The annual or perennial herbaceous plant radish (Raphanus) is a not very large genus of the Cruciferous or Cabbage family. Under natural conditions it is found in temperate regions of Asia and Europe. As a vegetable plant radish began to be cultivated very long ago. Today, vegetable growers cultivate the species called radish sown (Raphanus sativus), which does not occur under natural conditions.
Brief description of cultivation
Early-ripening varieties are sown in open ground after April 25. Late varieties are sown in mid-June.
- Ground. Moist, nutritious loam with a lot of humus and neutral or slightly alkaline must be used. If the soil is acidic, this can be remedied by liming.
- Watering. Water the radish systematically. Water early-ripening varieties once every 7 days, while late-ripening ones 3 or 4 times during the whole vegetation period. The watering per 1 square meter of bed should take from 10 to 12 liters of water.
Fertilize early-ripening varieties only when necessary, using nitrogen fertilizers: first time during the unfolding of the cotyledons, and the second time 7 days after the first. Late maturing varieties should be fertilized once a week, for this purpose, alternately use a complex mineral and nitrogen fertilizer. Twenty days before harvesting it is necessary to stop all feeding.
- Propagation. By seeds.
- Pests. Cruciferous fleas, cabbage and vegetable moths, cabbage flies, cabbage moths and whiteflies, stem nematodes and wireworms.
- Diseases. Blacklegs, chiles, felt disease, powdery mildew, peronosporosis, white rot, and blemish.
Peculiarities of radish
The radish has a thickened root, but it can also be thin, like the oilseed variety.
The root, which is formed in the first year of growth, may be colored pink, green, black, white, red or purple, but the flesh is always white. The leaflets may be pinnately divided or entire with a large upper lobe and 2 to 6 pairs of lateral lobes. The flowers may be purple, pink or white. The inflated broad stalked fruits may be glabrous or covered with tough bristles.
This plant is cultivated for consumption at a time when the body lacks vitamins, such a vegetable helps stimulate the appetite, speed up metabolism and improve digestion.
It is also widely used in alternative medicine.
Black radish. From sowing to harvest.
Planting radishes in the open field
What time to plant
The radish is frost-resistant. Seedlings appear as early as 3 to 5 degrees.
Seedlings can tolerate temperature drops as low as 3 to 4 degrees. Mature bushes can withstand a cold snap to minus 5-6 degrees.
Seeding seeds into open soil in the summer or spring depending on the variety of plant. Early varieties are sown immediately after April 25th. And winter varieties are sown in mid-June.
This crop grows best in moist, nutritious loam with humus and should be slightly alkaline or neutral. If the soil is acidic, it should be limeed before planting radish.
Reddish is recommended to be grown in the neighborhood of turnips and radishes. Good predecessors are leguminous crops (peas, beans, soybeans, lentils, peanuts and beans), as well as cucumber, tomatoes, pumpkin, onions, lettuce, zucchini, patisson, dill, eggplant, corn and peppers. At the same time, experts advise, when planting radish predecessors to introduce organic matter into the soil.
Bad predecessors are horseradish, cabbage, watercress, turnips, carrots, beets, turnips, radishes and radishes.
Preparing the plot should be done in the fall. To begin with, the soil should be tilled to a not very deep depth. After a little time to remove the weeds that have emerged, the soil should be recultivated to the depth of the spade bayonet. At the same time 0,5 l of wood ashes and 1 bucket of humus or compost should be put in the soil per 1 m2 of the plot.
Seeds need pre-sowing preparation that is done just before planting. Seeds must be calibrated by size and weight by using a salt solution (50 grams of salt per 1 liter of water) and a sieve with 0.2 cm holes. The seeds remaining in the sieve must be washed very well with water, then they are placed for 24 hours in a solution of potassium permanganate (0.2 grams of the substance for 1 liter of water).
In the prepared beds you must make furrows 20 mm deep and 35 cm wide, putting 3 seeds in each furrow and keeping the distance of 80 mm between the furrows. The furrows are then filled with soil, which is well tamped. If the soil is too dry, you must water it after sowing is complete. The first seedlings may appear after 7 days.
sowing, timing, care, varieties
Planning winter radish varieties
Late radish varieties are sown in exactly the same way as the early ones (see above). But in this case the plot should not be prepared in autumn, but in spring, with a distance of about 15 centimeters between the nests.
Care of radish
The radish is very unpretentious, so it is quite easy to grow in the open soil. It should be given timely watering, weeding, feeding, thinning and loosening the soil surface. The first time seedlings should be thinned when they grow 1 or 2 true leaf plates, with the distance between them should not be less than 60-70 mm.
The seedlings should be thinned again 20-30 days after the first thinning.
The soil surface between the rows should be loosened 3 or 4 times during the season. The first loosening should be about 40 mm deep, the second about 80 mm, the third and fourth about 100-120 mm.
How to water
Russets sown in the spring need more frequent watering once every 7 days systematically. Varieties sown in summer need only 3 or 4 waterings during the season.
This crop is moisture-loving, so during irrigation 10 to 12 liters of water per square meter of bed should be taken.
It is important to consider that the radish should be watered regularly. For example, if it is abundantly watered after a long dry period, it will lead to cracking of the root crops. If the bushes will feel a lack of water, the fruits will become wooden and almost inedible. To reduce the number of waterings, it is recommended to cover the surface of the bed with a layer of mulch.
If it is necessary, early radish varieties should be fed 2 times. The first feeding is done after the seedlings have unfolded their cotyledons, and the second 7 days after the first. As spring cultivars ripen relatively quickly, only nitrogen fertilisers should be used, for example 0.2 per cent ammonium lime or sodium nitrate.
Late maturing cultivars should be fertilised systematically once every 7 days with a solution of total mineral fertiliser consisting of 10 litres of water, 20 grams of urea, 60 grams of superphosphate and 15 grams of calcium chloride.
10 liters of such a solution is enough for a row reaching 20 meters in length. The radish needs a lot of nitrogen, so it should be fed alternately with nitrogen and complex mineral fertilizers. When the harvest is 20 days away, you should stop all feeding. Such a crop should not be fed with manure, otherwise the root crops will grow branched.
Diseases and pests of radish with photos and names
The most common diseases of radish are affected by cyst, cabbage mosaic, felt disease, powdery mildew, peronosporosis, white rot, blackleg and whitefly.
Kila is a fungal disease, diseased plants show spherical or spindle-shaped growths on the root surface, which turn brown after a while and begin to rot. The bushes then become stunted and wilted.
Cabbage mosaic plants develop a pattern on their leaves, the veins become constricted and the plates become deformed. As the disease progresses, a dark green border is formed around the main veins, and necrotic whitish spots appear on the leaf surface.
Red carrots affected by red rot or felt disease have purple and brown spots on the surface of the roots, followed by dark-colored fungal sclerotia that form on these spots.
The disease develops most intensively at excessively high humidity and temperature.
Bushes affected by powdery mildew are covered with a whitish-gray coating, which changes its color to brown as the disease progresses. The affected leaf plates become deformed and wither, and the bushes become stunted.
False powdery mildew (peronosporosis) causes chlorotic spots to form on the front surface of leaves, as the disease progresses they turn yellow and oily, then turn brown. Later on the lower surface of the laminae, a foul violet coloration is formed under the spots.
If bushes are affected by blackfeet, the lower part of the leaf rosette and the upper part of the rootstock thin out, become soft and a fungus appears on their surface.
White rot causes the affected parts of the radish to become colorless and watery, with mycelium forming on their surface, which looks like absorbent cotton.
The ground parts of the bushy bushy bunches are as if covered with oil paint, after a while the affected tissues become brown and wither. Clusters of fungus spores appear on the leaves, they become crooked, and bloats appear on the surface.
This plant can be harmed by cruciferous flea, garden and cabbage moths, cabbage fly, cabbage whitefly, cabbage moth, wireworms and stem nematodes.
The cabbage flea
The cabbage flea is a very small leaf beetle that has back hopping legs like a grasshopper. This pest can decimate young radish seedlings by severely injuring their leaf plates.
Cabbage moth caterpillars
Cabbage moth and moth caterpillars gnaw out the pulp from the leaf plates. Cabbage fly larvae damage the fruit, causing it to rot. If nematode larvae feeding on plant sap settle on the bush, they become distorted and stunted.
The wireworms use both the fruit and the leaves of the plant as food.
Treatment of radishes
If the radish is infested with fungal diseases (e.g.: cotyledons, blight, rots, powdery mildew, blackleg and peronosporosis), it should be sprayed with a product containing copper, such as Bordeaux mixture, copper cauline or copper chloroxide. The plants should be treated strictly according to the instructions on the package of the preparation.
Mosaic is currently considered an incurable disease. The affected plants must be removed from the ground and destroyed as soon as possible, otherwise the neighboring bushes can also fall ill.
To get rid of pests, insecticidal preparations can be bought at the specialized store.
But to protect this crop from both pests and diseases, it is necessary to remember to treat the seeds and soil before sowing, and also to remember the rules of crop rotation and farming of this crop.
Harvesting and storage of radishes
Harvesting of spring radish root crops should be done in summer time.
This is done selectively after the fruit reaches 30-40 mm in cross-section. These varieties are not suitable for long-term storage, they are grown only for eating. They should be kept on the refrigerator shelf where they can be kept fresh for up to 20 days.
Root crops of winter radishes should be harvested in the fall. This is done from mid to late September, before the first frosts arrive.
Roots extracted from the soil should be removed from the soil remnants. Then tear off their small roots and carefully cut the haulm at the root crop itself, while trying not to traumatize it. Dried root crops should be placed in a cool and dark place for several days. Radish intended for storage in winter, should be placed in boxes with holes designed for ventilation, it should be interspersed with sand, like beets or carrots. The thickness of each of the layers of sand should be about 40 mm.
Very well such root crops are stored in a cold (about 2-3 degrees) cellar, the humidity in it should be about 90 percent. If done correctly, winter varieties of radish, such as Winter Round Black or Winter Round White, are able to stay fresh until spring.
Redberry types and varieties
The following varieties of sown radish are available:
- Redberry Black. This subspecies has inferior taste compared to the others, but it has the most potent and valuable medicinal properties.
- Daikon, or Japanese radish.
These large white root vegetables are up to 0.6 meter long and 10 to 15 centimeters across. These radishes are very tasty and healthy, and they are also unpretentious. In 100 grams of this radish contains about 40 percent of the daily norm of vitamin C. There is also a lot of beta-carotene, potassium, selenium, fiber, folic acid, iron and iodine in this variety.
The most popular varieties are: Sasha, Dragon, Dubinushka, Japanese white long.
- Oilseed radish. This moisture-loving annual variety is shade-tolerant, frost-resistant and yielding. Flowers are colored purple-white. It is recommended to sow this variety in June or July.
- Green Uzbek radish. This variety has almost the same usefulness as the black radish, but its taste is more pleasant and delicate. It is rich in carotene, vitamins, phytoncides, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, sulfur, calcium and essential oils.
- Margellan radish, either Chinese or loba. The shape of the dense and juicy fruits is elongated or rounded, but they store somewhat worse than European varieties.
This salad variety has varieties that are differentiated by color: they may be red, dark or pale green, pink or purple-lilac, but the tops of their heads are all bright green. These radishes do not have bitter or spicy flesh. The most popular varieties are Ladushka, Khozyayushka, Severyanka, Zarevo.
But only European varieties grow well in medium latitudes, the following will describe those that enjoy the greatest popularity. The following varieties are recommended for outdoor cultivation:
- Winter Round White.
This medium ripening variety is notable for its yield. The white fruits are oval-round or flat-round in shape and weigh about 0.4 kg. Its white flesh is firm and juicy, with a medium spicy taste. This variety is among the most popular; it is distinguished by its storability and yield.
Its very tasty fruits are flat-round or oval. It is a variety with powerful medicinal properties. Its juicy white flesh is slightly spicy. The variety matures in only 37 days. The white, oval-shaped fruits are only ½ submerged in the soil, so this radish variety is relatively easy to harvest.
Their flesh is very tasty.
- Gayvoronskaya. The medium maturity variety is characterized by its yield and excellent shelf life. The hard flesh is white and has a tangy taste. The cylindrical roots have a green head.
- Mayskaya. This early-ripening variety has smooth white fruits with an oval-conical shape and white, juicy flesh that tastes pleasantly semi-spicy.
- Green Goddess. This early variety has pale green, rounded fruits with crisp, juicy flesh and a mildly spicy taste. This variety has good shelf life.
- Help Fang. A medium maturing variety with good shelf-life and yield. The white fruits are about 25 centimeters long.
- Healer. This late variety has combined high medicinal and flavor qualities.
The smooth black roots have a rounded shape and the juicy, dense and crispy flesh is colored white. The variety is excellent for salads, and during storage the fruits remain firm for a long time and do not lose their qualities.
Also popular are such varieties as: Munich Beer, Czernavka, Negrityanka, Delicatessen, Odessa 5.
What types of radish are there, what to make from it, how to use its useful properties?