Pepper: Cultivation And Care In The Open Field, Sowing In Seedlings

The herbaceous annual pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a member of the genus Capsicum of the Solanaceae family. This crop is widely cultivated in agriculture. Pepper is native to Central America, on the territory of Europe this vegetable was in the 15th century and, despite the fact that this culture is a demanding and heat-loving, it has gained enormous popularity among gardeners in a short time. Today there are about 2 thousand varieties of chillies, most of them belonging to the subspecies of sweet pepper, and the rest - to the subspecies of bitter pepper. Below we will talk about sweet peppers.

Pepper characteristics

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

Sweet peppers, also called bell peppers, are an annual vegetable crop, in natural conditions this plant is a perennial shrub. The petiolate, simple leaves are either singular or arranged in a rosette. The color of the foliage depends on the variety and species, and comes in various shades of green. The large axillary flowers are either singular or in bunches; the corolla is purple, white or pale green. The fruit is a hollow, false multiseeded berry of varied weight, shape and size and can be orange, red, yellow or brown.

Growing peppers from A to Z / Pepper seedlings / Growing peppers outdoors

Growing peppers from seed

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

Sowing

Bulgarian peppers are most often grown through seedlings in middle latitudes. Depending on the climatic conditions, the sowing time may vary, but in all cases the seeds should be sown no later than the first days of March.

Seeds of such a crop must be prepared before sowing. First they are immersed in slightly hot (about 50 degrees) water to swell, where they should stay for 5 to 6 hours, then they are placed in a moistened cloth and removed to a warm place (about 20 degrees), there they should stay for 2-3 days. The seeds that have become puffed up can be sown into the substrate.

Such sowing material gives sprouts much faster unprepared, so, usually seedlings appear after two or three days after sowing them into the soil mixture.

To prepare the substrate for sowing, you can prepare it yourself, for this you need to combine 1 t of sand, 2 t of garden humus, 1 t of garden soil, 1-2 tbsp of wood ash, all should be well mixed and then disinfected. Soil mixture for this purpose is heated in the microwave or oven and in the hot form laid out in containers. Smooth the surface of the substrate and wait until it cools to 40-45 degrees then in the containers need to evenly distribute the seeds, keeping the distance between them at 50 mm. In the substrate they need to deepen only 15-20 mm.

However, experts recommend using peat pots for sowing, because this culture reacts negatively to picking. When the sowing is finished, the substrate in the pots should be well moistened, and covered with glass or plastic and then transferred into a warm place (about 21 to 22 degrees).

Sprouting care

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

Take care of seedlings of this plant just like seedlings of any other crop. After the first sprouts appear, the peppers need the following temperature regime: 10 to 15 degrees at night and 26 to 28 degrees during the day. Provide plants such a regime of watering that the substrate in the containers was constantly moderately moist, remember that the stagnation of water in the soil mixture is the cause of black leg.

You should also not allow the soil mixture to dry out. For watering, you should use well-distilled warm water (about 30 degrees). If you use cold water for this purpose, the plants will wither, get sick and eventually die.

Perry plants need high air humidity, so it is recommended to humidify systematically from a sprinkler. In addition, the room where the peppers are should be systematically aired, but be sure to protect the seedlings from draughts.

Another thing to consider is that such plants need a long daylight hours (from 7 am to 9 pm), so if necessary, they need additional lighting.

Sow pepper seeds using proven methods

Spring sprouts

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

Sprouting is done when the first pair of true leaves have formed. Pepper plants grown in peat pots do not need to be dug. A need to dip the seedlings that are growing in a common container, for this use separate peat pots of size 8x8 cm, when planting seedlings in the substrate, they need to deepen the cotyledon leaves. The acclimatized seedlings should begin to grow and develop actively.

Before you start transplanting peppers into open soil, they must necessarily harden. To do this, the plants should be moved outdoors every day, and the duration of this procedure should be increased gradually. Remember that during hardening the plants should not be exposed to draughts and should be protected from frosts (the air temperature should not be less than 13 degrees).

When growing seedlings, they should be fertilized at least two times before transplanting them to the bed. The first feeding is done half a month after picking or when the plants have the first pair of true leaves.

The second feeding carried out 15 days after the first or during the formation of the seedlings of the second pair of true leaf plates. It is recommended to feed peppers with liquid fertilizers. The best way to fertilize your seedlings is with Rastorin, Fertica Lux, Agricola or Krepush.

Growing peppers on a windowsill

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

Bulgarian peppers can be grown on your windowsill, but for this you should prepare: self-pollinating seeds, a phytolamp, a suitable soil mixture, and a place with at least 3-4 hours of sunlight per day. After the bushes in pots begin to flower, it is advisable to shake them well 1 time a day, this contributes to a more successful fruit setting.

A large number of fruits growing on a bush, taking a lot of strength of the plant, so you need to select only 5 or 6 ovaries, and cut off the remaining ones.

Bultivated in a pot fruit crops contribute to the rapid depletion of the substrate, so such bushes should be regularly fertilized. This should be done once every 15-20 days by watering the soil mixture with a Grow solution (1 capful of the preparation per 2 liters of water) or by adding 1 tsp. of Agrolife to the top layer of the soil mixture.

Perennials grown on a windowsill are perennials, therefore it is recommended to add fresh biohumus to the pot once every two months (as long as the volume of the pot allows) or when necessary replant the plant into a larger container.

For the bush to grow and fruit well, every year in the spring it needs not very much rejuvenating pruning. If done correctly, one plant will bear fruit for several years.

๐Ÿ…๐Ÿ…๐Ÿ…Simple way to grow peppers on the window !

Pepper planting outdoors

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

What time to plant

When the pepper seedlings are strong and growing up, they need to be hardened. It is planted outdoors during the formation of the first buds, after the air outside has warmed to 15-17 degrees. As a rule, planting seedlings in the open soil is carried out from the last days of May to the second half of June.

Ground for peppers

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

For this plant, non-acidic light soil is suitable. Prepare the site for planting about 12 months before the day of planting. In this case, you can grow crops that are good precursors for pepper, such as zucchini, onion, cider, cucumber, carrot or pumpkin. And on the site, where previously grew solanaceous crops, such as potatoes, peppers, eggplant, tomatoes or physalis, sweet peppers can not grow. For planting peppers in the spring time 1 year before under the predecessors in the soil during the digging should be made 5 kilograms of organic fertilizer per 1 square meter of land.

In the autumn, when the harvest will be harvested, the plot is recultivated, with 50 grams of potassium and phosphorus fertilizer per 1 square meter.

In the year of planting pepper seedlings in the spring, 40 grams of ammonium nitrate per 1 square meter in the top layer of soil is made. When 5 days are left before transplanting the seedlings into the open soil, the plot should be soaked with a disinfecting solution, prepared by combining 10 l of water with 1 tbsp. of copper sulfate.

Planting rules

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

The distance between the holes in the bed should be 0.

4 to 0.5 m, with a row spacing of about 0.6 m. The depth of the planting hole should be such that after planting the plant, its root neck is at the same level with the surface of the plot. In each hole should be poured 1 tbsp.

full mineral fertilizer, which should contain potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus. The fertilizer should be well mixed with the soil at the bottom of the planting hole.

Perts grown in peat pots should be immersed in the hole together with the container. When growing seedlings in a box, the plant is carefully pulled out of it, while trying to keep the lump of soil intact, then it is placed in the planting hole. The hole should be filled with a nutrient mixture by ยฝ.

Planted peppers need abundant watering, with 10 liters of water per 3 bushes. After the water is completely absorbed into the soil, the hole should be filled to the top with soil. It is recommended to cover the surface of the plot with a layer of mulch (peat). If the outside temperature is below 13 degrees at night, you will need to cover the transplanted seedlings in the open ground.

Seeding peppers in the open ground / what to add to the hole when planting!!!

Growing peppers in the greenhouse

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

There are some peppers that are meant to be grown in the open ground but others that can only be grown in a greenhouse such as: Arnes, Accord, Alenushka, Vesper, Bonus, Atlant, Pinocchio, Orange Wonder, Tenderness, Swallow, Nochka etc.

The seeds are sown in seedlings to begin with. Growing plants should be hardened on a terrace or balcony, and then they should be transplanted into the greenhouse. How to sow the seeds and grow seedlings, described above. Landing seedlings in greenhouse soil is carried out after the height of the plants reached 25 centimeters, and their age should be at least 55 days. Also plants should form a thick green stem and 12-14 leaf plates, and in the leaf axils should already be formed buds.

Peppers can be planted in a non-heated greenhouse only after the soil there has warmed up to at least 15 degrees. That is why most often the time of planting is approximately in the second half of May.

Before planting seedlings in greenhouse soil, it is necessary to make fertilizers: 40 grams of phosphorus and 30 grams of potassium fertilizers per 1 square meter of area. Then the soil should be well watered. Depending on the variety, the following distance between bushes should be observed: for low-growing early varieties - about 15 centimeters, for medium-growing ones - about 25 centimeters, and for high-growing ones - not less than 35 centimeters.

The width of the row spacing can vary from 0.35 to 0.6 m. When the seedlings are planted, the soil in the holes should be tamped down and the surface should be covered with a layer of mulch (peat).

GROWING THE PERCERTA GROWTH into the greenhouse!

Gardening of peppers

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

To cultivate sweet peppers in the open soil you should water, feed, tie in time as well as regularly loosen the soil surface and remove the weeds.

To make the bushes give more fruits, it is recommended to tear off the central flower from the first branch. Also the plant will be more productive if it is formed in 2 or 3 stems, and to do this, you need to cut off unnecessary stems (side shoots) in time. Shrubs can be shaped only in humid and sultry weather. At the same time, you should consider that on one bush should not leave more than 20-25 fruits. When growing high-growing varieties, a peg is placed near each bush during planting, to which the plant is tied, if necessary.

Peppers are pollinated by insect pollinators, which, if necessary, can be attracted to the site. To do this, the plants should be treated with boron-sugar syrup from a sprayer, for its preparation you need to dissolve 100 grams of sugar and 2 grams of boric acid in 1 liter of hot water. You should also take into account that when the pepper blossoms, it should not be treated with poisonous chemical preparations, as this can lead to the death of insect pollinators.

How to water

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

The peppers planted in open soil may look sluggish at first, but there is nothing wrong with that. The main thing at this time is to avoid water stagnation in the soil as this can cause the bushes to suffer severely.

Before the bushes bloom, they will need infrequent watering (once every 7 days). During the formation of the fruits, the amount of watering should be increased to 2 times every 7 days, with 6 liters of water per square meter of area. When the peppers are watered, the surface of the soil around them should be very carefully loosened, while trying not to traumatize their surface root system.

Pour such a culture with well calmed warm water from a watering can by sprinkling method. If the pepper lacks water, it may result in stunted growth as well as the dropping of ovaries and flowers.

To reduce the amount of watering, the soil surface should be covered with a layer of mulch (decomposed straw) about 10 cm thick.

Fertilizer

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

For growing peppers in open soil you should fertilize them twice with a solution of chicken manure (1:10). The bushes will also need foliar feeding, using a solution of nitrophoska (1 tbsp. of the substance per 10 liters of water).

If peppers lack potassium, their foliage curls and a dry border appears around the edges, but remember that it is prohibited to feed them with potassium chloride, because this crop reacts extremely negatively to chlorine.

If there is little nitrogen in the soil, the leaf plates become dull, then acquire a grayish hue and their shallowness is observed. And when the soil is saturated with nitrogen, the bushes have shrivelled flowers and ovaries. If there is little phosphorus in the soil, then the underside surface of the leaves is colored bright purple, and the plates themselves are lifted up and pressed to the stems. A lack of magnesium can result in marbled foliage. Examine the bushes regularly and as soon as you see signs that the plant is lacking some element, feed it with the proper fertilizer.

SWEAR THIS FOR FAST GROWTH AND BETTER YEAR! !!

Treatment

When the fruits are ripening, it is not recommended to use chemicals to control various diseases because the harmful substances contained in them can accumulate in peppers. If this culture is cared for correctly and observing all agro-technical rules, there is a high probability that the bushes will not get sick at all, and various pests will not settle on them. But if problems do occur, all necessary measures must be taken in time.

Diseases and pests of pepper with photos and names

Diseases

Bulgarian pepper can be affected by: verticillosis (wilt), bronchiness (spot wilt), phytoplasmosis, fusarium, phytophthorosis, apical and grey rot, blacklegs.

Verticillosis

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

Verticillosis is a fungal disease having three forms: green, brown, and dwarf.

However, each of these forms manifests itself differently. Since treatment with chemicals is best avoided, it is advisable to follow the necessary preventive measures: in the autumn time, you must clean the area from plant debris that must be burned, and cultivars with resistance to the disease should be selected for cultivation.

Phytoplasmosis

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

If the shrubs are affected by phytoplasmosis (Stolbur), rotting of the root system occurs, dwarfism develops, the fruits become small and tasteless and thin-walled, curling, hardening and yellowing of the leaves occurs, and eventually the plant dies. The vectors of this disease are cicadas. To get rid of phytoplasmosis, bushes should be sprayed with a solution of Acara at the time of planting in open soil and 20 days after, at this stage of plant development does not harm pesticides.

In addition, the soil surface should be systematically loosened and all weeds removed in good time.

Fusarium

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

When pepper is infected with a fungal disease such as fusarium, its yellowing is observed, namely, the leaves change their color to a poisonous yellow. Sick bushes should be dug up and burned, the rest of the plants should be very well cared for by moderate watering in the morning, and all weeds should be dug out in time. A plot that is infected with phytophthorosis pathogens cannot be used to grow sweet peppers for at least 1 year.

Phytophthorosis

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

A fairly common fungal disease is phytophthorosis, which affects tomatoes and peppers.

Diseased bushes develop hard spots on the surface of the fruit that take over the pulp. Such bushes should be sprayed with a solution of Zaslon, Oksihom or Barrier, but only before the bushes flower. Note that hybrid varieties are more resistant to diseases.

Black leg

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

Black leg usually affects pepper seedlings. Bushes are attacked at the root part of the stem, the development of this disease is promoted by excessively dense sowing and failure to meet the rules of seedling cultivation, namely keeping in high humidity and substrate.

As the disease develops, the stem becomes soft and the plant dies. To prevent this fungal disease, seedlings should not be allowed to overgrow, it is necessary to carry out their picking in a timely manner, as well as maintain the necessary level of humidity in the greenhouse. If the affected plants will be noticed, they should be immediately pulled out and burned, the substrate surface should be loosened, dried and covered with wood ash. Seedlings should then be treated with Zaslon solution (three capsules of Zaslon per liter of water).

Heat rot

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

Heat rot develops because the plants do not have enough moisture.

Affected peppers have deep or glossy black spots on fruit surface. In some cases, the disease begins because the soil contains too much calcium and nitrogen. Affected bushes should be destroyed and the remaining bushes should be treated with calcium nitrate.

Gray rot

Perts can be affected by gray rot at any stage of development. The diseased bush has rotten spots and a moldy, gray-colored coating.

As a rule, the active development of such a disease is observed in damp weather. Affected parts of the bush, as well as fruits need to be destroyed, then the peppers are treated with a fungicidal drug. But this is only if the plants are not very badly affected.

Spotted wilt

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

Peppers can also develop spotted wilt or bronzing, in which case brown spots appear on the leaf plates, which eventually turn purple or bronze. Most of these necrotic spots appear along the central vein of the leaf blades.

Over time, the top of the bush will wither, and the fruit will become covered with circular spots of brown, green or yellowish color around the stalk. To save the crop, pluck all mature fruits and stop all watering. To cure the infested shrubs, they should be sprayed with Fondazole, but you must not forget the damage fungicides do to adult shrubs.

Pests

Spider mites, slugs, aphids or wireworms may settle on the shrubs of this plant.

Worms

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

For peppers to be kept safe from slugs, the surface of the plot should be covered with a layer of bitter pepper, nutshells or mustard powder.

You can also make traps for this purpose in a few places on the site to put pots filled with dark beer, they will attract pests that will remain only to collect and destroy. You should also remember that on hot days it is necessary to loosen the soil surface between the rows to a depth of 40 to 50 mm.

Wormflies

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

Wormflies are the larvae of the click beetle. They live in the soil for 5 years and gnaw on the roots of bushes. To get rid of such a pest, in the fall time it is necessary to make its recultivation, and in the spring, before planting pepper sprouts on it, it is necessary to make several baits.

To do this, you should bury pieces of sweet root crops in different places on the plot, and do not forget to put marks on these areas. Such baits are good to attract wireworms. Once every two or three days, dig up the root vegetables and collect the pests which are then destroyed.

Spider mites

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

Spider mites settle on peppers during the dry season, settling on the underside of the leaf plates and feeding on the cell sap. To get rid of the mite you can use specially designed for this insecticide preparations, but the best way to use a remedy prepared your own hands, for this purpose, pour 1 tbsp.

finely chopped onion or garlic into 1 bucket of water, and add 1 tbsp. dishwashing liquid or liquid soap, and also finely chopped dandelion leaves. Once the mixture is infused it should be used to treat pepper bushes.

Aphids

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

To kill aphids you should use a special infusion to spray peppers by combining 1 bucket of hot water and 1 tbsp of tobacco dust or wood ash. Plants can also be sprayed with Keltan or Karbofos, which are quick-breaking insecticides, prepared by combining a bucket of water with 1 tbsp.

๐Ÿ”ฅ Diseases and Pests of Sweet and Hot Pepper

Gathering and Storage of Pepper

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

Pepper has 2 types of ripeness, namely technical and biological (physiological). When the fruits are technically ripe, they are usually colored in different shades of color from greenish-white to dark green. At the stage of biological maturity the fruits are red, purple, yellow or brown and should be eaten or preserved as soon as possible after harvesting as they spoil very quickly. If the fruits are harvested when they are technically mature, they can be kept fresh for up to eight weeks in optimal conditions. There is a difference of 3 to 4 weeks between technical and biological ripeness.

To decide if you are ready to pick the pepper, just press it lightly and if you hear it crack then it can be picked. Experienced gardeners carry out the harvesting of peppers at the same time as the harvesting of tomatoes and eggplants. As a rule, the first fruits begin to be harvested in the first half of August. Harvesting can continue until frost. Usually ripe fruits are plucked once every 5 to 7 days.

Peppers cut with a peduncle are much better preserved. Throughout the growing season, the fruits are harvested 3 to 5 times. Before frosts, you need to collect the entire harvest. Sort the fruits according to size and maturity and leave them to ripen.

Before storing peppers, the stalk should be shortened and the length of the remaining length should be 10 to 15 mm.

Only fully healthy thick-walled peppers with no mechanical damage on the surface can be stored. Thin-walled peppers should be stored in the refrigerator. For storing varieties with juicy walls, you can use polyethylene bags with a thickness of at least 120 microns very well if they have a membrane with perforations on the side wall. For better preservation, each pepper should be wrapped in a paper sheet.

Fruit can be stored in not very deep crates in 1 or 2 rows, in a basket or on a shelf in the basement where the humidity should be 80 to 90% and the temperature 8 to 10 degrees.

These fruits are characterized by the fact that very quickly absorb other smells, so make sure that in the store did not have anything decaying or moldy. If you do it right, they can keep their freshness for 6 to 8 weeks. You can also store the peppers in the refrigerator, where at 9 to 10 degrees they will keep for about 4 weeks. You can also remove the testes from well-washed peppers, then stack the fruits one inside the other and store them in the freezer. Peppers not suitable for storage can be used for processing, such as making fragrant winter salads, marinades, or borscht dressings.

134. varieties of Pepper. Many Peppers from a single bush.

Pepper Varieties and Types

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

I have mentioned above that vegetable peppers are divided into bitter and sweet. Sweet peppers have the following varieties:

  • Bulgarian peppers;
  • cone-shaped vegetable peppers;
  • bell-shaped vegetable peppers;
  • tomato-shaped vegetable peppers;
  • cylindrical vegetable peppers.

Also all sweet bell pepper varieties are divided into greenhouse varieties, open field varieties and container varieties (grown on a window sill or balcony and regularly bearing fruit).

Grades are also categorized according to their maturity:

  • early-ripening ones ripen in 80-100 days (varieties - Zdorovye, Dobrynia Nikitich, Belosnezhku, Swallow; hybrids - Atlantic, Orange Wonder, Montero, Cardinal, Denis);
  • mediately maturing varieties reach maturity in 115-130 days (varieties - Prometheus, Ilya Muromets, Korenovsky, Belozerka; hybrids - Maxim and Vitamin);
  • late maturing varieties ripen in 140 days or longer (popular variety Golden Medal and hybrid Nochka).

It should be remembered that seeds collected from fruits of hybrid varieties cannot retain the varietal characteristics of the parent plant. This is why seeds of hybrid varieties must be purchased annually. The advantage of hybrids is that they are high yielding, characterized by very large and tasty fruits, and high resistance to disease.

Also all varieties are divided by shape and size of the fruit, and this should be considered when choosing seed. The fact is that thick-walled large fruits, whose shape is spherical or oval, are good for stuffing, while for cooking salads it is recommended to use thin-walled varieties with not very large peppers. The shape of the fruit is divided into cube-shaped, oval, cylindrical, elongated, cone-shaped and spherical. There are also peppers with a knobby or smooth surface.

And more varieties are distinguished by the color of peppers at biological maturity:

  • Red peppers in varieties - Alyosha Popovich, Red Elephant, Swallow, Ilya Muromets, Winnie the Pooh and hybrids - Zaria, Latino and Red Baron;
  • Yellow peppers in varieties - Katusha, Yellow Bunch and hybrids - Raisa, Isabella, Indalo.

It is also interesting to know that the hybrid Maxim has purple fruits at technical ripeness and dark red at biological ripeness. The Cardinal hybrid peppers have purple color; the Bonus variety can have fruits in various shades from dark red to ivory; the Chanterelle hybrid and the Apricot Favorite variety have deep orange fruits.

The most popular varieties:

Thick Baron

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

This early variety has cub-shaped red fruits with a sweet taste. They weigh about 0.3 kg.

The globular bush is 0.5 to 0.6 m tall and can grow 8 or 9 fruits.

Red Shovel

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

The bush is about 0.7 m tall and can grow up to 15 sweet red peppers, they weigh about 150 grams and are about 0.

8 cm thick.

Californian Miracle

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

This medium-early variety has been known for a very long time; it matures in about 75 days from the time the seedlings are transplanted into open soil. The bush reaches a height of 0.8 m. Its thick-walled fruits are red and weigh about 250 grams.

Yellow Bell

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

This variety is the earliest and most disease-resistant of all; it takes only 65-70 days to mature. The bushes grow to a height of 0.7-0.8 m and the golden yellow, cube-shaped peppers may reach 12 centimeters in height and cross-section, with walls 0.8 to 1 cm thick.

Hybrid Oriental Star Series

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

The mass of thick-walled fruits is 150-350 grams; most varieties are early maturing. Fruits can have red-white, chocolate, white or golden coloration.

Tevere

Pepper: cultivation and care in the open field, sowing in seedlings

A medium maturity hybrid. The yellow sweet fruits are thick-walled and weigh about 0.3kg.

The most successful sweet bell pepper varieties!

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