Shallots: Planting And Care In The Open Field, Growing From Seed

The herbaceous perennial plant shallots (Allium ascalonicum), also called shallots, old-fashioned onions, bush onions, family onions, Ashkelon onions, shallots, magpie, or kushchevka, is a member of the Onion family. This variety of onion is native to Asia Minor, but today it is widespread in Moldova, Western Europe, Ukraine and the Caucasus. To eat the young leaves of the plant and its small bulbs, distinguished by a refined taste and good smell, are used. This onion is propagated by sowing seeds in the open soil in the spring or deep fall. In winter its bulbs are planted for baking in order to get greenery.

Since ancient times, humans have known that such a crop has medicinal properties.

Brief description of growing

Shallots: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

  1. Potting. To get greens in May, plant shallots in open soil in March-April. And for greens as early as April, resort to winter sowing, which is carried out in the middle of October.
  2. Lightness.

    Needs plenty of bright sunlight.

  3. Ground. The soil should be nutritious loose neutral and moderately moist. Loamy loamy or humus-sandy soil is best.
  4. Pouring.

    Water the bushes at least three times during the growing season. When there are 30 days to harvest, all watering should be stopped. During a prolonged dry period, water shallot once every 7 days.

  5. Fertilizer. Mineral fertilizers and organics are used for fertilizing.

    Four weeks before harvesting, stop feeding the onion.

  6. Propagation. Shallots are grown from seed and are also propagated by seeding (vegetatively).
  7. Pests. Onion flies.

  8. Diseases. Powdery mildew, peronosporosis (false powdery mildew), fusarium wilt and cervical rot.
  9. Properties. This medicinal plant refers to dietary products.

Peculiarities of shallots

Shallots: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

The shallot is a herbaceous perennial that forms "nests," because of which it is also called a multi-sprouted or familial.

The holly system of roots branched off poorly, it is in the arable layer. The hollow, thin, tubular, cone-shaped leaf blades remain tender for long periods. The feathers may be colored in various shades of green, and in some cases there is a coating of wax on the surface of the foliage. There are thin scales on the surface of slightly elongated bulbs. Bulb weight usually varies from 20 to 50 grams, but there are some hybrid varieties that have bulbs weighing 90 to 100 grams.

The inside scales are usually white with a pink, purple or pale green cast. The covering scales may vary in color from purple to white.

The bulbs will keep well indoors until sown in the spring. These onions grown in regions with warm climates tend to be dark colored and have a semi-spicy taste. In cool climates, shallots with a sharp taste are often cultivated.

The dense, umbrella-shaped inflorescence is arranged on an arrow which can reach a height of about 100 cm and consists of florets of no ornamental value. The seeds are similar to those of onions, but they are smaller in size and germinate for two to three years. The most popular is vegetative propagation of shallots, but after a while the bulbs lose their varietal qualities, and there is also a gradual accumulation of diseases in them, which has an extremely negative effect on the yield. To fix this, you need to buy fresh material for planting or seeding can be grown from seeds with your own hands. When seeds are sown during the first year of growth, a multi-stemmed bulb (similar to garlic) is formed, which disintegrates into 5 bulbs.

If planted at the beginning of the following season, they form nests of more bulbs.

Challot onion agricultural technique-a complete cycle from planting to storage

Planting shallots in the open field

Shallots: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

What time to plant

Lighting shallots for turnips and for quills. Planting bulbs in the open ground is carried out in March-April after the soil on the plot warms up well, in this case the cutting of greens can be done in May, and the turnip will grow in June. Thanks to the winter planting of shallots, you can get greens even earlier. Planting is carried out in the middle of October, so that the bulbs had time to root well, but not to start growing.

Greens on such onions will grow already in April, and the turnip will grow in June. In order to have vitamin greens on your table even in winter time, bulbs are planted for baking in room conditions.

Ground

Shallots: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

For planting you should choose a well-lit area, and since this plant can easily cross with onions, try not to place their beds close to each other. Nutritious loose soil, which in addition should be neutral and moderately moist, is suitable for such a culture. Prepare the plot for shallot in advance.

This culture grows best on moist humus-sandy loamy or light humus soil.

If spring planting is planned, then prepare the site in the fall. To do this, remove all weeds from it, and then recultivate the soil to a depth of 20 to 25 centimeters with the simultaneous addition of 1 tsp. superphosphate, 2-3 tbsp. wood ash, 3-4 kg of humus or compost and 1 tsp.

urea per 1 square meter of bed. In the spring before planting you should add nitrogen fertilizer (25 grams per 1 square meter). If, however, planting is planned for the fall, then the plot should be prepared in the summertime.

Good and bad predecessors

Shallots: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

For the successful cultivation of shallot, it is absolutely necessary to follow crop rotation rules. Cucumbers, zucchini, legumes, tomatoes, potatoes and cabbage are considered good predecessors for this plant.

And those plots, where corn, garlic, sunflowers, beets and carrots were previously grown, are not suitable for planting this onion. However, experienced gardeners recommend placing beds of carrots and shallots next to each other, because these vegetable crops can protect each other, so the smell of shallot can repel carrot pests and vice versa. It is also recommended to grow strawberries, radishes, different types of lettuce and cucumbers next to the bed of shallots. In the area where the shallot grew, it may not be grown again before 3 years.

Planting rules

Shallots: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Planting material needs to be prepared before sowing.

First, it must be sorted. The best bulbs are those weighing about 30 grams and up to 30 mm across, because they produce more bulbs. Smaller bulbs have a lower yield and should therefore be planted for the winter. Larger bulbs form too many small bulbs.

When about 7 days remain before planting in open soil, to prevent fungal diseases, including false powdery mildew, the planting material is warmed in warm water (40 to 42 degrees) for 8 to 10 hours.

This can be done without doing it, then before planting the bulbs in the ground they are immersed for 30 minutes in a solution of manganese or fungicide.

Bulbs are planted in a previously prepared furrow, observing the distance between them about 10 centimeters. If small bulbs are planted, the distance between the rows should be 8 to 10 centimeters, for medium-sized bulbs 15 to 18 centimeters, for large bulbs 20 to 30 centimeters. Planting is carried out in moistened soil, and after embedding the bulbs should be in the ground at a depth of 20 to 30 mm. With deeper planting, there is a delay in foliage growth and a decrease in yield, and if the bulbs are planted at a shallower depth, they will stick out of the ground.

When the shallot is planted, the surface of the bed is covered with a layer of peat or humus. For the greens to appear as soon as possible, just before planting the shallots, they should be trimmed by the shoulders, but you should take into account that in this case the yield of both turnips and greens will decrease.

Planting onions in autumn under the winter. Seedling Radar Holland. Shalot cushion.

Subtleties of onion planting

Winter planting

Shallots: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Planting shallot in open soil in the fall just as you do in the spring. Then the surface of the bed should be covered with a layer of mulch (peat), which should be 35 to 40 mm thick. Remember that during winter planting the bulbs are buried deeper into the ground than during spring planting.

Although this culture is distinguished by its frost-resistance (it can withstand frosts up to minus 20 degrees, while it retains its vitality after complete freezing), still planting under winter is recommended only in the southern regions. The fact is that in the middle latitudes, in Siberia and the Urals, there is a high probability that with this method of planting, about half of all bulbs will die from frost.

But those bulbs that were able to survive in the ground during the winter will form more leaves compared to those that were planted in the spring. After winter planting, green leaves begin to grow immediately after the snow cover falls.

Growing shallots from seed

If only bulbs are used over several years to propagate shallots, it can cause the bulbs to shred, yields to decrease significantly, and in this case there is a gradual accumulation of diseases. Specialists advise, in this regard, 1 every 10-15 years to renew the planting material, for this purpose grow new bulbs from seed. From seeds sown in the spring, the seedling will form in September.

It represents small nests, which include small bulbs. They can be used as planting material next season.

Care for shallots

Shallots: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Growing shallots in your plot is very easy. In order to do that you have to weed, water, loosen the ground around the bushes during the intensive growth period, feed them, and protect them from pests and diseases if necessary. In the first days of July, the sprouts should be thinned, in this case the bulbs will be larger.

During this period, it is recommended to suspend watering and fertilizing, otherwise the bushes will actively grow greenery, not bulbs. As soon as an arrow appears, it should be broken out, do not allow it to grow longer than 10 centimeters.

Watering

On average, throughout the vegetation period, the bed with this onion is watered at least 3 times. The bushes need the most moisture at the beginning of the growing season. When you have 30 days before the harvest, you should stop watering altogether.

When moistening the plot with shallot, you should adhere to the following principle - do not allow the soil to dry out too much. If it rains a lot in summer, you should reduce the amount of watering, and in a prolonged drought, on the contrary, this procedure is carried out more often. If there is a dry spell in a cloudy climate, watering should be done once every 7 days.

Fertilizing

Shallots: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Fertilizing should be done in good time to obtain a good shallot harvest. Organic nutrients such as a solution of cow dung (1:10) or poultry manure (1:15) can be used.

Still for fertilizing you can use a solution of complex mineral fertilizer (40 grams per bucket of water). When up to harvesting will be 4 weeks, all fertilizers stop, otherwise the bushes will grow not bulbs, and greenery. To increase the size of the turnips, experienced gardeners advise that when the nest is fully formed, rake away the soil from it, and remove all the small bulbs along with the greens, which can be used for cooking or for freezing.

Pests and Diseases of shallots

Shallots: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

If the weather is cold and damp, it is very likely that onions will be infested with fungal diseases such as false powdery mildew (Peronosporosis), cervical rot, powdery mildew or Fusarium wilt. All affected bushes are dug out and destroyed as soon as they are found, and the remaining healthy plants must be treated with a solution of Mycosan, Quadris or Pentophagus.

Remember that shallot sprayed with chemicals should not be eaten for some time (duration of exposure to toxic substances can be found in the instructions for use). In order to prevent fungal diseases, planting material just before planting, immerse it in a solution of Maxim for half an hour. If next season you need shallot seed material, then before sending it for storage in autumn, it is also treated with Maxim.

The onion fly, which can appear on the plot during cherry and dandelion blossoms, can harm such onions. Bushes on which the fly has settled, begin to rot and wither.

To get rid of such a pest, it is recommended to powder the bushes and the surface of the bed with wood ash. If worms appeared on the shallot, in order to get rid of them, it is recommended to spray the leaves of the plant with a salt solution (1 tbsp salt per bucket of water).

Severely damaging to this culture is the onion nematode, which contributes to bending the bottom of the parent bulb. If a bulb infested by this pest is planted in a bed, it can cause other bulbs to become infested. Before planting such bulbs in the ground, they should be kept in a solution of Formalin (4%) for a few minutes or warmed for 60 minutes by placing them in a thermos filled with warm (about 45 degrees) water.

The tender leaves of such onions may be infested by garden aphids. If there is a lot of such a pest on the plot, it can become quite a serious problem for the gardener. Various folk remedies are often used to combat aphids, such as decoction of potato peels, pepper or chamomile. You can also use acaricides for this purpose, such as Verticillin, which works very well against aphids on shallots.

Shallot onion diseases and prevention of infestation

Harvesting and storing shallots

Shallots: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Harvesting shallot bulbs should be done in time, because if they stay in the soil too long, they may sprout.

As soon as more than ½ of the foliage is withered, you can begin digging out the nests. The bulbs removed from the soil are placed in a shaded area for several days to dry. Then cut off the withered leaves and disassemble the nests into bulbs that can be piled into boxes, boxes or nets and stored in a cool, dry place. If the foliage is not cut off, braid the onions. With such storage shallot retains its qualities for 5-7 months, but do not forget to systematically inspect the vegetables to promptly remove those that have appeared rotten.

Store such onions and in peeled form. For this purpose, the onions are peeled, cut into pieces, moisten a little and put in the freezer for freezing. Frozen onions are poured into plastic containers, which are again placed in the freezer for storage. The shallot greens can be frozen in the same way. These frozen onions retain their full qualities.

Harvest and preserve shallots:How to harvest and preserve

Shellot species and varieties

Shallots: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

There are many varieties of shallots divided into early maturing, medium maturing and late maturing. And there are also varieties divided into sharp, semi-spicy and sweet, as well as by the number of bulbs in the socket and by the color of the covering scales.

The best early varieties

  1. Izumrud. Rounded bulbs are covered with brownish-pink husks and weigh 20-30 grams. No more than 5 bulbs with a semi-sharp white flesh grow in one nest.

  2. Snowball. This variety has excellent shelf life. The dense, egg-shaped bulbs weigh about 32 grams and the white juicy flesh has a sharp taste.
  3. Sprint. These onions are among the best early maturing varieties and are resistant to false powdery mildew.

    The taste of the large bulbs is sharp and they weigh about 40 grams. No more than 10 bulbs grow in one nest.

  4. Belozertz 94. The variety is characterized by good shelf-life and high yield. The bulbs are oval-round or rounded in shape and weigh an average of 21 to 27 grams.

    They are covered in pale lilac husks with yellowish hues, and their flesh is a sharp, juicy lilac-purple color.

  5. Cascade. The variety has a high yield and excellent shelf life. The broadly ovoid bulbs weigh about 35 grams. The color of the husk and juicy flesh is pink.

  6. Family. The variety is highly resistant to diseases and has a semi-spicy taste. The rounded bulbs are covered with a brownish-yellow husk with a violet cast, they weigh about 22 grams, and the flesh is white. No more than 3-4 bulbs per nest.
  7. CIR-7.

    This variety has excellent shelf life and high yield. The sharp-tasting bulbs weigh about 32 grams. One nest grows 4-7 bulbs.

Even more popular among gardeners are such early-ripening varieties as: Zvezdochka, Interseason, Siberian yellow, etc.

The best medium-ripening varieties

Shallots: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

  1. Albik.

    This semi-acute-flavored variety has a stable yield and excellent shelf life. The shape of the bulbs is flat-round and they weigh about 20-30 grams. Four to eight bulbs grow in one nest.

  2. Kubansky Yellow. This yielding variety has a semi-spicy taste.

    Every nest contains 3 or 4 flat-round bulbs weighing on average 25 to 30 grams. The skin scales are brownish-yellow in color and white or pale green in color. A high-yielding variety with a semi-acute flavor. The pinkish-brown bulbs weigh about 25 grams, their flesh is light lilac with a white cast.

  3. Guran.

    The variety has a semi-spicy taste. The rounded bulbs weigh about 26 grams. The color of the covering scales is brownish-gray. No more than 5 bulbs per nest.

  4. The Firebird.

    The variety has a semi-spicy taste. Weighs flat-round bulbs from 25 to 30 grams, they are covered with brownish-yellow husk.

Even quite often grown varieties of medium maturity, such as: Chapaevsky, Uralsky 40, Uralsky purple, Garant, Gornyak, Afonya, Adreika, Large-bow, Kushchevka Kharkovskaya, Serezhka, Sofokl, hybrids Atlas, Bonilla, etc.

The best late-maturing varieties

Shallots: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

  1. Kunak. The flavor of this variety is semi-spicy.

    The bulbs are covered with yellow husk and have a flat-round or rounded shape. There are three or four bulbs in one socket.

  2. Krepysh. This variety has a semi-spicy taste and is resistant to shootings and rotting. It produces 4-5 bulbs per nest that can weigh 23-52 grams.

    They are covered with dry pink scales. The juicy flesh has a pale red color.

  3. Siberian amber. One nest produces 6 or 7 flat-round bulbs with yellow outer scales and white flesh. On average the bulbs weigh about 28-30 grams.

  4. Merneulskiy (Bargalinskiy). A high yielding variety. Large, elongate-oval bulbs weigh 50-90 grams. The color of dry covering scales yellow-pink, flesh juicy and white. One nest forms 4-6 bulbs.

  5. Vonsky. The variety has resistance to diseases and pests, and also to unfavorable growing conditions. It produces 3 or 4 bulbs weighing 30-70 grams per socket, with red capsules and white flesh. The bulbs and leaves contain essential oil, B vitamins, carotenoids and phytoncides. But ascorbic acid, minerals and sugars in onions less than in shallots.

    These onions still contain salts of phosphorus, iron, potassium, calcium, as well as cobalt, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, silicon, vanadium, titanium and germanium.

    Since ancient times in alternative medicine such a vegetable was used to treat eye and stomach diseases. Young bulbs and leaves of this plant are used in cooking, both fresh and pickled. The shallot has a much finer taste than onions and is thus much prized in French cooking. It is added to soups and sauces to flavor them, and is also used in game and poultry delicacies.

    Contraindications

    Cautiously avoid shallots if you have problems with the GI or urogenital system because they increase acidity which can cause irritation to the intestines or make it difficult to urinate. You should not eat this vegetable if you have kidney and liver diseases, bronchospasm, constipation, pancreatic diseases because it may provoke exacerbations.

    Why do we need shallots

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