are great for this.

Tulip care

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

Care for these flowers from the beginning of spring.

After the sprouts appear, the plantings should be carefully inspected. Those bulbs that have not given sprouts should be carefully dug up and destroyed to prevent the disease from spreading to other plants. Tulip is very fond of moisture, but its roots are short and therefore the flower is not able to take water from deep layers of soil. Therefore, it is very important to water tulips in time. How often and how much you should water depends on the soil composition.

But you should consider that during the formation of the buds and flowering they should be watered frequently and systematically. Once the plant has bloomed, it should be watered abundantly and systematically for another half month. When watering, water should seep into the ground to the full depth of the root system. In this regard, 10-40 liters of water should be poured per square meter. When watering, make sure that no liquid gets onto the leaf surface as this can cause burns.

Fertilizing

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

Fertilizing is recommended with fertilizer solutions. But if you like dry fertilizer, you should air the leaves of the tulips before spreading it on the soil surface. So, if the fertilizer gets on a damp area of the leaf plate, it can result in a burn. Once the dry fertiliser has been spread on the plot, the soil should be watered thoroughly. Only then can the nutrients penetrate the soil and be absorbed by the tulip's root system.

The first time you feed the plants should be early spring, after the emergence of sprouts. At this time, you can fertilise with dry fertiliser. It should be simply scattered evenly, and then water the soil. As a fertilizer is suitable mixture of phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium (2:2:1). For 1 square meter will take 50 g of this fertilizer.

The second fertilization is carried out at the beginning of budding. This time it is recommended to use a nutrient solution with 1 part nitrogen, 2 parts phosphorus and the same amount of potassium. You will need 30-35 g of the solution per square meter. The third time fertilizer is applied to the soil immediately after the end of flowering. This time, phosphorus and potassium are taken in equal parts, and nitrogen is not used.

For 1 square meter, 30 to 35 grams of solution will be used. For the plants to grow more daughter bulbs, a small amount of zinc and boron should be poured into the solution.

Roeing the soil and removing weeds

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

Roeing the soil and removing weeds should be done systematically. It is advisable to do this after watering, as this is the time when weeds are easiest to pull out. Remember that weeds take up a lot of nutrients from the soil and deplete the soil.

Therefore, try to remove them in a timely manner. If you systematically loosen the soil, this will slow down the evaporation of moisture, and also lead to the death of the weeds. To weed and loosen much less often, it is recommended to spread an even layer of mulch over the soil surface.

You should not forget to cut the wilting flowers off in time. In this case the tulips will not waste their energy on the growth and development of seeds, but the mass of the bulbs will increase.

Repotting features

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

If you dug out the bulbs every year, examined, sorted, dressed to reduce the risk of diseases, it still cannot nullify the negative effect of monoculture. There are 2 ways out: the first is to completely change the top layer of soil, the second is to transplant the plant to a new site. The most convenient way is the second. Only tulips from grade 13 to 15 can not be transplanted. However, they, too, will need replanting after 3 or 4 years.

Propagation methods

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

Propagation can be done by seeds and with bulbs. As a rule, only specialists (breeders) use seeds for propagation, and all because this kind of flowers are not able to preserve the varietal characteristics of the parent plant. Sowing is made in a greenhouse or in open soil. In one place without replanting, they are grown for 2-3 years, and the plants should be protected from frost in winter. After that, mature bulbs should be dug up and put into storage.

Planting should be carried out in the autumn. The first flowering of such plants is observed only in the 5th-6th year of life. However, it should be taken into account that the first years of flowering will not be very spectacular. Only in the 8-12th year of life will the tulip flower very effectively. An important feature of such plants is that after the flowering period the parent bulb dies off and is replaced by a daughter bulb with offspring.

A lot of factors can affect the number of resulting offspring, and the main one is environmental. It happens that not 1 large, but 2 smaller substituting bulbs are formed. In this case, the offspring may produce flower stalks a few years later. If you want to avoid gradual degeneration of plants, plant only topper bulbs with a diameter of at least 12 centimeters. Such plants retain all the necessary varietal traits.

Small bulbs are recommended to be used for baking in room conditions. However, the offspring should be brought up to the necessary size and only then planted in the area with the plants.

Pests and diseases

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and namesThe most serious disease is the mottle-flower virus. It is quite easy to know if a flower is infected. For example, if non-foliage varieties have characteristic stripes, streaks and spots on their petals and leaves, the plant is infected.

It is impossible to cure such a disease. In this regard, you should be responsible for the purchase of planting material, and do it only from reliable sellers. Also, when cutting tulips the blade of knife must be disinfected after each bush as this virus can be transmitted with the juice of the plant. Infected tulips must be dug out of the ground along with the root ball and burnt. Pour a very strong solution of manganese potassium into the hole.

This plant is susceptible to Augustus disease, which is promoted by tobacco necrosis virus. You can tell that the tulip is infected by the crooked shoot and by the disfigured flower stripes, and dark-colored spots also appear on the bulbs. The infected flower should be destroyed. To do this, it is dug up directly with the root ball, and in the resulting hole should be poured a very strong solution, for the preparation of which 3 grams of boric acid and 10 grams of manganese potassium per liter of water are taken. Hot solution should be poured into the hole.

Or, instead of the solution, you can pour wood ash into the hole. For prevention, healthy tulips are treated with a solution of fundazole.

The plant is also susceptible to fungal diseases. Thus, it can be infected by root, wet, mild, gray, white or Botrytis rot. The plant is particularly susceptible to such diseases in the rainy spring.

Regardless of the causes of the disease, preventive measures are the same: the soil must be well drained and the plants must be properly cared for. When the bulbs will be dug up in the summer time, it is recommended to sow plants capable of releasing phytoncides, such as calendula, nasturtium, marigold or mustard, in this area of soil. You should also sprinkle the area with a fungicide solution (2 g of the substance per liter of water).

The plant may be infested by moths, snails, rodents, moths, onion root mites, slugs. The onion mite can be eliminated in the following way.

Dredged bulbs should be immersed in hot (35 to 40 degrees) water and held for about 5 minutes. In case the tulips become infected in the period of intensive growth, they are treated with 2% solution of hornwort or keltan. If the desired result is not achieved, the diseased flowers should be destroyed. When you dig up the bulbs, you should plant radishes, tomatoes or tagetas in this area of soil, as they have resistance to these pests. It is possible to get rid of the mauve moths with naphthalene on the leaves.

On the plot, you need to place pieces of material, boards, pieces of slate and plywood, etc. Slugs, bears, snails will crawl under them during the day. You will have to systematically collect and destroy them. Dig a glass jar into the soil and fill it with water (not to the top). Bears will fall into this trap and won't get out.

Mousetraps will help against rodents or you can treat the bulbs with iron dried substance before planting.

Tulips after flowering

Care for tulips after flowering. Website sadovymir.ru

Taking care of the faded plant

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

  1. Inject phosphorus-potassium fertilizer.
  2. Clean the faded flowers along with the ovaries.

  3. Do not trim the stems.
  4. Water the faded plant for another half month and then gradually reduce watering and stop it altogether.
  5. When the leaves and stem have wilted, the bulb should be dug up.
  6. What time should the bulb be dug up

Only a few varieties of tulips whose flowers have a red color can be left in the soil for the summer. So, if the bulbs are not dug up, the flowers will get smaller and the stem will become shorter and thinner.

The fact is that every year after flowering, the mother bulb pushes the offspring upwards, and itself deepens into the soil. Therefore, the plant without transplanting the next year has small flowers, because the offspring blossom, while the parent bulb remains "buried". In this regard, after the leaves are completely dry and when the stem becomes very flexible, you should dig out the bulb with a bayonet shovel.

Storing tulip bulbs

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

Removed from the ground, the bulbs should be carefully washed under running water and placed for 30 minutes in a 3-4% carbofos solution, you can immerse them for 10 minutes in water at 50 degrees. Place the bulbs in a dry, well-ventilated, dark place at 25 to 30 degrees in 1 layer.

Dry for 3-5 days put the bulbs away for storage.

Preparing for storage: Remove old roots and scales from the bulbs, separate the babies that come off without effort. Distribute according to size. Spread the bulbs into lattice boxes in 1 layer, and then move them to a well-ventilated place with diffused light, such as the attic or the shed. Do not cover them because baby bulbs may die as they release ethylene.

Until the beginning of autumn, the temperature should be kept around 20 degrees, later it can be reduced to 17 degrees. Inspect the bulbs systematically every 7 days. Remove soft bulbs and those with light yellow or whitish spots (signs of rot). Before planting in the fall, treat the planting material with a solution of manganese potassium.

Main species and varieties with photos

Most species of such flowers cultivated by humans are related to the species called Tulipa gesneriana.

And in the wild the species can be found: Tulipa sylvestris (forest tulip), Tulipa biebersteiniana (Bieberstein tulip), Tulipa biflora (biflora tulip), and Tulipa greigii, Tulipa pubescens, Tulipa eichleri, etc.

Dutch florists in November 1981 made a new (latest) classification of tulips. They also made a register that included 10,000 varieties, divided into 4 groups, as well as 15 classes. This classification is accepted by all without reservation.

Group 1.

Early-flowering

Class 1 - Simple Early

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

Have a small height, sturdy flower stalk of 25 to 40 centimeters. The flowers are yellow or red, cup-shaped or cup-shaped. Varieties: 'Demeter', 'Golden Olga', 'Golden Harvest'.

Class 2 - Early Machromatic

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

They reach 25 to 35 centimeters in height, the machromatic florets may be yellow or red. Their diameter after full opening is 10 centimeters.

The flowering time is long. Varieties: 'Elektra', 'Schoonord', 'Madame Testu'.

Group 2. Medium-flowering

Grade 3 - Triumph

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

The flower stalks are 40 to 70 centimeters tall. Large, glass-shaped florets can be colored in various shades from dark purple to pure white.

Varieties: 'Crater', 'Golden Eddy', 'Snowstar'.

Grade 4 - Darwin hybrids

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

The flower stems are 60 to 80 centimeters tall. The florets are over 10 centimeters in diameter. Painted bright red or other shades of the same color (some are bicoloured). They tolerate frosts in spring and are not susceptible to mottlepest virus.

Varieties: "Big Chief", "Apeldoorn", "Vivex"

3rd group. Late-flowering

Class 5 - Late Simple

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

Sturdy bushes reach a height of 60 to 75 centimeters. The large, cup-shaped flowers have bluntly pointed petals and a square-shaped base. Color range from black to white, maroon to pinkish, there are also bicolor. Easy to propagate.

Varieties: 'Georgette', 'Dillenburg', 'Bacchus'.

6th grade. Lilyflowers

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

The flower stalk reaches 50 to 60 centimeters in height. Flowers are glass-shaped and have pointed petals that are bent back. The color varies.

Varieties: 'Red Shine', 'White Triumphator', 'Guisella'.

Grade 7 - Fringed

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

At the edge of the petals is a needle-like fringe. Reaches 50 to 80 centimeters in height. Can be colored from purple and dark chocolate to white. The size and shape of the flowers is varied.

Varieties: 'Exotica', 'Maya', 'Burgundy Lace'.

Grade 8 - Green-flowered

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

Have greenish spots on the backs of the petals throughout the bloom. Reaches 30-60 centimeters in height. Narrow leaf plates. The flowers are 6 to 10 centimeters long.

Varieties: 'Samurai', 'Hollywood', 'Artist'.

Grade 9 - Rembrandt

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

Numerous class including variegated varieties. The large florets are glass-shaped and 7-9 centimeters long. There are dots and spots on the yellow, red or white petals. The flower stems reach a height of 40 to 70 centimeters.

Varieties: 'Black Boy', 'Montgomery', 'Pierretta'.

10th grade. Parrot

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

The most exotic. The petals are strongly cut along the edge and resemble a bird's wing. When fully opened, the diameter of the flower is sometimes 20 centimeters.

The height of the bush varies from 40 to 65 centimeters. The color varies from red-black to white. Varieties: 'Discovery', 'Black Parrot', 'Fantasy'.

Grade 11 - Late Machromatic

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

Pionoid florets are thickly floral. Flower stalks 45 to 60 centimeters tall.

Blossoms later in bloom, the size exceeds that of the terry varieties. Coloration is different, there are bicolor. Varieties: 'Livingston', 'Eros', 'Nice'.

4th group. Botanical and species

Grade 12 - Kaufmann's

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

Flowering is very early.

Bushes reach 15 to 25 centimeters in height. The elongated, large florets have a star shape after opening. The color is different, but bicolor varieties are more common. The foliage has spots or stripes of purple hue. Varieties: "Diamond", "Lady Rose Orange Boy", "Crown".

13th grade - Foster

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

Rather large plants. The elongated florets are 15 centimeters long. The flower stalk reaches 30 to 50 centimeters in height. The color is deep red and orange-red, there are varieties of pink as well as yellow. On the surface of the slightly wavy fleshy leaves, sometimes there are dashes of purple color.

Varieties: 'Zombie', 'Patience', 'Copenhagen'.

Grade 14 - Greiga

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

The bush is only 20 to 30 centimeters tall. The rather large florets have a wide base. The petals are slightly bent backwards. The coloring is different shades of red, there are bicolor ones.

There is mottling on the surface of the leaflets. Varieties: 'Yellow Down', 'Zampa', 'Pleasier'.

Grade 15 - Botanical

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

All species growing in the wild are included. Not tall, blooms early, has a variety of colors, multi-flowered species are found. Species: Gesnera, Schrenk.

There is another very new group not included in the classification. Machro-bahromous.

Tulips: planting and care in the open field, photos with varieties and names

The florets are strongly bahromous, of various colors. The edge of the petals is fringed.

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