The spruce tree (Picea) is a member of the Pine family. There are about 40 species in this family. The Latin name of this plant comes from the word "pix", which translates as "resin". And the Russian name of this genus comes from the word belonging to the Proto-Slavonic language, it has the same meaning as "pix. The most widespread species of this genus is the common spruce (European).
In the western part of Sweden there is a spruce of this genus in the Fulufjellet National Park, which is more than 9550 years old. It is the oldest woody organism on Earth. Probably everyone knows that this tree is considered the main symbol of the New Year and Christmas.
Special features of spruce
The spruce is an evergreen monoecious tree that is characterized by its slimness. It can reach a height of 40 meters or more.
During the first 10 to 15 years, the root system of such a plant is pivotal. Then the main root dies off and the tree continues to live by the roots, which are superficial and are located within a radius of 15 to 20 meters from the trunk. Because of its superficial root system, spruce trees are not wind-resistant or, more precisely, wind-blown trees. The crown is cone-shaped or pyramidal. The whorled branches are horizontal-spreading or drooping.
In the first few years, the plant does not have any side shoots growing. The bark is gray and flakes off in thin plates. This culture has needle-shaped needles. Short stiff sharp needles, usually tetrahedral, but there are also flat. They are placed spirally, in some cases double-rowed, with a lifetime of one needle about 6 years, and sometimes longer.
Each year the plant loses up to 1/7th of its needles.
These trees are holosemian. Male strobils are represented by small earrings growing from axils located at the tips of last year's branches, with pollen starting to be released in May. Female strobils are also found at the tips of branches; they are pollinated by the wind, after which they proliferate and hang down. Woody or leathery cones with an oblong-cylindrical shape fall off after the seeds have ripened.
The cone consists of an axis with seed and covering scales on it. In October the seeds are fully ripe, after which the cones open and are blown away, blown around by the wind. The seeds germinate for about 8 to 10 years. Fruiting of such trees may start at the age of 10-60 years, it depends on the growing conditions. The average life span of a spruce is 250-300 years, but quite often there are specimens which are over 500 years old.
Spruce Spruce - green, blue, blue / Spruce planting and care
Potting spruce in the open field
What time to plant
Fir trees are undemanding in care and unpretentious to growing conditions, and are highly decorative. As a result, in recent years, such trees began to be cultivated on household plots everywhere. Planting a spruce is quite a complicated process, especially if it is a large tree. It is recommended to buy seedlings with a closed root system. The fact is that such a plant reacts extremely negatively to the drying of the roots, if they are bare in the air, then in 15-20 minutes they will die.
Specialists advise to buy seedlings in nurseries or in garden centers with a good reputation, and seasonal bazaars are very bad for this. Selecting a seedling, it should be a good inspection. Pay attention to the needles, they should be glossy, rich in color and without dried needles, and the root system should not stick out of the container. A meter-high seedling ready for planting in the open ground should have a clod of earth reaching at least half a meter in cross-section.
Taking the seedling out into the open ground is recommended during the second half of April, it can also be done in the last days of August or first days of September, the fact is that at this time there is intensive growth of the spruce root system and therefore after planting it takes root much faster and easier.
Planting a seedling, the height of which exceeds 3 meters, experts advise to carry out in November-March, with the earth clod must necessarily be frozen. To plant an ornamental spruce of small size, you can choose a site close to the house. If the spruce is a large size, its surface root system will absorb a large amount of moisture and nutrients, from which the crops growing next door will suffer. Therefore, it is recommended to choose a place outside the homestead, otherwise you will need to make pruning of its roots every year. Forms with colored needles, as well as ornamental spruces need to choose a well-lit area for planting, as in the shade their decorative qualities will be lost.
Also consider that large trees grown in a sunny location have an evenly formed crown.
The depth of the planting pit should be 0.5 to 0.7 m. The bottom diameter of the pit should be 0.
3-0.5 m and the top diameter should be 0.4-0.6 m. If you have chosen an area with high groundwater table or heavy soil, you will need to make a drainage layer on the bottom of the hole with a thickness of 15 to 20 centimeters, for this you can use broken bricks or gravel, which is poured over with sand.
To do this you must combine turf and leafy soil with sand, humus, peat, and also with ¾ t. Nitroammophoska. It will be very good if the leafy soil is replaced with forest soil. 2-3 h before planting, the root system of the seedling is immersed in water, without taking it out of the container. The drainage layer in the pit should be filled with soil mixture.
Then the plant should be carefully removed from the container, and try not to destroy the clod of soil, and then it is lowered into the planting trough. If the clod of soil is destroyed, you should speed up, as you will have only a third of an hour to complete the planting. The sapling in the excavation should be set strictly vertically, and then you need to fill it with soil mixture, and it is not necessary to compact it strongly. It should be taken into account that after planting, the root neck of the plant should be at the same level with the surface of the plot. Around the planted tree should be built a dump of soil, and then in the root circle should be poured from 1 to 2 buckets of water.
After the liquid is completely absorbed into the soil, the surface of the root circle should be covered with a layer of mulch (peat). If seedlings of large varieties, you should keep a distance of at least 200-300 cm between them when planting.
Garden care for spruce
Mature spruces are relatively high drought tolerant, they can withstand half a month without watering. But note that miniature and dwarf varieties as well as young trees and seedlings, especially those planted in winter, need to be watered more often. Trees planted in winter throughout the first season should be watered regularly once every 7 days, with at least 12 liters of water poured into the root zone each time.
Water the spruce carefully, because the water should not get on the needles. To prevent rotting of the surface root system and to prevent rapid evaporation of soil moisture, the root zone should be covered with a six cm layer of mulch (pine needles, conifer shavings, bark or sawdust). Around the spruce you can also put decorative stones or fill up with clay pebbles. If the soil is not mulched it needs systematic loosening of its surface to a depth of 7 cm and regular weeding is also required.
Such a tree should be systematically nourished.
It should be taken into account that if in the year of planting in the planting hole all the necessary fertilizers were made, during the first season, the seedling does not need fertilizer. In the following seasons once a year in the root circle it is necessary to make a complex fertilizer for coniferous plants. Seedlings after planting and transplanted trees for the first time should be watered with water mixed with agents that stimulate growth (Heteroauxin, Epin or Herbamin), and the needles should be treated with Ferravit. Mature specimens should not be given any fertilizer.
Sanitary pruning of spruce should be done only when necessary by trimming off dry and diseased branches.
It should be remembered that heavy pruning can lead to the death of the tree. However, spruce pruning needs shaping pruning, as do lilacs, from the tree, for example, you can form a cypress.
Transplanting a spruce
After being planted for the first fifteen years, the tree is extremely slow growing, so you must plant an already mature spruce in order to quickly green up the site. In some cases, trees reaching 15 meters in height are transplanted and they successfully take root. Transplanting such large trees is recommended in the first winter weeks, the soil should already be frozen, but the air temperature should not be below minus 8-12 degrees.
Transplanting can also be carried out in the last winter weeks, and the ground should still be frozen. The fact is that in such conditions the soil is well held on the root system, and therefore it is practically not injured.
Tree preparation for transplanting should be engaged in advance. To do this in the springtime, a trench must be dug along the projection of the crown perimeter, which should be 0.2 to 0.
3 m wide and 1 m deep, and the roots should be carefully cut, using a shovel for this purpose. The trench should be filled with peat or humus and a fertilizer must be added in order to stimulate the growth of the roots. Then the trench should be watered generously. During the summer period it is necessary to water the substrate in the trench several times, especially if it is dry. With the onset of the autumn period, a large number of thin roots will appear in this cushion.
A pit with steep walls should be prepared in the autumn, its depth should be 100 cm, while in the cross-section it should be 100 cm more than the diameter of the crown. Prepared in advance to fill the hole, the earth mixture for storage is stored in the cellar, because it should not freeze. It is also necessary to stock the bedding from under the Christmas tree, sand and dried leaves.
If the height of the tree does not exceed 200 cm, you can dig it out with your own hands, for this it is dug along the radius of the trench, all the remaining roots must be cut. In a spruce at this age, the roots go to a depth of 0.
6 m. Therefore, it is necessary to dig up the plant to this depth. Take a burlap and put it under the roots, it should also be wrapped around the clump of earth. After that, the tree is extracted from the soil and taken to the new planting hole. If the transplanted tree is higher than 200 cm, then it is necessary to use a rooter, it is able to hold the root system together with the root ball and the crown, while not injuring them.
The bottom of the excavation should be covered with a drainage layer, a forest floor, and then a layer of dry leaves. Only then should the tree be placed in the planting hole, with its root neck 50-70 mm above the surface of the plot. It should also be noted that during the installation of the tree in the hole, its orientation in the "south-north" direction must necessarily be preserved. The remaining voids in the pit should be filled with the prepared earth mixture, and it should only be slightly tamped. Then several strong stakes are taken and hammered into the ground along the perimeter of the planting hole, and the distance between them should be equal.
Then the tree is tied to these stakes on stretchers, this will allow the transplanted plant not to fall from gusts of wind. The surface of the root zone should be covered with a layer of peat, fallen leaves, mulch or lapnik. After the soil in the pit has settled, the root neck of the spruce should be level with the surface of the plot.
General recommendations for the care of coniferous plants. How to properly care for conifer plants.
Diseases and pests of spruce with photos
Coniferous crops are distinguished by their very poor resistance to disease and pests. Below will be a description of those diseases and pests that trouble spruce most often.
Fir needle rust
Fir needle rust is this fungal disease. An infected tree has a large number of cylindrical bubbles on its needles during the first weeks of summer that reach 20-30 mm in cross-section and contain spores. After the spores mature, the shell of the bubble bursts, and they disperse and settle on the surface of nearby plants.
The greatest danger of this disease is young spruces, because it causes the needles to die off early. To cure the plant and prevent its infection, in the first days of June it is sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%) or other fungicide preparation of similar action. All of the fallen needles must be systematically collected and disposed of. Do not forget to remove weeds from the area. Such a tree can also get cone rust.
Affected cones should be removed from the plant immediately after their detection. Such a disease is dealt with in the same way as rusty needles.
Schutte Spruce Common
Schutte Spruce Common - This disease appears in the springtime. Affected specimens on last year's shoots show a change in the color of the needles to brown, as well as their dying off. But affected needles don't fall off, but stay on the branches until the next spring.
At this time, fungal apothecia are formed on the underside surface of needles, which look like convex glossy formations of black color. Affected specimens have stunted growth, and some of them die altogether. As soon as the first symptoms of the disease are noticed, it is necessary to cut off all infected branches immediately and spray the tree with a fungicide solution. To cure a spruce tree, it will need to be treated 3 or 4 times.
Brown Stucco - This disease affects young trees.
Their needles turn brownish-brown and wither, but they do not fall off and continue to hang on the branches for a long time. All infected branches should be removed and the tree sprayed with a fungicide.
Schutte Spruce Snow
Schutte Spruce Snow - The symptoms of this disease appear in the fall. Brown-red-colored spots form on the surface of the needles, and a white patina appears on them in the springtime. As the disease develops, the plaque turns dark, and fruiting bodies of black fungus appear on its surface.
Over time the needles turn black, dry out and die. All infected branches should be cut off and destroyed. To cure the diseased spruce, it should be sprayed several times with a fungicide solution.
Root Sponge is a disease that is quite common, affecting both coniferous and deciduous trees and causing the root system to rot. The appearance of fruiting bodies of the fungus is observed at the root neck, in the cavities located under the roots, as well as on their lower surface, and sometimes they are located on the bedding near the plant.
These skin formations may vary in size and shape, their surface is either brown or brown, but inside they are yellowish or white. Their texture is similar to that of a soft cork. All the spots where the disease is spreading must be cut out from the diseased plant and the affected areas must be treated with a fungicide solution.
The spider mite is the most dangerous creature for Christmas trees. This pest is most active during hot and dry times.
The mite sucks the cell sap from the tree. The presence of spider webs and many small dots on the surface of the needles can indicate that this pest has settled on the plant. If there are very many mites, the tree begins to turn yellow, and the needles on which these spider-like creatures are found are colored in a lighter, almost white color. In dry and sultry times, spruce needles should be sprayed in the evening for prophylaxis. The diseased plant is treated with acaricides, such as: Flumait, Borneo, Apollo or Floromait.
Insectoacaricides, such as Agravertin, Oberon, Actellic or Acarin, can also help. Several sprinkles are required to eliminate all mites.
Common Spruce Sawfly
Common Spruce Sawfly is a small insect up to 0.6 cm long and has a yellow or dark coloration. Most often they settle on young spruces, but their mass reproduction is observed on spruces 10-30 years old.
Affected trees show stunted growth and bare stem tips, which causes their crowns to become rounded. Fir needles of trees infested by this pest turn brown-red in color, but they do not shed, but stay on the branches for a long time. For preventive purposes, it is necessary to recoat the soil in the stump circle, destroying the sawfly's nests. In case of heavy infestation, the larvae of younger ages should be sprayed with a solution of insecticidal preparations such as Actellic, BI-58, Decis and Fury.
Fir bark beetle
Fir bark beetle is also a rather dangerous pest.
It makes many passages in the bark of the tree, and if there are very many of these pests on a spruce, it can die. For decorative forms of spruce, this pest poses the greatest danger. The most effective means in the fight against such pests are Clipper, Bifentrin, Crona-Antip and BI-58. But you should be prepared for a long and difficult battle against bark beetles.
Spruce pine needleworm
Spruce pine needleworm - this brown moth has a wingspan of 1.
3-1.4 cm. This crop is harmed by the caterpillars of this moth, which are pale brownish-yellow in color and have a pair of dark stripes across their backs. It is quite easy to recognize that a plant is infested by the needle-eater, as clusters of rust-colored needles appear on the stems, and it is connected with each other by rather sparse delicate fibers. These pests mine the needles of the plant, making round-shaped holes in their base.
If the affected areas are small, they must be cut out and destroyed, and the spruce is then sprayed with a solution of green soap.
Pine false scales
Pine false scales - this pest has a protective smooth glossy shell of brown color, due to which treatment of the affected tree with insecticides will not be effective. Under its shield, this pest arranges an oviposition chamber with about 3 thousand eggs, from which light pink larvae emerge in July. They feed on the juice of the plant. Due to larvae, curvature and dying of stem tips, the length of the needles is reduced, they become brown and fall off.
Growth of the affected spruce becomes very slow. In addition, as a result of vital activity of this pest on the surface of the tree remains honeydew, on which settle fungi. Particular danger false scales represent for spruces grown in dry soils or in a shady place. To prevent this, it is recommended to follow the rules of agrotechnics of this crop and regularly carry out preventive spraying of young spruces with insecticidal preparations, especially during emergence of larvae from eggs.
Also this plant may fall ill with grey mold, and it may also be inhabited by moustaches, spruce and fir chermens and aphids.
Remember that pests often attack trees that are very weak or poorly developed, usually because the plants are not properly cared for or raised in the wrong conditions. Such specimens also tend to get sick very often. If the spruce is strong and healthy, diseases and pests usually bypass it.
Specialists can propagate spruce by grafting a cuttings of decorative variety on the scion of another coniferous tree that has high winter hardiness. But among amateur gardeners, the most popular is the generative (seed) method of propagation, and also cuttings.
Growing spruce from seed
The process of growing spruce from seed is quite long and time-consuming. But if time is of the essence and if you are not afraid of possible difficulties, you have a good chance of growing a Christmas tree from seed.
Sow only freshly picked seeds. They should be pulled from a mature cone that has not had time to open, but before that it should be dried. The seeds should be first stratified before being sown.
To do this, they are mixed with dry sand or with a mixture of sand and peat, and then placed on the shelf of a refrigerator, where they will stay for 1-1.5 months at a temperature of 2-3 degrees. Sow the seeds in the last winter or first spring weeks. The seeds need abundant watering, and the containers are placed in a well-lit and warm place. After the seedlings appear, watering should be made more moderate.
The seedlings are transplanted into open soil in the second year, and it is recommended to plant them immediately in a permanent place.
Saplings of such a plant differ extremely slow growth, and besides diseases and pests they can be damaged by direct sunlight, rain and strong gusts of wind.
Growing spruce from seeds 1
Raising spruce from cuttings
Rooting cuttings is recommended in spring time, but should be done before the buds begin to swell on the trees. When preparing cuttings with a secateurs, you should cut the stems reaching 60-100 mm in length, and the branches of the second order should remain on them. The lower cut of the cuttings for 2 minutes should be immersed in a solution that stimulates the growth of the plant, then produce it at an angle of 20-30 degrees.
For planting cuttings use a layer of soil mixture, which includes peat and sand (1:3) or fine pearlite and sand (1:3), on top of this substrate is placed five-inch layer of drainage, which is poured above a layer of turf soil thickness of about 10 centimeters. After planting, the cuttings should be moistened with a fine sprayer, then the container from above should be covered with a transparent cap made of film, which will help maintain the necessary level of air humidity. Cuttings should be planted at a distance of not less than 50 mm from each other, and the distance from the surface of the foil to the tops of the cuttings should not be less than 25-30 centimeters. In the future, the cuttings will need quite frequent and systematic spraying, and it is recommended to moisten not the plants, but the foil. Spraying cuttings in the evening is not allowed.
Another thing to consider is that the air temperature in the mini-greenhouse should not be higher than 25 degrees, otherwise the cuttings can burn. Small holes made in the film for ventilation will help to avoid this.
When the plants have formed their own system of roots, they are transplanted for re-growth. They can be transplanted into open soil after 1 year.
MARBORROW Fir! How to reproduce a blue spruce at home!
Summer spruce on a plot
How to care for it in the autumn time
Buy your own seedlings and prefer the ones that were cultivated in your region; in this case this tree will not have frost-resistance problems.
It should be taken into account that exotic species, which are heat-loving, can die if there is little snow during the winter. Spruce is quite frost-resistant, but this does not apply to species such as Oriental spruce and Brewer's spruce. However, you should consider that it is necessary to prepare spruce for wintering regardless of its species and variety.
The last watering is carried out before the first November frosts. For this purpose, 20 liters of water should be poured under trees less than 100 cm in height, and 30-50 liters of water should be poured under taller specimens.
One-year-old and two-year-old seedlings with poorly developed roots, as well as spruces with low frost-resistance and those trees which underwent formation pruning this year need such watering most of all. From the beginning of August fertilizing Christmas trees with nitrogen fertilizers should be stopped to prevent young shoots from freezing to death in winter. The fact is that nitrogen promotes the intensive growth of green mass, but in the autumn time the spruce should direct all its forces to the fact that the already grown shoots have time to mature before frosts. To speed up the process of branching and to make the root system of the tree stronger, in September you should fertilize it with potassium-phosphorus fertilizer, which should be applied to the soil in the root zone.
For the tree to survive the winter well, you must insulate the ground in the root zone and use tree bark as a mulch.
Bark is the best insulator for spruce because it does not obstruct the passage of air as well as the evaporation of excess moisture, so under it the root system will not exactly harden as it can happen, for example, under sawdust or fallen leaves. Mature trees and also nursery stock from your own region are more winter-hardy and do not need to be heated in the growing area.
Wintering a spruce in the garden
There are many dangers for spruces in winter. For example, when there are heavy snowfalls in the winter and wet snow builds up on the tree, there is a great chance of skeletal branches breaking as well as damaging thin branches. To remove snow from the plant, you should never shake the tree, because in winter the branches are very brittle and may crack.
Those branches that you can reach should be free of snow, using a broom or broom brush, and you should move from the tip of the branch to the trunk. And the remaining branches, which are relatively high, should be cleared of snow in another way, for this you need to take a long board, the end of which is wrapped with a soft cloth. This stick to pick up the branches, one by one, and then gently rock them up and down. If the crown is bell-shaped or spherical in shape, then in the fall if you want it can be tightened not very much, using the twine, and the branches should be as tight as possible to the trunk, but they should not be squeezed. This will prevent the branches from cracking.
If there is a sudden change in temperature at night and during the day during the winter, ice can form on the branches and this can cause them to lean heavily and crack. In this case, it is necessary to put props under branches (used to support branches of fruit-bearing crops in summer), when it becomes warmer outside, the melted crust will slide down by itself.
Also for such trees, strong gusts of wind in winter time are a great danger. They are especially dangerous for the strong-growing spruces as such a wind can turn them over with the root, while the low-growing species are not afraid of such gusts of wind. You can try to protect a high-growing plant by using stretching.
To do this, you should install strong stakes at an equal distance from the tree on 4 sides, and their height should be a little more than half the height of the tree. Stretching is done using twine, one of its ends is tied to the trunk of the plant, which must first be wrapped with roofing felt, and the other end must be fastened to the stake. This procedure should be done with each of the stakes. It is advisable to install the stakes in the autumn while the soil is still frozen.
Spruce Spruce varieties.
Spruce species and varieties with photos and names
There are only about 40 species of spruce, with most having decorative forms.
Ajan spruce (Picea ajanensis), or Hokkaido spruce
This ancient species can be found in the wild in the Far East. The height of this slender plant varies from 40 to 50 meters. The crown of the plant has a regular conical shape.
The young bark is smooth and the mature bark is flaked. It is dark gray in color. The shoots are brown-yellow, green-yellow or yellowish in color. The flat needles are about 20 mm long, with a dark green upper surface and a rich bluish lower surface. The ornamental slightly shiny cones are about 65 mm long, oval-cylindrical in shape and pale brown in color.
This plant is frost hardy and shade-loving, but it is soil-demanding and can die in waterlogged soil. The maximum lifespan of such a tree is about 350 years. This species also has a subspecies, the Hondo spruce: it is not as tall and is more tolerant of spring return frosts, its leaf pads are more swollen and its buds have a purple tint.
Brewer spruce (Picea breweriana)
This species is native to North America. It is 20 to 25 meters tall and has a trunk measuring 0.
45 to 0.75 meters across. The branches of the second order are weeping. The resinous buds are elliptical or spindle-shaped. Young deep-bearded, brownish-red shoots have pubescence on their surface.
After a while their color changes to gray-silver. The flattened blunt-topped needles are 1.5-3 cm long. Their upper surface is green, while the underside has rows of white stomata. Narrow-cylindrical cones have a cut upper edge and are 60 to 100 mm long.
Their scales are very thick and they open very wide at maturity. This species is relatively rarely cultivated in Europe.
Eastern spruce (Picea orientalis)
This species is one of the forest-forming species of Caucasian forests and can also be found in nature in Asia Minor. Its height varies from 35 to 50 meters with a diameter of about 2 meters. The branchy, lush crown is conical in shape.
Its scale-like bark is dark grey or brown in color. Young densely pubescent shoots are light red or yellow-gray, while mature ones are grayish or gray. The square-shaped, short, very shiny needles are slightly flattened and blunted at the apex. The purple spindle-shaped, cylindrical cones are about 10 centimeters long and change color to pale brown over time. Cultivated since 1837.
The frost-resistance of this species is low. The best ornamental forms of this species:
- Aurea (Aureaspicata). The crown is narrow-conical. The lateral drooping branches are asymmetrical. The tree reaches a height of 10-12 meters and the diameter of its crown is 4 to 6 meters.
The needles of the young shoots are pale golden in color and later turn dark green and the needles become glossy and hardy. This form is similar to Aurea, but its needles turn yellow-green over time.
- Skylands (Aurea Compacta). This form is among the most popular varieties of this species. The needles on this spruce have a golden color all year round.
The plant is about 11 meters tall, the crown shape is pyramidal, and the needles are dense and short.
- Natense. The plant is about 20 meters tall. The dense crown includes dangling weeping branches. The dark green, lush short needles are glossy and stiff.
The color of the young cones is purple, but over time it changes to brown.
The best miniature forms of this species:
- Bergman's Jam. The tree with dark green needles is no taller than 0.6 m, with a crown that reaches 0.9 m across.
When young, the crown has an elongated shape, which over time changes to spherical and then to cushion-shaped.
- Professor Lengner. The tree is about 0.3 m in height and diameter. Its spherical crown is very dense and its short needles are colored dark green.
Korean spruce (Picea koraiensis)
This species is native to North Korea and the Far East and is protected in nature reserves. The height of such a tree is about 30 meters. The crown is pyramidal in shape and consists of drooping branches. The color of the bark is brownish-red. Young shoots are light brown or yellow in color, which changes to brownish-red as they grow.
Green needles reach 0.9-2.2 cm in length. The elongated ovoid cones are 80-100 mm long. This species is recommended by specialists for landscaping, as it is very resistant to unfavorable environmental factors.
But in the middle latitudes, cultivation of this species is still in prospect.
Black spruce (Picea mariana)
This plant is native to North America. It is 20 to 30 meters tall and has a trunk girth of 0.3 to 0.9 meters.
The narrow crown is irregularly conical in shape. The brown-red or brown-gray thin bark is cracked and scaly. There is glandular pubescence on the surface of the brown-red young shoots. Compared to other spruce species, this one has very thin needles, their lower surface is dark green-blue and the upper one has stomatal lines. The small globular or egg-shaped cones are brownish-purple when they are young and then turn dull and brown.
This species is shade-loving, frost-resistant and undemanding to the soil. It has been cultivated in Europe since 1700. This species is only slightly inferior in decorative effect to the Canadian spruce. Forms of this species:
- Baisnery. The height and crown diameter of such a cultivar is about 5 meters.
The color of the needles is bluish-silvery. There is a compact variety - Baissneri Compacta: height about 200 cm.
- Domesti. The frost-resistant tree is about 6 meters tall. The lush crown has a wide-conical shape.
There are many ascending branches. The bluish needles are very lush. Cones grow on the trunk of the plant.
- Kobold. This hybrid is created using the Serbian spruce and Daumeti form.
The height and diameter of this tree is about 100 cm. The lush crown has a spherical shape. Иголки темно-зеленые.
- Нана. This graceful half-meter tall dwarf form is winter hardy.
The uniform crown shape is rounded. The slender needles are a pale green-blue color.
This species also has the following varieties: Aurea, Ericoides, Empetroides and Pendula.
Spruce (Picea abies), or European spruce
Native to Europe. The tree is about 50 meters tall, but most specimens do not grow taller than 35 meters.
The trunk reaches 100-150 cm in diameter. The cone-shaped crown has branches that are either set back or drooping, which are raised at the tips. The thin brownish-red or gray bark may be smooth or cracked. Bare shoots are brownish or rusty yellow in color. The ovoid, cone-shaped buds are brownish in color.
Needles are 8-20 mm long, tetrahedral, glossy dark green, pointed at the top. From branches needles do not fall off 6-12 years. The elongated ovoid cones are 10 to 16 centimeters long and initially greenish or dark purple, but later they become fulvous. The average age of this species is between 250 and 300 years but the tree can live up to 500 years. The forms of this species are divided according to the type of branching:
- crested - first-order branches are horizontal and second-order branches are slender, they are placed comb-like and hang down;
- incorrectly comb-like - second-order branches are placed comb-like but not correctly;
- compact - first-order branches are medium-long and are densely covered with branched second-order branches;
- flat - first-order branches widely branched horizontally;
- branching - first-order branches have thick, short branches with small branches bristling down.
The following forms of this species are also quite popular:
- Acrocona. This variety was bred in Finland. It has a moderate winter hardiness. The height of the tree is 2 to 3 meters. The crown shape is wide-conical and its diameter is from 2 to 4 meters.
The smooth pale brown bark becomes rough and brown-red over time. The pointed tetrahedral needles are dark green in color. The shape of the large cones is cylindrical.
- Remonti. This low-growing form is about 300 cm tall.
The shape of the dense crown is ovate or conical. The ovoid buds are orange and the needles are green.
- Pumila glauca. The dwarf plant is about 100 cm tall. The rounded, flattened crown reaches 5 to 6 meters across.
Shoots overlap each other and are slightly drooping at the top. The dark green needles have a bluish cast.
The following varieties of this species are also quite popular: Aurea, Aurea Magnifica, Berry, Clanbrassiliana, Columnaris, Compacta, Conica, Cranstoni, Cupressiana, Echiniformis, Redberry, Formanek, Gregoriana, Inversa, Little Jam, Maxwelli, Microphylla, Nana, Nidiformis, Olendorffi, Pyramidata, Pygmy, Procumbens, Pumila, Reflexa, Repens, Tabuliformis, Viminalis, Virgata, Will Zwerg, etc.
Also cultivated are the following species of spruce: Glen, Canadian (or bluish or white), prickly, Koiami, red, Lizzian, Lutz, Maximovitch, Meyer, Kidney, Serbian, Siberian, Sitka, Finnish, Tian Shan (Schrenk), rugged, Engelmann and others, and many varieties thereof.
How to choose spruces in a nursery.
spruce varieties. garden design