Primrose: Home Care, Replanting And Propagation, Species

The herbaceous primrose is part of the Primulaceae family. It is native to China. Primrose is quite widespread in culture, being grown both in the home and in the open ground.

This genus includes low-growing plants that do not exceed 25-30 centimeters in height. The wrinkled entire leaf plates with a surface pubescent with short tufts are assembled in a compact rosette.

As soon as snow melts in early spring, buds form on the tops of leafless stems, which may be as singular as they are part of umbrella-shaped or brush-shaped inflorescences. Each flower consists of 5 petals, which are fused at the base. Their color can be yellow, red or white. Flowering begins in the spring and lasts until December or January.

The majority of primrose species are perennials, which have a medium intensity of growth.

Annuals and biennials are less common.

Cultivation Summary

Primrose: home care, replanting and propagation, species

When growing a room primrose, special attention should be paid to light, temperature conditions, and humidity levels.

  1. Temperature Regime. 12 to 18 degrees, the room should not be warmer than 20 degrees.
  2. Humidity.

    If the temperature in the room is within normal limits, then a moderate humidity of air will suit the plant. But if the room is warmer than 18 degrees, then the humidity must be increased.

  3. Lightness. In summer it needs plenty of diffused bright light. During the winter months, the shrubs need extra light.

  4. Watering. A blooming bush is watered 2 or 3 times every 7 days. When flowering is over, watering is reduced to 1 or 2 times a week.
  5. Substrate. A well-drained, fertile soil mixture will do, which may be acidic or neutral.

  6. Fertilizer. Fertilizing is done 2 times a month, using liquid fertilizer.
  7. Transplanting. In the springtime, with the new pot being slightly larger than the old one.
  8. Propagation.

    Seed and vegetative methods.

Please note that the primrose should be in conditions that are as similar as possible to natural conditions throughout its growth period. When the shrub blooms, it begins its dormancy period, and there is a slowing of its development. In order to make the flower more vigorous, it is transplanted to the garden in spring and then moved to a heated room again in fall.

How to cultivate a house primrose

Home care of a primrose

Primrose: home care, replanting and propagation, species

Potting a primrose

Home cultivation is very important when planting a primrose.

How well it is done has a direct influence on the subsequent growth and development of the flower.

Before transplanting, you should prepare:

  1. A suitable container. It should be low, wide and medium sized. If the pot is very voluminous, the bush will begin to actively build up a system of roots, which will have a negative effect on flowering.
  2. Substrate.

    A ready-made soil mixture for flowering plants, sold in a specialized store, will do. You can also prepare it yourself by mixing greenhouse soil and leaf soil and also sand (1:1:1). Be sure to disinfect the substrate by sprinkling it with a solution of pink manganese potassium.

There is nothing difficult about planting a flower, the main thing is to remember the simple rules:

  • Be sure to make a drainage layer 15 to 20 mm thick at the bottom of the pot;
  • fill the drainage with substrate, without adding 10-15 mm to the top edge of the pot;
  • Middle of the pot make a small hole, the depth of which should be equal to the size of the plant root system;
  • Gently place the root system in the hole and cover it with potting soil so that the root neck is not submerged;
  • Slightly tamp down the substrate near the stem.

The planted bush needs plenty of watering.

You should put it in a well-lit and cool place.

How and what type of primrose needs to be planted for a fantastic bloom?

Flowering

Primrose: home care, replanting and propagation, species

Most primroses bloom very early, around April or May. Their flowering is rather long - from 8 to 12 weeks. But there are also some varieties that bloom only at the beginning of the spring period, for example, in April. At the same time, heat-loving varieties start blooming in June.

Temperature

In summer months the flower feels well at room temperature. And during the winter, when the plant is dormant, it is placed in a cool place. If the temperature regime is not observed, the primrose may not bloom.

Air Humidity

Primrose: home care, replanting and propagation, species

In room conditions, this culture is able to adapt quite quickly to any level of air humidity. But you should note that a prolonged presence of the plant in a room with a low air humidity significantly increases the risk of occurrence of spider mites.

It is therefore recommended that the air in the room be moderately humid.

To increase the air humidity in hot summer days and in the winter, when the heating devices are working, you should pour moistened moss or expanded clay pebbles into the tray. Instead of putting an open container full of water near the shrub.

Brightness

Even though this plant is a light-loving plant, it can be severely harmed by direct sunlight. This is why it is recommended to shade it from the sun during the summer months.

In winter the primrose needs direct sunlight and does not need shade.

Since this flower grows best in bright diffused light, it is recommended to choose a window sill oriented either west or east.

Pouring

Primrose: home care, replanting and propagation, species

Home primrose needs systematic moistening of the substrate. The frequency and abundance of watering depends directly upon the stage of the growing season and the temperature of the air in the room, viz:

  • wetting the substrate during flowering is done immediately after its surface has dried to a depth of 10 to 15 mm;
  • when the bush has bloomed, watering should be moderate;
  • In the winter months, when the flower is dormant, watering the soil mixture infrequently, as soon as its surface has dried to a depth of 30mm;
  • if the room is warm (20°C), then the watering should be more abundant and frequent, but the liquid must not stagnate either in the substrate or in the pan.

Water only with soft water (either filtered or well drained).

Make sure that the water does not get on the surface of the buds and the leaf plates.

Fertilizer

Fertilizer is not given during the growing season. Only at the very end of flowering do fertilizers begin to be applied to the substrate. Fertilizing is carried out once every 1-1.5 weeks, with the best solution of mineral complex fertilizer, which includes not less than 0.

1 percent ammonium nitrate. If the plant reacts negatively to the fertilizer, for example, starts to wilt, then the concentration of the nutrient solution should be reduced by a third.

Potting the primrose

Primrose: home care, replanting and propagation, species

The house primrose needs to be replanted. The age of the shrub affects the regularity of this procedure, for example:

  1. Transplanting a young plant systematically once a year in the springtime. Take the bush out of the pot and completely remove the substrate from the roots.

    Plant it in fresh potting soil and the new pot should be slightly larger than the old pot.

  2. Bush that is more than three years old should be transplanted once every 2 or 3 years. And only if the bush has grown noticeably in size should the old pot be changed into a bigger one.

It can happen that the plant needs to be replanted urgently. It should only be done when:

  • The root system is very crowded in the pot and is peeping out of the holes in the bottom of the pot;
  • The potting soil is clogged or stagnant;
  • The roots are rotten and the shrub wilts.

Pot transplanted primrose should be watered and shaded from the sun for 3-5 days. You can tell that the bush is rooted by its foliage: it will regain its turgor and its color will become rich again.

Primulas. Dividing. Repotting.

Trimming

Trimming is not necessary for this indoor plant. But the flowers and leaf plates that have begun to fade should be cut off in time. This ensures that the primrose will not waste energy developing them, and it will also help protect it from pests and diseases.

Propagation methods

Grafting

Primrose: home care, replanting and propagation, species

It is easy and fast to propagate the house primrose by cuttings. Cuttings are taken in May when the plant is in bloom.

To do this, cut off an axillary leaf with a bud and part of the stem at the base of the leaf rosette. Such a piece and will act as a cuttings. For rooting, use a low container filled with a two-layer potting soil mixture:

  • Lower layer 20-25mm of leaf or peat soil;
  • Upper layer 20mm river coarse sand.

Place cuttings with bud upwards at an angle, sinking 10mm into the substrate. The cuttings are then placed in a cool (16 to 18 degrees), well-lit area, making sure they are always moderately moist.

When 3 or 4 young leaf plates have grown on the cuttings, transplant them into a separate container that reaches 7-9 centimeters across. For planting, use a soil mixture consisting of humus, deciduous soil and sand (2:4:1). A bush grown from a cuttings will first flower in about 6 months.

Growing from seed

Primrose: home care, replanting and propagation, species

Seeds bought at a specialized store or gathered with your own hands are used for primrose propagation. Spring is a good time to sow primrose seeds, in April or May to be exact.

Take a small box or a container and fill it with foliage-sandy substrate. About 0.5 grams of seed per container will suffice. Moisten the substrate and sow the seeds so that they are evenly distributed on its surface. Cover the top of the pot with transparent material that allows air in.

Put it in a place with good light, such as a window. The first seedlings should appear after 10-12 days.

As the plants grow, they are pickled 2 times and then put into small individual pots (diameter 70 to 90 mm). A substrate consisting of sand, greenhouse soil and foliage soil (1:2:2) is used. After the roots become cramped in the pot, carry out transplantation of bushes by the method of transplanting into larger containers.

These primroses will flower for the first time six months after sowing.

How to grow primroses from seed

Possible problems

Primrose: home care, replanting and propagation, species

Most often, the room primrose if the plant is not properly tended or not given optimal growing conditions. For example:

  1. Yellowing of the leaves. Room humidity is low, liquid is stagnant in the substrate, hard water is used to moisten the soil mixture, or the bush was fed a highly concentrated nutrient solution.
  2. Leaf rot appears.

    Water regularly gets on the foliage during watering or there is stagnation of moisture in the substrate with high humidity for a long time.

  3. Flower wilting. Room has excessively low humidity and high air temperature (greater than 20 degrees).
  4. Lack of flowering. The bush has been kept warm (more than 20 degrees) during wintering.

Weakened by poor care, the bush can be easily affected by a fungal disease:

  1. Mottling. Plants with a thickened leaf rosette that are over-watered most often become diseased. The diseased shrub has grayish spots on the surface of leaves and peduncles, which become covered with plaque after some time.
  2. Ramulariosis. Primulas that are in a cool room and regularly have moisture stagnating in the substrate are susceptible to its development.

    At first, yellowish, roundish spots appear on the leaves of a diseased plant. Over time, they become darker, and rot appears. This causes the whole leaf plate to die off and causes the whole shrub to die.

To save a primrose affected by fungal disease, all diseased parts must be cut back and the shrub treated with Topsin or Fundozol. Several treatments will be needed.

Pests such as: Scythe, weevil, aphids, thrips and spider mites can settle on the plant. As long as there are few pests, you can get rid of them with folk remedies. Otherwise a treatment with an insecticide solution will be necessary.

Primrose species with photos

There are about 500 species of primrose. However, not all species are cultivated in the home.

Primula obconica, or obconica (Primula obconica)

Primrose: home care, replanting and propagation, species

This herbaceous perennial plant reaches about 0.6 m in height. The heart-shaped, rough leaf plates reach about 10 cm in length, they have a wavy edge and a long petiole. The foliage is gathered in a dense rosette. During flowering an umbrella-shaped inflorescence appears, which consists of flowers of various colors, reaching 30 to 40 mm across.

They have a pleasant, subtle scent.

Primula malacoides, or mallow-like (Primula malacoides)

Primrose: home care, replanting and propagation, species

This annual is about 0.4-0.45 m tall. The elongate-oval leaf plates with serrated edges are assembled in an elastic, dense rosette.

The beginning of flowering is at the end of November. At this time, about 8 long flower stalks can form on the shrub, with whorls of tiered inflorescences forming on the tops. They are made up of about 45 small flowers, up to 15 mm across. The color of the flowers may be red, pink or white, and they are often decorated with dashes, speckles or a yellow midrib.

Primula vulgaris

Primrose: home care, replanting and propagation, species

The species has many hybrids.

They are distinguished by a lush leaf rosette consisting of wrinkled leaves of an elongate-oval shape. In the central part of each leaf plate, the pinnate veining is clearly distinguishable. Flowering occurs in early spring for 20-30 days. At the tops of relatively short peduncles large single flowers are formed, varying in diameter from 20 to 40 mm. They may be painted in purplish-blue, yellow, snow-white, red or burgundy.

This species is the most common in culture, and can be grown both in the home and in the garden.

Beneficial properties

Primrose: home care, replanting and propagation, species

In alternative medicine, primrose is quite widespread, with every part of this useful plant being used:

  • decoctions prepared from the foliage are useful for respiratory diseases;
  • the roots are used to prepare an infusion, which has a mild sweat and diuretic and expectorant action, in addition to this it helps to increase the metabolic rate and improve stomach function;
  • the inflorescences are used to prepare a tea that strengthens the nervous system.

The young leaves of this plant are used for cooking soups and salads while the dried, crushed roots are used as a spice.

Tips for taking care of the room primrose

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