Tomatoes: Cultivation And Care In The Open Field, Planting Seeds For Seedlings

The tomato or tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a species of herbaceous annual and perennial plant that belongs to the genus Nightshade family of the Solanaceae. This plant is grown as a vegetable crop, and it is very popular in all countries. It is popularly called "tomato fruit" - "pomo d'oro", which translates from Italian as "golden apple". The name tomato comes from the Aztec "tomatl", it was refined to the modern form by the French. This crop is native to South America, and today it is still found in natural conditions.

On European territory tomato was imported in the mid-15th century. It was taken by sailors to Spain and Portugal and from there to France, Italy and other European countries more distant from sea routes.

The tomato was formerly cultivated as an exotic plant, as its fruits for a long time were considered inedible. In 1692 in Naples a recipe of supposedly Spanish dish made of tomatoes was found in the cook-book for the first time. On the territory of Russia this culture appeared in the 18th century, it was initially grown as a decorative exotic plant, as the fruit in the harsh weather conditions did not have time to mature.

But A.T. Bolotov, a Russian prominent writer, naturalist and philosopher, came up with the idea of growing tomatoes through seedlings and also using the method of pre-ripening, which allowed the fruits to reach full maturity.

Brief overview of planting and care

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

  1. Potting. Sow seeds for seedlings in the second half of March.

    Depending on the variety, the seedlings are planted 45-60 days after seedling emergence into the open soil.

  2. Brightness. Needs plenty of bright sunlight.
  3. Ground. It should be warm, loose, rich in organic matter, moderately moist and slightly acidic or neutral.

  4. Preemergences. The bad ones are members of the Solanaceae family, such as: tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, eggplants, etc. The good ones are carrots, onions, cabbage, cucumbers, zucchini, legumes.
  5. How to water. Water systematically by drip irrigation.

    Take 1 liter of water per 1 bush.

  6. How to dip. The first pruning should be done 8-12 days after transplanting into the open soil, once the tomatoes have been watered. The second time should be done 17-20 days after the first dip.
  7. Sprinkling.

    20 days after transplanting the seedlings into the open soil.

  8. Mulching. Use organic material: peat, grass or sawdust.
  9. Gartering. Tie on trellis or stakes at first at the level of the first leaf plate, then at the level of the second brush, and later at the level of the third brush.

  10. Fertilizer. First 10-12 days after transplanting seedlings into open soil, Second half a month after the first, third 15 days after the second.
  11. Pests. Tomato can be harmed by: worms, thrips, wireworms, slugs, moths, gall nematodes and sprout flies.
  12. Diseases.

    The plant can be affected by phytophthora, brown, brown, white and black spots, white, gray, apical and stem rot, verticillosis, tracheomycosis, scab, bacterial cancer and viral mosaic.

Growing tomatoes in the open ground/ Tomato plants from planting to harvesting

Properties of tomatoes

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

The rapidly expanding tap root system of tomatoes extends up to 100cm or more in depth, It grows 150-250 cm wide. The peculiarity of this plant is that additional roots can develop on any part of the shoot. In this regard, tomatoes can be propagated by seeds, as well as by cuttings and stems. The upright or loping branching stem may be 0.

3 to 2 m high or even more. Nonparapetal foliage leaves are divided into large lobes, some varieties similar to potato foliage. The brush-like inflorescences are made up of small, unsightly flowers, which may be colored in various shades of yellow. The flowers are ovipotent, each with male and female organs. The fruit is a multilocular berry, which can have different shapes, namely ellipsoidal, rounded and cylindrical.

The weight of the fruit can vary from 30 to 800 grams. Depending on the variety, the fruits are orange, crimson, greenish, deep yellow, brown, almost black, pinkish, deep red, white, yellowish, golden yellow or purple. Small and flat seeds are pointed at the base, they are colored in different shades of yellow, and their surface is pubescent, which gives them a pale gray color. Seeds retain their germination for 6-8 years. Tomatoes are botanically speaking berries, but in 1893 the Supreme Court of the United States, and in 2001 the European Union decided that tomatoes were a vegetable, and not a fruit like all other berries.

Growing tomatoes from seed

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

Sowing

Tomatoes in the middle latitudes are grown exclusively through seedlings since if seeds are sown in open soil, their fruits will not have time to fully ripen during the season. The cultivation of tomato seedlings should be started in winter time, and it should be taken into account that 4 weeks after the second picking they should be planted in open soil.

The timing of sowing tomato seeds for seedlings directly depends on the climatic conditions of each region. However, it should be taken into account that in any case, if all the necessary conditions are observed, the seedlings will need to be transplanted into the open ground, depending on the variety after 45-65 days from the time of sowing the seeds. For example, in the middle latitudes, the sowing of tomato seedlings is made on March 8-20.

If tomatoes will be grown in a greenhouse, the seedlings can be transplanted into it 30-35 days after their emergence. Keep in mind that in regions with short summers in the open ground is recommended to grow large-fruited varieties of tomatoes, so if their fruits do not have time to fully ripen, they can be plucked from the bush brown and dosarivarit. If dosarivayut small-fruited tomatoes, the fruits will become sluggish and lose their flavor. But large-fruited varieties even after ripening in room conditions will be very tasty, sweet and juicy.

Seeds need pre-sowing preparation.

They should be heated for 48 hours at 30 degrees, and then for 72 hours at 50 degrees. Then the seeds should be immersed for 30 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate, which should have a pink color. Then they should be rinsed for 10 minutes in running clean water and kept for several hours in a solution of a drug that stimulates growth. To sow the seeds, use a universal soil mixture, for example: which includes peat and sand (1:1). To grow such seedlings, you can use a soil mixture that consists of sawdust, peat and sod soil (0,5: 7:1).

Also, seedlings grow very well in a soil mixture that consists of humus, cowpea, peat and sawdust (1:0,5:3:0,5). Any substrate must be subjected to disinfection, for this purpose it is burned in a microwave or oven, and half a month before sowing the seeds it must be sprinkled with a solution of EM-Baikal (1%). Freezing method can also be used to sterilize the substrate. To do this, the container with the soil mixture is moved outdoors during the first winter weeks, while in spring it is brought indoors, and when it warms up well, the seeds can be sown.

The planting boxes should be not less than 10 centimeters high.

If there is enough space, the seeds should be sown sparingly and if possible peat pellets with a cross of 3.3-3.6 cm should be used; two or three seeds in each one, in which case the seedlings will not need to be pickled. The seeds should not be buried too deep into the substrate. They are evenly distributed on the surface of the moistened substrate, then covered with a thin layer of vermiculite or substrate, with a layer thickness of 0.

3 to 0.4 cm. The seedlings should be covered with a paper sheet or film on top.

Growing tomato seedlings

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

If the tomato seedlings are cared for well and properly, this will have a beneficial effect on the quantity as well as the quality of the crop. Before the seedlings show up, the seedlings should be at an air temperature of about 25 degrees.

Once the shoots appear, and it should happen after 5-7 days, the cover with a container to remove (to do this is recommended in the afternoon), then the seedlings are transferred to a well-lit place with diffused light, and within 7 days they should provide the following temperature regime: at night - 8-12 degrees, and during the day - 10-15 degrees. A week later should set the temperature as follows: in rainy days - from 18 to 20 degrees, on nice days - from 20 to 25 degrees, and at night - from 14 to 16 degrees. The room is systematically aired, and do not forget to protect the seedlings from drafts. Water the crops should be well settled water at room temperature, for this purpose, use a fine sprayer. Watering is carried out only once every 7 days.

But it should be noted that after the seeds will be sown into the moistened substrate and before the first true leaf plate appears, it is not necessary to water the seeds. Once the plants have five true leaf plates, they should only be watered once every 3-4 days. Some plants may need extra light, because they will need 12-16 hours of light to develop properly. If there is no possibility to organize additional lighting, the seedlings will need fertilizer, for this purpose, use potassium fertilizer in a weak concentration. Once the tomatoes have grown up, you should add a layer of substrate in the box with a thickness of 10 to 20 mm, thanks to which the seedlings will be more stable.

5 main mistakes when growing tomato seedlings

Tomato sprouts should be picked up

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

Picking up the seedlings is important during their second true leaved plate development. Gardeners have different opinions on whether tomato seedlings should be pickled. Whether the seedlings need picking can be found out by experimenting, for this half of the tomatoes should be left in the seedling box, adding a little substrate, and the remaining plants should be transplanted into individual cups, the volume of which should be at least half a liter, but if you take a smaller container, the tomatoes have to be transplanted 2 times. With this experience you will be able to judge which ones will develop better and faster.

Before you start to pick the seedlings, you should water them very well in the substrate in the box.

The plants can be pipped into individual cups 1 or 2 at a time. If the container is planted 2 seedlings, when their length reaches 10-15 centimeters, their stems should be tied very tightly to each other, using a synthetic thread. After the two stems will grow into one, the thread should be removed, so you will have a bush with two systems of roots and a strong stem.

Raspiked plants for 7 days should provide the following temperature regime: on nice days - 25 to 27 degrees, in rainy - from 20 to 22 degrees, and at night - 14 to 17 degrees. After a week you should return to the previous temperature regime.

Half a month before transplanting tomatoes into open soil, you need to start preparing them for the new conditions. For this purpose they will need to gradually reduce their watering, put them outside in direct sunlight for a short time every day, and fertilize them with a nutritive mixture consisting of 1 liter of water, 7 grams of potassium sulfate, 1 gram of ammonium nitrate and 4 grams of superphosphate, and preventive treatment with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%) against pests and diseases.

Growing tomatoes on a windowsill

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

A variety of vegetable crops such as cucumbers, bitter peppers, tomatoes, sweet peppers, etc. are suitable for indoor cultivation. Tomatoes are light-loving, so it is recommended to grow them on a window sill located in the southern part of the building, because they need very good lighting, and they do not need direct sunlight.

In autumn and winter, the light day is very short, so in order for tomatoes to develop normally, they will need backlighting, for this use fluorescent lighting or agro-lamp. For growing at home, it is recommended to choose low-growing or dwarf varieties such as Little Florida, Dubok, Pearl red or yellow, Pinocchio, and hybrids such as Balcony Miracle, Bonsai and Bonsai Micro.

Take a cup and fill it with a soil mixture consisting of sand, turf soil, peat or humus, which should be taken in equal proportions. Substrate in containers should be poured with freshly boiled water, then you need to wait for it to cool completely, and then distribute the seeds on the surface. If the seeds are germinated, 1 piece should be placed in each cup, but if seeds are not germinated, 2 or 3 pieces should be placed in each cup.

The seeds only need to be sunk 20 mm into the substrate. For germination the seeds are placed in a moistened cloth, where they will stay for a few days until they have small sprouts. But before doing so, the seeds should be checked for germination by placing them in a pinkish solution of potassium permanganate for a quarter of an hour. After the allotted time, the germinating seeds should swell and sink to the bottom, with the non-viable ones floating up. Then the containers with seeds should be removed to a warm place (25 to 30 degrees), and covered with cling film or glass.

After 3 to 5 days after the seedlings appear, cups should be removed to the window sill, which should be set in advance a device for additional lighting.

Pouring carried out only after the top layer of the soil mixture dried out completely. The plants should be watered with a rubber medical pear, using well-conditioned water at room temperature, which should be gently introduced between the walls of the container and the substrate. Thanks to such watering it will be possible to avoid erosion of the substrate, and even overwatering its upper layer. Also for watering tomatoes can be used method through the pallet.

Stronger plants will need to be transplanted into larger containers. If the plants are stunted, they can be transplanted using containers of 3-5 liters, while strong-growing plants will need pots of 8 to 12 liters. At the bottom of the container should make a good drainage layer, which is filled with a two-inch layer of sand. After that, the seedling is transplanted into the container by way of transplanting, taken together with a lump of earth, then it is poured as much substrate, so that it was full and had no voids. The plant should be buried in the soil up to the cotyledon leaf plates.

With time, it will be necessary to systematically carry out bush grazing, for this purpose you should remove those shoots that grow in the leaf axils. They should be broken out by hand, with the remaining stump being about 1-2 cm long. Thanks to this there is a stimulation of growth of the main shoots, as well as an increase in the yield of the bush. Tomatoes should be kept at a temperature of around 28 degrees during the day and 15 degrees at night. They are watered 2 or 3 times in 7 days, for this purpose, use well settled water at room temperature, with the need to be extremely careful not to wash the surface of the substrate.

Fertilize tomatoes should be 1 time in a decade, for this use organic or mineral fertilizers, remember that you need to follow the concentration of the solution, otherwise you may begin to actively grow greenery, which will adversely affect fruiting. If the stem of the bush has become unstable, it should always be tied to a support. To ensure that the flowers are accurately pollinated, it is necessary to gently shake the bushes a couple of times every 7 days. After most of the fruits are formed, experts advise, cut off the tops of bushes, as well as flowering brushes. Tomato grown at home, if properly cared for, will bear fruit for five years, but as a rule, the first 2 years are the most fruitful.

Growing tomatoes on a windowsill

Planting tomatoes in the open ground

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

When to plant

The tomato seedlings in the open ground are planted in June after the return spring frosts are left behind, with warm weather to be established. The seedlings by this time should have a developed system of roots, 7-8 leaf plates and 25-30 cm high stems, and they should also start forming brushes.

For growing tomatoes you should choose a sunny and well heated area that should have protection from the wind. Note that cabbage, legumes, onions, carrots, beets, turnips and other root crops are good precursors for this crop. A plot that has been used to grow cultivars belonging to the Solanaceae family, such as eggplants, peppers or potatoes, may only be used to grow tomatoes after 3 years.

Suitable soil

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

Tomatoes should be grown in a soil rich in organic matter. Please note that such plants quickly take all nutrients from the soil, so beforehand you should apply compost or humus (4 to 6 kilos per 1 square meter of soil) and mineral fertilizers, namely 20 grams of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, which should be introduced into the soil in autumn during the digging of 6 months before planting tomatoes, and another 10 grams of nitrogen fertilizers in the spring in the year of planting tomatoes on the basis of 1 square meter. Organic fertilizer is introduced into the soil in October during the plowing of the plot, you should try to make sure that the clods of soil were large, in the spring time you should twice loosen the soil to a depth of 10 centimeters, with a nitrogen fertilizer is introduced into it. If organic fertilizer is applied to the soil every year, the same plot can be used for growing tomatoes 2 or 3 years in a row, but then a break is made, which should last at least three years.

Planning rules

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

In the prepared plot, planting holes should be made whose depth should be equal to the height of the cups in which the seedlings grow.

Then they should be well watered. Between the holes you should keep a distance of 0,3 to 0,4 m, and the width between the rows should be about 0,5-0,6 m. If the height of bushes is about 0.3 m, they are planted in the holes at right angles. In this case, the seedlings of strong-growing varieties, and even elongated bushes should be planted at an angle, with the top of the plants directed to the south, and the stem deepen into the soil for ΒΌ or 1/3 part.

After planting tomatoes in the ground, it is tamped and abundantly watered. Near the bushes of strong-growing varieties should be installed pegs, later they will be used as a support. Plant the following amount per square meter:

  • Hybrids and strong varieties: 3 or 4 pieces;
  • Hybrids with 2 or 3 stems on a bush: 4 to 6 pieces;
  • Hybrids with one stem and limited stem growth: 6-10 pieces.

PLANTING TOMATOES IN THE GROUND, QUICK ROOTING. MAIN RULES FOR GROWING TOMATOES.

Growing tomatoes in the greenhouse

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

Tomato seedlings should be planted in the first ten days of May. Please note that in late spring it is still quite cool at night, so the greenhouse should be covered with two layers of film with a gap of 20 to 30 mm between them. When the weather gets warm (usually this happens in the first days of June), you can remove the top layer of film. Another thing to keep in mind is that it is forbidden to grow tomatoes and cucumbers in the same greenhouse. The fact is that cucumbers need higher humidity and air temperature compared to tomatoes, as well as they have significantly different modes of ventilation.

Also, tomatoes need a lot of light, and if they are even slightly shaded by tree branches or shrubs, this will have an extremely negative effect on the yield.

Tomatoes are not recommended to grow in a greenhouse bed after any predecessor. If you cannot change the whole substrate, you should at least change its top layer of 10 to 12 centimeters thick, this will help to avoid anthracnose infestation of the bushes. Then you need to disinfect the soil with a just boiled solution of 1 bucket of water and 1 tbsp. copper sulfate or 2 tablets of Oxychrome.

When preparing the soil for planting, add 1 tbsp urea or potassium nitrate, 1 tbsp potassium sulfate, 3 tbsp double superphosphate in granules, 1 tbsp potassium magnesia and 2 tbsp wood ash. Overgrown or elongated plants should be planted as follows: another hole should be made in the bottom of the planting hole, the size of which should be equal to the size of the container in which the plant is growing. In this hole, the plant should be planted with a peat pot or with a lump of earth. After that, the bottom hole should be filled with soil, and the top hole should remain completely open. In half a month after the full adaptation of the planted seedlings, the upper hole can be filled.

If the overgrown bush is buried to the required depth at once, it will immediately begin to form additional roots, and since the bush spends almost all its energy on this, it will take longer to take root.

The bushes planted in the greenhouse must not be watered for 15 days, then the plants should be tied to a support, which should be about 200 cm high. After that, form single-stemmed bushes, which should be 7 or 8 brushes. In doing so, you should cut out all the stems forming, from which short stubs (10-20 mm) should be left. To be sure that the flowers are accurately pollinated, you should gently shake the flower brushes and then water the soil or moisten the flowers using a fine sprayer.

After 2 hours, you should reduce the humidity in the greenhouse by airing it out. Remember that when setting up a greenhouse along with side vents and doors in it should be made ceiling vents, which will prevent the accumulation of condensation on the film. Otherwise, excessively high humidity in the air and soil can cause the fruits to become watery and sour to the taste.

Before the formation of buds begins, water tomatoes once every 5-7 days, with 4 to 5 liters of water per 1 square meter of land. As soon as the bushes bloom, 1 to 1.

5 buckets of water per square meter of land should be taken when watering them. For them to grow well, the air temperature in the greenhouse should be about 20-22 degrees.

Throughout the growing season, tomatoes will need to be fertilized 3 or 4 times by the root method. Twenty days after transplanting seedlings into greenhouse beds, they should be fed for the first time, using a nutrient solution consisting of 1 bucket of water, 0.5 liters of liquid cowpea and 1 tbsp of nitrophoska.

Half a month later, bushes should be fertilized again, this time using a solution consisting of 1 bucket of water, 1 tsp. potassium sulfate and 1 tbsp. total mineral fertilizer. The third feeding is carried out after another 15 days, for this you need a nutrient solution consisting of 1 bucket of water, 1 tbsp. superphosphate and 2 tbsp.

wood ash. About 6 to 8 liters of nutrient mixture is taken per 1 square meter of the plot. To make the fruits ripe (poured) faster, during the period of full fruiting, they will need fertilizer, for this purpose take a nutrient mixture of the following composition: 1 bucket of water, 1 tbsp of liquid sodium humate and 2 tbsp of liquid superphosphate, taking 5 liters of such mixture per 1 square meter of bed.

Growing Very Early Tomatoes-the BEST Cultivation Technique!!!

Tomato care

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

When growing tomatoes in the open ground, they should be systematically watered, fed, weeded, loosen the soil surface and protected from diseases and pests. Also, bushes should be obligatory to dip and form.

Loosen the soil surface between the plants and bushes several times during the growing season (1 time in 10-12 days), which will allow timely destruction of the crust formed on the soil. Along with loosening the soil, it is necessary to pull out all the weeds. Mound the bushes for the first time should be 8-12 days after transplanting tomato seedlings in the open soil, it should be done on the next day after watering. The second bush mowing after watering should be done 2.5-3 weeks after the first one.

Tomato plants should also be shaped. In regions with a relatively warm climate, this crop can be grown in several stems. However, if the climate is cool enough, it is recommended to grow tomatoes in 1 stalk, and 2 or 3 flower stalks should be left on it, and do not forget to cut out all the stems, otherwise a large number of haulm leaves will have an extremely negative impact on the yield. The first cut of the lateral stems should be done 20 days after the seedlings have been transplanted into the open soil when they are 50-70mm long. Strong-statured varieties not only need a grapevine, but also a pruning of the growth point, which should be done in the first days of August.

When growing climbing varieties, all the lower leaflets should be cut off, as this is a good prevention of fungal diseases, and it will also improve the access of air and sunlight to the plant. This will contribute to a higher and earlier harvest.

How to water

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

Tomatoes cultivated in open soil should be watered systematically. Water should be poured into the holes, with 1 liter of water per bush. It is recommended to water in the afternoon or on a cloudy day.

The obligatory watering should be done before loosening, during the flowering of the first and second flower-brush, and also after a dry fertilizer has been applied to the soil.

It is best to water such plants using the drip method. Thanks to this, the liquid enters the soil quite slowly, so there is not a sharp change in humidity, which is extremely negative for tomatoes. In addition, there is no stagnation of liquid on the soil surface, which is a good prevention of fungal diseases.

It is recommended to mulch the soil surface around the bushes with black covering material, so that the growth of weeds is completely stopped, and the moisture is preserved in the soil.

If the surface of the plot to mulch organic matter (for example: sawdust, grass or peat), it will contribute to attract earthworms, which loosen the soil and produce humus during their life, and tomatoes in it badly need. But be aware that moles may settle on a plot with a lot of earthworms.

Gartering rules

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

To garter tomatoes, trellises or stakes can be used. The stakes should be placed on the north side of the row, with a distance of 9 to 11 centimeters between them and the shoots. To make trellises, you need stakes, which are installed every 4 meters, then between them should be stretched thread or ropes.

Garden shrubs should be tied in 3 steps:

  • After transplanting the seedlings into the ground at the level of the first leaf plate;
  • at the level of the second flowerbrush;
  • at the level of the third flowerbrush.

Feeding tomatoes

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

The first time you should feed the seedlings 10-12 days after transplanting them into the open soil. A nutrient mixture consisting of organic and mineral fertilizers is used for this purpose; to prepare it, 20 grams of superphosphate must be added to 1 bucket of cowpea solution (slurry and water taken in a 1:8 or 1:9 ratio). For 1 bush, take 1 liter of such a mixture. The second time the plant is fertilized half a month after the first feeding, and the third time - in the same interval, for this use mineral fertilizers in dry form, they are evenly distributed on the surface of the bed: 1 square meter plot takes 10 grams of ammonium nitrate, 20 grams of superphosphate and 15 grams of potassium salt.

Then the soil surface should be loosened to get the fertilizer in, after which it is well watered.

If any element is lacking in the soil or there is too much of it, this can affect the appearance of bushes. For example, if there is not enough sulphur in the soil, the leaves will turn red or yellow and the shoots will become very brittle. If the soil lacks boron, the shoots will turn black at the point of growth, cuttings of young leaf plates will become brittle, and brown spots will form on the surface of the fruits. If there will be a lack of molybdenum, the leaf plates will turn yellow and curl up, and because of this, bushes can be affected by chlorosis, as well as with a lack of iron, when the color of the leaves changes to almost white, with tomatoes do not mature, and their growth stops.

If signs of a lack of any of the elements are detected, the bushes will need to be given foliar feeding, and a mixture containing the missing element should be used.

Super Feeding During Bloom to Increase Yield

Treatment

In milder climates, tomatoes may not mature in time. To save the harvest, the bushes can be treated with a special mixture that will speed up the ripening of fruits. To do this, you will need young pine shoots, which should be put on the shelf of the refrigerator for 7 days. They should be finely chopped and mixed with water in a ratio of 1:2.

The mixture should be brought to a boil, after which it is simmered over low heat for 5-10 minutes. Cooled and strained decoction should be diluted with water in the ratio 1:3. Treat the bushes with this mixture while the buds are forming.

Tomato pests and diseases

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

Diseases

The most common diseases in tomatoes are brown, brown, black and white spots, Mosaic (which causes plants to shatter), tracheomycosis, bacterial cancer, southern and common phytophthorosis (bushes begin to wither), white, stem, gray and apical rots, verticillosis, and scab. Each of these diseases has its own symptoms and treatments.

However, you must remember that if you strictly follow the rules of prevention and agrotechnics of this crop, then you will be able to avoid infecting the plant at all.

Pests

The most common pests on tomato bushes are thrips, sprout flies, midges, moths, wireworms, slugs and gall nematodes. It is recommended to fight such pests with folk remedies, namely herbal infusions and decoctions that have fungicidal, insecticidal and antifungal effects.

To treat tomatoes immediately and you will avoid phytophthorosis

Gathering and storing tomatoes

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

20 days before harvesting, remove all flowering stems and buds thus allowing the formed fruits to ripen faster. Pick the fruits selectively as they ripen to brown, pale yellow, pink or milky color.

Such fruits ripen well in 7-15 days, while they remain sweet and tasty. If you collect green tomatoes from the bushes, their taste qualities will be lower after ripening. All fruits should be harvested before the temperature starts to drop to 8 degrees at night, since this temperature increases the risk of infecting plants with various diseases. Most gardeners recommend harvesting the entire crop before the "cold dawn", otherwise it may die. But it should be taken into account that the ripening of each variety occurs at its own time.

For example, early maturing varieties are harvested in the second half of July, medium maturing varieties in the last days of July or first days of August, and late maturing varieties in August or September.

Matured tomatoes should be placed nose down, in plastic crates or cardboard boxes with paper on the bottom, and each container should not hold more than 12 kg of tomatoes, otherwise the pressure on the bottom row will be too high.

Mature tomatoes should not be stored more than 7 days before canning, processing or eating them fresh. Pink and brown fruits that have been ripened will ripen much faster than green or milky-white fruits. To finish ripening and storage is recommended not injured and large tomatoes, which are plucked from the bushes with stalks.

For ripening the fruits put in cardboard boxes, which should always be covered with lids. In the middle of the box put 3 or 4 matured fruit, which produces ethylene, which accelerates the ripening of tomatoes. If you put the fruit in boxes made of plastic or in wicker baskets, they are covered with dense material such as burlap on top, it will prevent the escape of ethylene. In a warm room, the fruits ripen much faster. Pink fruit will be fully ripe in about five days, brown after seven days and lactic ripe in 1.

5 weeks.

To keep the fruit alive until the second half of December, paper sheets should be put between the layers. Put them in a cool place, such as a dry cellar, a glazed balcony or a cold veranda. If you plan to store the fruit for a long time, you should systematically inspect it so that you can remove rotten tomatoes that may infect the rest of the plant.

Tomato varieties and types

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

There are several types of tomato classifications.

The American scientist C. Rick's classification divides all tomatoes into 9 types. In Russia the traditional classification according to which all tomatoes are divided into 3 types, namely Peruvian tomato, common tomato and hairy tomato is accepted. To date, there are more than 70 hybrids and varieties of the common tomato, and these are only those tomatoes that are intended for cultivation in the open air.

Also such a plant is divided by structure into non-stemmed, stemmed and potato-shaped.

  1. Stemmed tomatoes. They are represented by compact bushes, which have very thick shoots, and medium-sized corrugated leaf plates, located on short petioles. This group is quite numerous, and includes dwarf and medium-grown hybrids and varieties that form a small number of stems.
  2. Neshtammb tomatoes. Their foliage is large and slightly corrugated.

    The shoots are thin, and they lodge under the weight of the tomatoes. This group is represented by dwarf and strong-growing varieties, as well as hybrids. There are now half-stemmed tomatoes, which are a cross between a stemmed and a non-stemmed variety.

  3. Cartoon-shaped tomatoes. Their large leafy plates resemble those of a potato.

    Such varieties are not common.

Also varieties are divided by the type of bush growth into determinate (low-growing) and indeterminate (high-growing). There are also super-determined and semi-determined varieties in this group. However, only specialists use this classification.

Tomatoes are also divided by ripening time into early-ripening, medium-ripening, and late-ripening.

Early ripening varieties

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

  1. Irma. Large to medium-sized fruits mature in 100 days. Shrub height 0.5 to 0.6 m and does not require bunching.

    The variety has a good keeping quality. The fruits are suitable for autumn salads, canning in their own juice and whole-fruit freezing.

  2. Izuminka. Bushes range in height from 0.5 to 0.

    8 m. Heart-shaped, dense tomatoes are red in color and weigh about 100 grams. The flesh of the watermelon is sweet and very tasty. The fruits are suitable for canning and for making salads.

  3. Butuz.

    High-yielding bushes reach 0.5 to 0.6 m in height. The barrel-shaped red fruits weigh 100 to 200 grams and have excellent shelf life as well as taste.

Best medium ripening varieties

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

  1. Bovine Heart.

    The juicy and soft tomatoes come in medium to large sizes and have a red-pink color, thin skin, and a lovely sweet flavor. The variety has an excellent yield, but it is not very resistant to brown spot disease.

  2. Lady's Fingers. There is relatively little foliage on half-meter-long bushes that do not form stems. The red tomatoes are pear-shaped with firm, dense flesh.

    Excellent for canning.

  3. Koenigsberg. The height of this strong-growing variety is from 150 to 200 cm. The red elongated tomatoes have a shape similar to eggplants. They have a great taste and weigh about 0.

    3 kg.

Best Yielding Tomato Seeds 2017 (best tomato varieties).

Best late maturing varieties

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

  1. De Barao. The sturdy bushes are about 400 cm tall. Plum-shaped, smooth fruits with dense, very tasty flesh, they weigh about 70 grams.

    Resistant to cold and shade. The fruits are suitable for whole-fruit canning, for eating fresh and for long-term storage.

  2. Finish. The plant is about 0.75 m tall.

    The very tasty red-orange fruits weigh about 90 grams. This variety is productive and resistant to verticillosis.

  3. Cherry. This is a very popular variety with excellent taste and ornamental qualities of sweet small fruits that weigh about 30 grams, they are gathered in brushes. For canning they are used with a branch.

    The variety is grown on the balcony, in the open ground and in the greenhouse.

There are also interesting and quite unusual varieties

Tomatoes: cultivation and care in the open field, planting seeds for seedlings

  1. Banana-like (pepper-shaped) tomatoes. The fruits have an unusual shape and taste. Varieties that are very popular: Jersey Devil, Auria, Uncle Stepa.
  2. Rebbed tomatoes.

    The variety is characterized by its yield and large fruits, which are similar in shape to a peeled orange with very convex slices. Popular varieties are Tlacolula, American Ribbed.

  3. Orange tomatoes. They contain high amounts of lycopene, sugar, and beta-carotene, compared to regular varieties. They are recommended for people who are allergic to red fruits.

    The most popular variety is Persimmon.

  4. Yellow tomatoes. Golden tomatoes have a rich flavor. They contain many carotenoids and lycopene. These fruits are good for allergy sufferers.

    Popular varieties include: Golden Domes, Honey Drop, Miracle of Light, Golden Fish.

  5. White tomatoes. The fruits have an unusual taste, they contain a large amount of sugar and are completely acid-free. Popular varieties are White Snow, Bull's Heart White, Snow White.
  6. Black tomatoes.

    The fruits contain more beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and other vitamins compared to all other varieties. They are also valued for their unusual taste. However, such hybrids have a low yield and low resistance to frost. The fruits ripen very late, so such tomatoes are recommended to grow in the open field only in regions with a warm climate. Popular varieties are Raj Kapoor, Gypsy, Black Prince, Blue Sky.

  7. Green tomatoes. Fruits never turn red, they have a unique flavor. Popular varieties: Emerald Apple, Swamp.

Most Yielding Tomato Varieties to Grow in 2021

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