Hiphorn (Rosea) is a member of the Rose family. It has a large number of cultivated forms which are called Roses. According to information taken from various sources, this genus has 400-500 species and about 50 thousand hybrids and cultivars. Even Theophrastus, Herodotus and Pliny wrote about the species diversity of the rosehip. During the Renaissance this culture was classified by dividing it into cultivated and wild species according to the number of petals in the flowers.
But even C. Linnaeus noted that rosehips were difficult to classify because of the hybridization of roses. To date, there is no exact data on how many species of rosehip grow under natural conditions. This plant is common in temperate as well as subtropical areas of the Northern Hemisphere. In regions with tropical climates you can also find rose hips, but much less often.
Rose hips grow in groups or singly on the edges of mixed and deciduous forests, along rivers and springs, on rocky and clay banks, in coniferous undergrowth, in sparse woodlands, on plains, in wet meadows and up to 2,200 m above sea level.
Special features of rose hips
Hips are deciduous, less often evergreen shrubs. Its shoots can be declining, climbing or erect, and can vary in height (or length) from 0.15 to 10 metres. Most commonly, rose hips are multi-stemmed shrubs that reach a height of 200-300 centimeters and have a life span of 30 to 50 years.
In Germany there is a rose, which is considered the oldest, according to various experts, its age is 400-1000 years. The trunk of the rose is about half a meter in circumference and the height of the shrub is 13 meters. The main root penetrates into the soil to a depth of up to 500 cm. However, most of the roots are located no deeper than 0.4 m within a radius of 0.
6-0.8 m from the plant. Arc-shaped and erect branches form a large number of branched stems, which may be colored dark red, red-brown, dark brown, brown-violet, brown-black or gray with felt-like pubescence. Spines are arranged on stems and branches in pairs or scattered. The older the stem, the harder and thicker the thorns.
There are also seedless species, such as the hangerbush. Spikes protect the shrub from animals so that they do not eat it, and also their task is to keep the branches among other plants. Nonparaphorous leaf laminae are located on long petioles, they can be painted light blue, pale red or green. Leaves are arranged on stems in a spiral pattern. Wild species have 7 or 9 leaflets, while cultivated species generally have 5.
The leathery, tough leaf blades may be wrinkled or smooth, elliptical or rounded. Leaf bases may be heart-shaped, rounded or wedge-shaped. The leaf blades have serrated-oblong, serrated or double-toothed edges.
The diameter of the paniculate flowers varies from 15 to 100 mm, they may be part of paniculate or ctenate inflorescences, or they may be solitary. As a rule, the flowers have a very pleasant smell, but there are species that have an unpleasant fragrance, such as rose hips stinky.
As a rule, the corolla of rose hips pentapetal, but also can be hemispherical or four-petal. Flowers can be white, pink, yellow, cream or red. The plant blooms in May or June with a flowering period of 7 to 20 days. When the plant is two or three years old it begins bearing fruit. The fruits are cynarodia (multi-spores), which are peculiar in shape and vary in diameter from 10 to 15 mm.
They are naked or covered with bristles and are red, orange, purple or black. The inside of the fruit is coarse-haired and contains a large number of monocotyledonous nuts. They ripen between August and September.
Growing and using rose hips - A successful project - Inter
Potting rose hips in the open field
What time to plant
It is stated that if the rose hip is planted in autumn (October-November), it takes root much better than in spring. But if there is such a need, the plant may well be planted in the spring.
The best place for planting is in a sunny, elevated area. When choosing a place for planting, remember that the root system of this culture goes into deep layers of soil, so it should not be planted in saline, low-lying or boggy places, and also where groundwater is located shallow. If in such a place still plant rosehips, it will soon begin to wither. If the soil on the site is acidic, then 12 months before the day of planting it should be lime.
This shrub can be used in group plantings and as a single plant.
If you need to disguise an unsightly outbuildings or compost heap, the rose hips will suit this purpose very well. Also such prickly bushes are used for planting along the perimeter of the garden. Remember that this is a cross-pollinating plant, so shrubs should not be planted very far from each other.
How to plant rosehips
It is best to use two-year-old seedlings for planting. Before planting in the open ground, the main roots should be shortened to 0.
25 m, and all stems should be cut at a height of about 10 centimeters. If the plot has been prepared in advance, and all the necessary fertilizers have been applied, the depth and width of the planting hole should be about 0.3 m. If this was not done, then the depth of the hole is increased to 0.4-0.
5 m, and the width - to 0.5-0.8 m, during the planting of seedlings, they are filled with soil combined with humus (10 kg per 1 bush), also in it should be poured 30 to 50 grams of potassium salt, 150 to 200 grams of superphosphate and 60 to 70 grams of ammonium nitrate. When planting a hedge, the distance between the seedlings should be about half a meter. In other cases, the distance between the plants should be about 100 cm.
To ensure that the rose hips normally re-pollinated, it is recommended to plant bushes of different varieties (at least three).
Before planting, the roots of the plant should be dipped in clay putty, then they are placed in a prepared hole so that the root neck of the plant was sunk into the ground by 5-8 cm. After that, the hole is filled with nutrient soil combined with fertilizer. When the bush is planted, the soil surface should be slightly compacted, and then it is watered, using 8 to 10 liters of water. When the liquid is completely absorbed, cover the surface with a layer of mulch (sawdust, humus or peat mulch).
SEAKING THE SUNflower. HIPPING.
Gardening rose hips
You should water them abundantly and often during the first year of planting. Remember that this crop is highly drought-resistant, so it does not need systematic watering in the remaining years. If there is a prolonged drought and heat, then under 1 adult bush will need to pour 50 liters of water at a time, and under the young - 20-30 liters, and that's all.
During the whole season the plant should be watered 3 or 4 times.>
For the shrub to grow and develop normally, it should be given nitrogen fertilisers in the second year of growth. The first time the plant is fertilized at the beginning of the spring period, the second - during active stem growth (in June-July), and the third - in September. Also once every 3 years in the soil under the bush should be added compost or humus (1 plant 3 kilograms). Each time the rosehip will be fed, the soil under the bush should be watered and loosen, and then its surface is covered with a layer of mulch.
From the age of three years, such a plant begins to need systematic pruning. To do this, all weak, diseased or withered stems should be cut out, and also one-year shoots should be shortened to 1,7-1,8 m. When the bush is 5 years old, it should include 15 to 20 branches of different age, which are evenly spaced apart. Branches that are more than 7 years old should be replaced. Pruning such a culture is recommended in the spring before the sap starts to move, the point is that pruning in the fall she tolerates extremely poorly.
Pay attention to the fact that excessive shortening of the stems will lead to the active growth of young shoots in the next season, but they will not bear fruit.
Since the rosehip is quite prickly plant, its fruits should be collected, protecting the hands with thick gloves and also dressed in strong clothes. The fruit is picked gradually as it begins to ripen in August and does not end until mid-October. All fruits should be harvested before frost, as otherwise they may lose their properties.
Sometimes it becomes necessary to transplant an already mature rosehip bush to another place.
This could, for example, be due to planting in a place that is not suitable for the plant or if the soil becomes excessively thin. Transplanting is recommended in the spring or in October and November. Prepare a pit and nutritious soil in advance. A cloudy day is good for transplanting. The shrub should be carefully dug up and after the soil is loosened, the bush is pulled out together with an earthy lump, while trying not to traumatize its root system.
Immediately after the bush is removed from the ground, it must be moved to a new place. Remember that the root system of this culture reacts extremely negatively to heat, therefore, the longer it will be on the surface, the less likely that the shrub will successfully take root after transplanting. Transplanting should not be done during flowering, but before or after the sap starts to flow.
Gathering rosehip seeds in August, when the fruits are still brown unripe and their shell is relatively soft. The seeds are sown in October directly into the open soil and the furrows should be covered with sawdust or humus from above.
To make the seedlings appear faster in the spring, a frame is constructed over the crops, on which a polyethylene film should be stretched. Once the seedlings have formed 2 true leaf plates, you can start planting them. If seeding is scheduled for spring, it is best to subject the seeds to stratification, this is done by combining them with river sand or peat and put in a cool place with a temperature of 2-3 degrees (eg, refrigerator). Do not forget to periodically take out and stir the seeds.
If you propagate rosehips by root scions, you will be able to retain all the varietal characteristics of the parent bush.
In spring or autumn find a scion varying in height from 0.25 to 0.4 m. This scion should be cut from the mother plant, using a shovel, and then transplanted into a new location. There is another method of propagation by rootstock.
The offspring is not separated from the mother bush, it should be high and timely watered during the season, and if necessary, sprinkle soil under it. The offspring will grow adventitious roots, and in the autumn of the next season it can be cut off from the parent bush, and with the onset of the next spring period carefully removed from the soil and planted in a new place.
Vitamins from the garden Pruning rose hips. Garden World Website
Pests and diseases of rosehips
This crop is not resistant to either disease or pests. The following pests most often infest it: sawflies, aphids, cicadas, barnacles, spider mites, wireworms, brown and deer beetles.
Finvae of white-tailed and descending sawflies bite four-cm-long passages in young shoots, causing the stems to turn dark and wither. To get rid of such larvae, you should use insecticidal or pesticidal preparations. In the autumn the ground near the shrubbery should be dug over; in this case the false caterpillars of this pest that are on the surface will freeze and the affected stems should be cut off and destroyed before larvae emerge.
Young leaves and plant stems can be damaged by caterpillars of fruit and 3 different kinds of roseflies. If the caterpillars are few, they are removed from the bush by hand.
In the spring time before buds open, the plant should be sprayed with a solution of a pesticide.
Spider mites, which are sucking insects, suck the cell sap from the leaves and stems of shrubs. They are also, together with aphids, the main vectors of viral diseases, for which no effective remedy has been found to date. Such a pest will settle on a shrub in prolonged drought, especially if it has not been watered for a long time. If desired, you can try to banish the mites by spraying the underside of the leaf plates of the shrub with cold water 3 or 4 times a day.
And to get rid of them quickly and effectively, you can use an acaricide.
The slobber mite is found on the underside of the leaves and also in the leaf axils. This sucking pest feeds on cell sap and secretes a frothy substance in the process. If the insect is touched, it quickly jumps out of the foam and tries to hide. To get rid of such a pest the bush is treated with insecticide.
Rosanna cicada can cause great damage to rosehips as it gives 2 or 3 generations in a season. It causes numerous white spots on the leaves' surface, makes the leaves look like marble and looses their attractive appearance. After a while they become yellow and fly off before their time. To get rid of this pest it is necessary to treat the shrub and area surface 2 or 3 times with insecticide solution, the interval between the treatments being 10-12 days.
Big colonies of rosehip are found on rose buds, pedicels and the underside surface of leaf blades.
Aphids feed on plant sap and transmit viral diseases. This pest can produce more than 10 generations in 1 year. Preventive treatment is carried out at the beginning of the spring period, for this purpose a solution of contact insecticide is used. Subsequent spraying can be carried out using a solution of Actellic, Antio, Karbofos, Rogor and other agents of similar action.
Deer and bronze beetles
Deer and deer beetles gnaw out pistils and stamens in flowers, and also eat the petals.
Shrubs with light-colored flowers are especially popular with these pests. Beetles are collected early in the morning; at this time they sit, practically not moving. The collected insects should be burnt.
The most frequent diseases of this shrub are powdery mildew, black spot, rust, chlorosis and peronosporosis.
To get rid of powdery mildew, spray the plant with a suspension of colloidal sulfur (1%) or another fungicide.
To make the rosehips more resistant to powdery mildew and other diseases, fertilize with potassium-containing fertilizers. If the briar is very severely infected, its leaves become dark, wither and fall off. In order to prevent further development of the stain, it is necessary to remove all infected leaf plates and stems, they need to be destroyed. The soil under the shrub should be turned over. In the fall and spring, the plant should be sprayed with insecticide preparations.
If the bush is affected by rust, large amounts of dusting spores and small pads of yellow-orange color can be found on the underside of its leaves. As the disease progresses, there is deformation of stems, flowers and shoots, and desiccation of leaf plates. Cut out and destroy the affected parts of the plant, the soil under the shrub is subjected to recultivation. Treat the bush with a copper-containing product such as copper sulfate before covering it for the winter.
If yellow or white spots form on the surface of the leaf plates, it means the bush has chlorosis.
It develops because of a deficiency of boron, manganese, magnesium, zinc, iron or other substances needed by the rosehip. For example, if it lacks iron, chlorotic color appears on the entire leaf plate except for large veins, and chlorosis affects first the apical young leaves. If there is a zinc deficiency, chlorotic coloring spreads along the edge of the leaf plate, but along the lateral and central veins, the leaf color does not change. If there is a magnesium deficiency, yellowing and dying of the leaf plates is observed, while the color of the veins remains green. If the plant lacks boron, the tissues of the young leaf plates will thicken, and they will also become pale and brittle.
Find out what is causing the chlorosis and then add the right element to the soil. If you like, you can foliar feed the plant with the correct element.
The greatest danger to this crop is false powdery mildew (Peronospora). The development of this disease is observed in rainy and hot weather. Fungicides and farming practices are used to control it.
Pests of roses and rosehips
Species and varieties of rosehips
The current classification of rosehips, which divides the genus into 4 subgenus, is applied: 3 subgenus are small and include 1 or 2 species which are knocked out of the general system, with the fourth subgenus being Rose, which contains 10 sections and 135 species. The varieties and species that are most popular with gardeners will be described in detail below.
Hiphorn alpina (Rosa alpina), or the prickly rosehip (Rosa pendulina)
In natural conditions, it occurs in the mountains of central Europe. This shrub grows no taller than 100cm and has no thorns. Its flowers are large and richly colored and rest on long pedicels.
After the petals have fallen off, the flowers droop immediately. The long, spindly, dark red fruits hang from the shrub like earrings. The fruits and pedicels have long glandular bristles on their surface making the rose hips look very original and showy.
Hips of May (Rosa cinnamomea), or cinnamon hips (Rosa majalis)
This species is widely distributed in the European part of Russia and in Ukraine. Flowering of this shrub occurs in May-June, at which time it displays many large rich pink or pinkish flowers.
This species is quite variable, so its height can reach 250-300 cm or just 100 cm, and such a rose hip forms rarefied thickets, which occupy quite extensive areas. A distinctive feature of this plant are thin paired thorns, located on flower-bearing stems, and they also have bases of trunks densely covered with needle-like small thorns. For group planting we recommend the winter-hardy form of this species with pinky-purple flowers.
Hipsuckleberry (Rosa acicularis)
This plant occurs naturally in the northern areas of Europe, America and Asia and may grow in groups or singly. The height of such a shrub can vary from 100 to 200 centimeters.
The stems are densely covered with many thin thorns and arched bristles. The large flowers can be singular or clustered in groups of 2 or 3 and have a dark pink or pink color. The red fruits are oblong in shape. This species is winter-hardy and comparatively shade-tolerant, it adapts well to city conditions. It is recommended for the creation of hedges as well as being used as a scion for cultivars.
Wrinkled hips (Rosa rugosa), or rugosa rosehip
In nature this species is found in North China, Korea and the Far East, and prefers to grow in thickets of coastal meadows and sea shores. This shrub is about 250 centimeters tall. The leaf laminae are heavily wrinkled, sometimes glossy. The leaves consist of 5 to 9 leaflets, with greenish-gray pubescence on the underside. The inflorescences consist of 3 to 8 fragrant flowers, which may also be solitary.
Flowers reach 6-12 centimeters in diameter. Depending on the variety, the flowers are simple or pompous, and the number of petals per flower can be 5-150, either pink or white. Flowering continues throughout the summer period, so there may be flowers, buds and fruit on the shrub at the same time. The following varieties are most popular with gardeners:
- Pink Grootendorst. The shrub is about 150 centimeters tall.
The crown shape is spreading and pyramidal. The wrinkled glossy leaf plates have a greenish color. The densely swollen flowers are light pink and can reach 30-40 mm in diameter. The edges of the petals are carved. The inflorescences are similar in appearance to bunches of carnations.
- Grootendorst Suprem. The color of the terry flowers is dark crimson.
- Conrad Ferdinand Meyer. This plant blooms twice a season. The thickly flushed, fragrant flowers are a rich pink-silver color.
- Hanza. The mahre fragrant flowers reach 8-10 centimeters in diameter. Their coloration is purple-red.
- Agnes. The fragrant, mahogany flowers are 7 to 8 centimeters in diameter and are colored creamy yellow, with a darker shade in the middle.
- Georges Ken. Very fragrant, semi-maxillary, large, cup-shaped, dark red flowers.
Hippeart (Rosa spinosissima), or Rosa pimpinellifolia
In nature, this species can be found in the Caucasus, Western and Eastern Siberia, the European part of Russia, the Crimea, Western Europe and Central Asia. This briar prefers to grow in valleys, forests, forest glades and edges and on calcareous sediments. This shrub is not very large but incredibly prickly, thin thorns are located on the stems and on the petioles of the leaf plates.
The leaves are small but very graceful, in summer they are green, and in the fall their color is changed to purple. Single flowers are about 50 mm in diameter and may be pale yellow or white. The black globular fruits are about 15 mm in diameter. The species is winter hardy, not very demanding to the soil, perfectly adapts to urban conditions and has a large number of cultural variations and forms. Popular varieties:
- Golden Wings.
The shrub varies in height from 150 to 180 cm. The semi-colored or simple flowers are 50-60 mm in diameter and yellowish in color.
- Frulingsdaft. The shrub is about 200 cm tall. The fragrant, peach-colored flowers come in single or clustered inflorescences.
The stems are brown-red spiky.
- Frulingsmorgen. The simple yellowish flowers are very fragrant. The petals have an edged pink coloration.
- Karl Ferster.
Large, white-colored swollen flowers have a high center and a faint odor.
- Prairie Yurs. Semi-auburn large flowers have a pinkish coloration.
- Schloss Zeutlitz. Semi-flowered creamy-yellow flowers reach 70-80 mm in diameter and have a faint odor.
Dog rosehip (Rosa canina), or common rosehip
In nature, this species is found in Western Asia, Central and Southern Europe and in North Africa. It prefers to grow in small groups or alone along gullies, forest edges, brushwood thickets and riverbanks. The shrub grows about 300 cm tall. Arc-shaped spreading branches have curved strong spines. Leaf blades are not very large, with 5 to 7 pale bluish or light green serrated leaflets along the edge.
The multi-flowered inflorescences consist of pinkish flowers that are five centimeters in diameter. The rich red smooth fruits are rounded or elongately oval in shape and two cm in diameter. Has a medium hardiness. This species is considered the best for rootstocks for varietal roses.
Rusty hips (Rosa rubiginosa), or rust-red hips
Native to this species is Western Europe.
This plant prefers to grow on forest edges, in scrub thickets, in ravines and on rocky slopes. This multi-stemmed, densely branched shrub reaches a height of about 50 cm. Its crown is compact and its prickly thorns are hook-shaped. The foliage consists of 5 to 7 leaflets with glandular, rust-colored leaves on the outer surface that are slightly pubescent. Pink or red flowers, three centimeters in diameter, may be semi-flowered or simple, singular or a part of lush corymbose inflorescences.
The hemispherical fruits are red in color.
Hiphorn (Rosa gallica)
This upright shrub grows to a height of 50 centimetres. The leaf laminae are about 12.5 centimeters long and consist of 3-5 large leathery leaves, dark green in color, with a lighter color on the underside and glandular pubescence covering them. The large flowers can be either full or simple, 2-3 of them as a part of an inflorescence or they can be solitary.
Flowers may be colored in various shades from deep red to dark pink. The spherical fruits are about 15 mm in diameter. This species is fairly frost-resistant, but may suffer from severe frost when cultivated in mid-latitudes. Garden forms:
- Medicinal. The bush is very similar to the main species, but its flowers are terryclad.
- Blessed. The flowers are terry-red. This plant has no thorns at all.
- Varying. On a single flower, the color of the petals varies from dark purple in the middle to a dark pink-red on the outer petals.
- Dwarf. The miniature bush is decorated with simple red flowers.
- Brilliant. Simple or semi-maspherical flowers are colored in carmine.
Coloration of flowers is red-purple. The surface of the pedicels, sepals, rounded leaves and stems are densely covered with bristles.
- Agatha. The purple-colored, more small, swollen flowers are smaller than those of the main species.
The following varieties of this species are most popular:
The simple, faintly scented flowers are colored in deep pink and have a white midrib. They are about 10 centimeters in diameter.
- Versicolor. The pinkish semi-maxillary flowers have a very faint fragrance and vary in diameter from 8 to 10 centimeters. On the surface of the flowers there are spots and strokes of a more intense shade than the main color.
The frosted leaf plates are greenish in color.
Hiphorn (Rosa glauca), or red-leaved rosehip
This park shrub is very showy. In nature it can be found in the mountains of Asia Minor, Southeast and Central Europe. The height of the shrub varies from 200 to 300 cm. The slender spikes can be straight or slightly curved.
The leaflets have 7 to 9 elliptical leaves. The stems, leaves and leaflets are covered with a light blue patina with a violet-red tint. The richly pink flowers reach 35 mm in diameter; they may be singular or in clusters of three. The rounded cherry-colored fruits reach 15 mm in diameter. The species is resistant to drought and frost, it adapts well to city conditions, and it can also be grown on lime soil.
The flore flore form has more lightly colored terrycloth flowers that look spectacular against the foliage.
In addition to these species, gardeners grow such as: white, Bourbon, stinking, or yellow, Damascus, Daurian, Chinese, Kokand, Maximovich, multiflorum, moss, musk, Portland, hundred-leaved, apple, or hairy, Helena, and other types of rosehips.
Sort of rosehips, varieties that can be grown in cold winters
Heat properties of rosehips: harm and benefit
Heat properties of rosehips
Many species of rosehips have very high vitamin C in their fruit composition. Lemons have 50 times less vitamin C, blackcurrants have 10 times less, and conifers of fir, spruce, juniper, and pine have 60-70 times less compared to rosehips. Begger rose hips are the leaders in vitamin C content.
These fruits also contain vitamins B1, B2, B6, E, K, PP, carotene, tannins and coloring substances, malic and citric acids, sugars, phytoncides, essential oils, as well as potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, calcium, copper, chromium, cobalt, molybdenum and manganese. The flowers of this plant contain essential oil, organic acids, glycosides (bitterness and saponins), sugars, fatty oils, flavonoids, tannins, wax, ascorbic acid, anthocyanins (peonidin, cyanidin, peonin). The leader in terms of essential oil content is petals of rose hip wrinkle.
Hip hip oil has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and fixative effects. It activates regenerative processes in injured tissues and mucous membranes.
In this regard, it is widely used for cracks, dermatoses, trophic ulcers and abrasions. In addition to vitamin C in the leaves are catechins, flavonoids, tannins, phenolcarboxylic acids and their derivatives. Essential oil is found in the leaves of the blood-red rosehip, and the leaf plates of the May rosehip contain polysaccharides and carotenoids. The branches contain saponins, catechins, vitamin P, flavonoids, in the bark - sorbitol, in the roots - tannins, catechins, flavonoids, triterpenoids.
Fruits help improve metabolic processes in the body and purify the circulatory system.
They are recommended for anemia, scurvy and diseases of the kidneys, liver and bladder. They are used as a tonic, restorative, strengthens the body's resistance to infectious diseases and weaken the development of atherosclerosis. To prepare it, you must combine half a liter of water and 2 tablespoons of crushed fruits. Allow the mixture to simmer for a quarter of an hour over low heat. Then the decoction is well covered and in this form it should stand all night, in the morning it is filtered.
It is drunk during the day instead of tea, mixed with honey.
The decoction, prepared from fruits and roots, is characterized by a multivitamin, choleretic and mild diuretic effect, and it is also able to lower blood pressure. It helps to improve appetite and production of red blood cells, and strengthens the walls of blood vessels. Juice helps to normalize the kidneys, liver and stomach, improves resistance to infections, promotes metabolism and stimulates sexual activity, detoxifies the body, normalizes blood circulation, improves memory, eliminates pain in the head. The juice is a powerful antioxidant and also helps quench thirst quickly.
"Live Well!" rosehip - useful properties.
People with high blood pressure cannot use the alcoholic tincture of rosehip. At the same time, hypotensive people are contraindicated in the use of water infusions of rosehips. Do not use rosehips for people with impaired blood flow.
If the means made on the basis of rosehips are used for a very long time, it will have a negative effect on the liver, because they contribute to inhibition of bile secretion.
Decoction is contraindicated in chronic constipation. All remedies based on this plant are prohibited for people prone to thrombosis. Careful should be and heart patients, with endocarditis and other diseases, such means, taken in large quantities, contribute to the development of complications. In the presence of dermatological problems it is necessary to consult a doctor before using rosehip..