Schabel (Rumex) is a semi-shrub or herbaceous plant, which can be an annual or perennial, it is a member of the Buckwheat family. This genus derives its Russian name from the Proto-Slavonic language and has the same root as the word "schi". In the motherland of this plant, it is called kislytsya, kislichka, kislushka, kyslenitsya, kislyatka and kisladya. Representatives of this genus can be found on various continents, where there are at least some plants, but the main area of this culture covers the temperate latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, namely: forest edges, slopes of ravines, banks of swamps, lakes, rivers and meadows. Sorrel also grows as a weed near the human dwelling and is undemanding to the composition of the soil.
This genus includes more than 150 species, but the most popular species is the sour sorrel or common sorrel.
Sorrel is a herbaceous dioecious plant that has a branched taproot of short roots. The upright, ribbed stem is a meter tall, with a dark purple color at the base. The stem is topped with a panicle-shaped inflorescence. The full, acidic root leaves are long-cellular, varying in length from 15 to 20 centimeters.
Their base is arrow-shaped, with the middle vein expressed vividly. Practically sessile, alternately arranged stem leaflets have an ovate-long form and an arrow-shaped base. Polygamous, cylindrical panicle-shaped inflorescences consist of pink or pale red flowers. Female and male flowers differ in structure. Flowering occurs in June and July.
The fruit is a pointed smooth seed of brownish-black color, they reach 1.7 cm in length and have sharp ribs and convex edges.
The sorrel. Sowing and Growing. What you need to know + recipe for sorrel.
Growing sorrel in the open field
Sowing in the open field
The sorrel can be cultivated in the same place for 3-4 years, if not transplanted in time, it will negatively affect the quality and yield of this plant. For sowing, choose plots free of weeds, with moist nutritious soil, and should not be observed stagnant water. The occurrence of groundwater on the site should be deep enough (not less than 100 cm). The best way to grow sorrel is on sites with slightly acidic loam or sandy loam, which are saturated with humus.
Also well-drained peat soil is suitable for growing this crop.
A plot for planting should be prepared in autumn by dredging to the depth of the spade bayonet. 20-30 grams of potassium chloride, 6-8 kg of compost or humus and 30-40 grams of superphosphate per 1 square meter should be added to the soil. In early spring you should add urea to the soil (20 grams per 1 square meter of land), use a rake. This crop can be sown three times during the season, namely at the beginning of spring, in summer and in autumn for the winter.
Spring sorrel should be sown immediately after processing the soil, and you will be able to harvest the first crop in the current year. In summer, the seeds should be sown in June-July when the lettuce, radish and green onion crops are harvested. The seedlings that appear after the summer sowing will get stronger before the frost sets in, and the sorrel will give a rich harvest the next spring. This crop is sown under the winter in October or November. The next season's crops will produce a good harvest in the spring.
The most common reason for sowing sorrel in the spring is that there is a lot of moisture in the ground at this time and the seedlings appear and grow quickly. The bushes that appeared after the summer sowing need systematic watering. When sowing seeds under the winter, very often the seedlings appear shortly before frosts, and as a result they die. For sowing sorrel, beds reaching 100 cm in width and 12 cm in height are used. Rows should be made across the length, and the distance between them should be about 25 centimeters.
The seeds are buried in the soil by 10-20 mm, then its surface is tamped, and the crops are watered.
How to care for sorrel in the vegetable garden
Care for sorrel grown in open ground is very easy, with the surface of the rows being systematically loosened, the bushes to be watered, weeded, fertilized as well as protected against harmful insects and diseases in time.
Water the sorrel in time; if the bushes will suffer from lack of water, it will provoke too early formation of flower stalks, which is extremely negative for the yield. The flower stalks should always be cut back after they appear. After it has rained or the bushes have been watered, the surface between the rows should be loosened, and the weeds should be removed.
The surface of the bed is covered with a layer of mulch (organic material), making it much easier to take care of the bushes.
Feed the bushes twice or three times during the season. To do this, use a solution of cowpea (1:6), and in 10 liters of such a nutrient mixture pour 15 grams of potassium and the same amount of phosphorus fertilizer. In the second year, this culture will need a fertilizer solution of full mineral fertilizers, with 1 square meter of land taken from 15 to 20 grams of urea, 30 to 40 grams of superphosphate and 15 to 20 grams of potassium chloride. Nitrogen fertilizer should be applied to the bushes every time after the leaves are cut, and on a nice day it should be applied as a solution.
Collect the harvest after each bush has grown on 4 or 5 leaf plates of normal size. All weeds should be removed from the bed before harvesting. When the leaves are cut, the surface of the rows should be loosened with a trowel. The leaves should be cut at a height of 30-40 mm from the surface of the plot, and care should be taken not to damage the apical buds. Between May and July you can harvest sorrel 3 times.
The last time to harvest is no later than 30 days before frosts set in, otherwise it will have an extremely negative effect on the future crop. In autumn, cover the surface between the rows with compost or humus (4-5 kilos per square metre) and cover the bare roots with the same humus.
Sherrel in spring WHAT TO DO Video tutorial by Olga Chernova April 15, 2017
Pests and diseases of sorrel with photos and names
Diseases Sorrel and their treatment
False powdery mildew
False powdery mildew (peronosporosis) can affect bushes in the first year of growth. Sick bushes have shriveled, brittle, thickened leaves with a downward curling edge. The disease is most active in wet weather.
To prevent it, it is necessary to remove weeds from the site in time, and you need to cut off the diseased leaf plates in time. Diseased bushes should be sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture.
Gray rot develops due to overgrowth in damp areas. Sick bushes develop burgundy-colored spots that gradually become watery and flaccid. Then foliage rotting begins.
To prevent this, do not overgrow the plantings and make sure to cover the surface of the bed with a layer of mulch (peat).
Rust is quite common in temperate climates. On diseased bushes, pale yellow blisters form on the surface, eventually bursting and spores of the fungus pouring out. As a preventive measure, in autumn the area should be cleaned of plant debris, and then the soil should be recultivated. And in the spring, cover the surface of the bed with a layer of mulch (peat, sawdust or humus).
The different spots (septoriosis, ovulariasis and others) are very difficult to distinguish among themselves. But if the bush becomes infected with a spot disease, spots of varying color, shape and outline will form on the surface of the bush. Therefore, as soon as the foliage becomes speckled, it should be cut off and burned. As a preventive measure in the fall, plant debris should be removed from the surface of the plot and then the soil surface should be covered with a layer of mulch (humus).
Sorrel pests and control
The most common pests of sorrel are: aphids, leaf beetles, sorrel sawflies, winter moths and wireworms.
Aphids settle on the bush and suck the sap from it, causing the leaf plates to become yellow and sluggish, the roots to weaken, and the plants to die. To get rid of such a pest, it is necessary to use infusions of garlic, wood ash, burdock and tomato haulm, with a small amount of liquid soap poured into them.
If frequent holes appear on the surface of the leaves, it indicates that leafhoppers have settled on the bush. This pest also makes oviposition on the underside of the leaf plates. To prevent the appearance of such a pest on bushes, pyrethrum should be planted in between the rows of sorrel.
An infusion may also be prepared from such a flower and used twice or thrice during the season.
Squillweed also oviposit on sorrel shrubs and the resulting green caterpillars nibble the leaves leaving only a skeleton of veins. To prevent this, it is necessary to remove weeds from the site in time. The plot should also be timely cleaned of plant debris, and bushes should be treated with infusion of chamomile, in which liquid soap should be added.
The winter moth may settle in the last spring weeks, but this insect may cause great harm to sorrel.
Throughout the summer it eats the leaves of the plant, and with the onset of autumn such a pest moves closer to the surface of the ground. In order to prevent this it is necessary to dig the plot in the autumn.
To catch the moth in several places on the plot you must install traps by hanging up one meter high containers filled with fermented liquid such as compote, honey water or treacle.
The moth is a larva of the louse bug, it injures both the plant root system and its leaves. In order to prevent this, all weeds must be removed from the plot in time, excessively acidic soil must be neutralized, the plot must be recultivated after harvesting, and you must also remember that it is not recommended to grow this crop in the same place for more than 4 years.
Mega recipe for pests. You can't buy this kind at the store
Species and varieties of sorrel
It has been said above that the most popular type of sorrel among gardeners is sour or common sorrel. Also cultivated in vegetable gardens are such species as: sparrow sorrel (small, sorrel), water sorrel (water sorrel), horse sorrel (thick sorrel, horse sorrel, red firefly), curly sorrel, seaside sorrel, tupolista, spinach and Russian sorrel. Horse sorrel (Rumex confertus)
This herbaceous perennial has a slightly branched, thick and short rhizome with many adventitious rootlets. The bare, straight upright, branched, naked, solitary stems vary in height from 0.
9 to 1.5 m and are up to 20 mm thick. The successive lower stem and rosette leaf blades are heart-shaped, with an elongate-triangular-ovate base and shape. Leaves are obtuse in the upper part and wavy-edged; they reach a length of 25 centimeters and a width of 13 centimeters, their petioles are long and grooved along the upper side. The upper short-cell leaves are sharper, shorter and more lanceolate-ovoid in shape than the lower ones.
The opposite surface of the leaflets is densely pubescent, represented by a stiff, short pile. The greatest amount of pubescence is located on leaf veins. Greens of this species have a sour taste. Not very large whorls consist of yellow-green open-headed flowers. These whorls form a thyreth, which is a lush, long and narrow panicle-shaped inflorescence.
This species blooms in May-June. The fruit is a brown nut about 0.7 cm long and has a triangular oval shape. Naturally occurring in the forest-steppe and steppe zone, it prefers to grow in moderately moist and humid soils; it is considered a typical meadow weed.
Sherbet common or sour grass
A detailed description of this species can be found at the beginning of the article.
The following varieties are most popular with gardeners:
- Broad-leaved. This perennial is frost-resistant and has a high yield, it matures in only 40-45 days. It is eaten fresh and also used for winter preparations. The long-petioled green leaflets have an elongate-oval shape.
The ripening time for this medium-early variety is 40 to 45 days. The bright green foliage has a smooth or bubbly surface and a wavy edge, reaching a length of about 15 centimeters. The upright rosette is loose.
- Spinach. A medium-early variety which is resistant to frost and disease.
The loose and large rosette consists of large, bright, dark green leaflets with a bubbly surface.
- Big Leaf. This early variety is characterized by resistance to frost and shoots. The standing rosette consists of tender greenish foliage. The leaflets can be up to 20 centimeters or more in length.
This variety matures in 30-45 days.
- Bloody Mary. This ornamental variety is frost-resistant and is widely used in cooking. The variety was so named because there are flecks of red on the surface of the green leaves. The leaves are 15 centimeters long and 10 centimeters wide.
The ripening time is 45-50 days.
- Odessky 17. This early high-yielding variety has dark green leaf plates of elongated shape, their length is 16 centimeters and width is 7 centimeters, they are part of an upright loose rosette. This plant is used for making soups, salads, and canning.
The medium-ripening variety is notable for its yield. The raised, loose rosette consists of green-colored leaf plates that are about 38 centimeters long and up to 12 centimeters wide. It is used as fresh food and is also used in winter preparations.
- Sanguine. This medium-ripening perennial is noted for its productivity.
The semi-raised upright rosette is quite tall, with a pale red stem. The large, oval-long green leaflets are slightly bubbly or smooth, with red veins.
- The Emerald King. An early variety with high yields. Smooth tender greenish leaf plates have an elongate-oval shape.
- Champion. This perennial is ornamental, tastes good and is high yielding. The upright rosette is about 0.4 m tall and reaches up to 0.3 m across.
It consists of succulent green large leafy plates, whose shape is oval elongated.
- Emerald Snow. A medium maturing variety with excellent taste and high yields. The sprawling, raised rosette consists of weakly bubbly, deep green, medium-sized leaf plates.
- Maikop 10.
This early variety is very popular among vegetable growers, it is resistant to disease and frost, and has good yields. The plant contains a moderate amount of acid. The fleshy large leaf plates are yellowish-green in color, and the length of the thick petioles is medium.
- Altaysky. This frost-resistant variety has lance-shaped leaves of medium sour flavor, its petioles are long and thin.
The young leaves are dark green in color, after a while they have a reddish hue.
- Lyonsky. The variety is of high quality and has an excellent taste. There are fleshy leaf plates on thick petioles. Once the greens are cut, they grow back very quickly.
This variety is not frost-resistant and may freeze in winter.
- Red veins. This ornamental variety is about 0.4 m tall. The upright, compact rosette consists of lanceolate green leaf plates, with burgundy-red veins.
In this variety, only the young leaf plates are eaten before they are coarse.
The properties of sorrel: benefits and harm
Therapeutic properties of sorrel
Horticulturalists value sorrel because it gives greens in the springtime when there is a particularly severe vitamin shortage and fresh vegetables are still too few. The green part of the plant contains proteins, carbohydrates, organic acids, fiber, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), E (tocopherol), A (beta-carotene), K (phylloquinone), H (biotin), PP (niacin) and B vitamins: thiamine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, pyridoxine. This culture is also considered a source of potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, sulfur, phosphorus, sodium, fluorine, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and iodine. Horse sorrel rhizome contains vitamin K, essential oil, resins, iron, tannins, flavonoids, organic acids such as caffeic and oxalic acids, as well as other substances necessary for the human body.
Horse sorrel is very similar in its composition to such a very useful plant as rhubarb.
The young leaves of this crop are the most nutritious and useful, with citric and malic acid in their composition. Sour sorrel leaves are characterized by analgesic, anti-inflammatory, stiffening, wound healing, anti-cinnamon and anti-toxic effects, and they also help improve digestion. When the stomach is upset, a decoction of the leaves is used. Such a drink has anti-allergic and choleretic effects, improves liver function, and also eliminates skin itching and acne.
The plant is used for painful menstruation and during menopause. For this purpose, 1 tbsp. just boiled water should be combined with 1 large spoonful of dried leaves. The drink should infuse for 60 minutes, after which it is drunk three times a day for a third of a glass 30 minutes before a meal.
Infertility helps the following composition: 1 tbsp.
just boiled water should be combined with 1 tablespoon of sorrel, the mixture was boiled for 60 seconds, then it was removed from the heat and allowed to cool completely. Drink the remedy in the same way as for painful periods. To increase the effectiveness of the drink, it is necessary to pour into it ergot or mumijo.
Decoction of the leaves of common sorrel is used to improve the liver, stimulate bile formation, and it can also stop bleeding. Means made on the basis of the rhizome of horse sorrel are used for liver diseases, uterine and pulmonary bleeding, hemorrhoids, constipation, anal fissures, and also externally for burns, gingivitis, stomatitis, wounds and skin diseases.
In alternative medicine, this sorrel is used as an antitumor agent. Horse sorrel leaves are used in decoctions for colds, diarrhea, colitis, enteric and hemocolitis.
Sorrel - health benefits and contraindications
Scientists advise against eating sour sorrel for too long because it contains very much oxalic acid and it can disturb the kidneys and mineral metabolism in the body. Also this plant should not be eaten with stomach and duodenal ulcers, kidney diseases, gastritis with high acidity, gout and pregnant women..