Peach: Planting And Care, Pruning And Grafting, Diseases And Pests, Varieties

The peach plant (Prunus persica) belongs to the almond subgenus of the pink family. To date, there is no exact data as to where the plant originated. It is known that under natural conditions David's peach occurs in Northern China, it is a wild form of the common peach. This crop is grown in regions with warm climates, with China being the leader in industrial peach cultivation.

Peculiarities of peach

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

The peach has a root system close to the surface of the plot at a depth of 0.

2-0.5 meters. Such plants average a height of 4 meters, with a crown diameter of 6 meters. The lanceolate leaf plates have a finely serrated edge. The flowers are almost sessile and are either red or pink.

They open in the second half of April before the leaves appear. Because of this, from a distance the peach tree covered with flowers is very similar to a sakura tree. As a rule, the fruit is velvety and can be rounded, flat or elongated elliptical in shape with a groove on one side. The furrowed, wrinkled seedling has a pointed apex.

After the tree is planted, it will begin to bear fruit in two to four years.

The duration of the fruiting period is 10 to 15 years. The peach is among the most delicious fruits along with orange and mango, it has a refreshing taste and a very subtle odor. Relatives of the peach are the following fruit trees: almond (differing only in fruit), apricot, fig, quince, chokeberry, plum, mountain ash, hawthorn, rose hips, dogwood, apple, pear and medlar.

Peach growing technology / From planting a seedling to harvesting

Peach planting in the open field

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

What time to plant

The climate of your region has a strong influence on choosing the right time to plant peaches in the open field. In more southern regions it is recommended to plant in autumn.

In more northern regions planting this culture is recommended to do in the spring, because over the spring and summer the plant has time to take root well and start growing. In the middle zone this procedure can be carried out both in spring and autumn, but experienced gardeners prefer the autumn planting.

The site for planting should be well lit, located in the southern part of the garden on a hill and have protection from strong gusts of wind. Make sure the seedling cannot be shaded by other large trees, buildings or bushes. The minimum distance between a peach and any other plant should be 300 cm.

A site where alfalfa, strawberries, strawberries, clover, melons and nightshades have been grown before is not suitable for planting such a tree, because there is a high probability of its infection with verticillosis. Such areas will not be suitable for planting peaches until 3 or 4 years later.

Peach planting in spring

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

Preparing the planting pit should be done as early as possible. Because the earlier the pit is prepared, the better the soil will be. The preparation of the pit for spring planting should be done in autumn about 6 months before planting day.

The size of the pit directly depends on the size of the seedling root system, on average its depth and diameter are 0,5-0,7 m. A strong and sufficiently long peg should be placed in the center of the bottom of the pit, it should be at least 50 cm above the surface of the ground.

If the soil on the plot is poor, the topsoil should be discarded separately when digging the pit. It is combined with humus, decomposed manure or compost, and take 5 to 8 kg, also add 50 grams of potassium chloride and superphosphate, and another 200 to 300 grams of wood ash. If the soil on the plot is nutritious, then it should be poured only wood ash and mineral fertilizers.

This soil mixture should be poured into the center of the pit to create a mound.

Seeing a peach seedling, try to find out from the seller whether it is adapted to your region or not. Examine the grafting site; it should be smooth and not bumpy. Also take a good look at the sapling's root system and bark; these should be perfectly healthy. Break off a small piece of bark and check the color of its underside, if it is green, the seedling is alive, but a brown color may mean that the plant is dead.

The root system should not be dry or rotten. It is advisable to choose annual seedlings for planting because they take root very well in open soil.

The seedling should be placed on a mound, poured into the center of the bottom of the hole. Once the roots are carefully spread out, the hole should be filled with soil. Make sure that after planting the place of grafting is a few centimeters above the surface of the ground.

The rooting circle should be tilled in the direction from the edges to the seedling. After that, 20-30 liters of water should be poured into the resulting hole. After the liquid is completely absorbed into the soil, and the soil settles, it will be necessary to make tying the plant to the peg, as well as mulching the root circle, for this purpose it is covered with a thick layer of manure (8 to 10 centimeters). At the same time, note that the trunk of the plant should not come into contact with the manure.

Peach planting in autumn

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

For peach planting in autumn, the pit is prepared in 15-20 days, and the soil should be combined only with wood ash and mineral fertilizers.

The resulting nutritious soil mixture should be poured in a mound around the peg, installed in the center of the bottom of the pit. The further order of planting the plant is exactly the same as in the spring. The planted peach should be high (to a height of 0.2 to 0.3 m).

Before severe frosts, the trunk of the tree should be covered with sacking, with a few holes made in it on the south side for ventilation.

How to plant a young peach. Planting peach seedlings

Care for peach

Care for peach in spring

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

The peach tree begins to be cared for in mid April. First, the plant should be sprayed on the swelling buds against aphids, fruit moths, and other pests. After that, it is treated with a bordeaux mixture (3%) to kill fungi.

Pruning for replacement should be carried out on the pink bud, at the same time the plant is sprayed against fungus with a product that can replace the bordeaux mixture. The fact is that products containing copper should not be used during the growing season to treat trees.

When the plant is in bloom, it will need a combined spraying against diseases and pests.

If there has been little snow during the winter and rain in the spring, the tree will need to be liberally watered in May.

Care for the peach in summer

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

When the shedding of excess ovary is finished, you should begin to distribute the load of fruit to the plant.

Remember that each fruiting shoot should have 1 ovary per 8-10 centimetre length. The excess ovaries should be plucked out. The surface of the rootstock should be systematically loosened and weeded. In summertime, peaches should be watered regularly, especially if there is prolonged hot weather. But do not start watering until the pit has hardened, otherwise there is a good chance that the fruit will crack.

Systematically inspect the tree and, if necessary, spray against pests and diseases.

Experienced gardeners advise to make 2 or 3 foliar feeding before the harvest, using potassium fertilizer for this purpose. This will increase the amount of sugar in the fruit. Such feeding can be combined with spraying the plant against powdery mildew and pests. No later than 4 weeks before the fruit harvest, the tree should be watered.

In this case, the fruit will become about 1/3 larger.

Care for the peach in autumn

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

In August-September, flower buds are laid and formed. Keep in mind that their frost resistance depends on how much moisture is in the soil at this time. Therefore it is very important to water in this period.

In the case of your plant being frequently affected by fungal diseases, it should be sprayed with a bordeaux mixture (3%) around October when the leaves will start to change color.

When all leaves fall off the tree should be treated with solution of urea (7%) or copper sulfate (1%).

Also in autumn time mineral fertilizers and organic fertilizers should be put into the soil in the root zone. These will nourish the peach until spring.

Peach watering

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

The number of waterings throughout the growing season is greatly influenced by weather conditions. On average, late maturing varieties are watered 5 or 6 times, and early maturing ones 2 or 3 times throughout the season.

A single plant is watered with 20-50 liters of water per watering session. Peaches should be watered very early in the morning or in the evening. The first watering is in early June. But if there was little snow in winter and rain in spring, you will have to water the peach in the last days of May. The second time the tree will need to be watered is from early to mid-July.

Then it will be watered from the beginning to the middle of August. When watering, try to make sure that the soil is soaked to the depth of the root system (about 0.6-0.7 m).

For the fruits to be larger, it is necessary to water the peach 20-30 days before the harvest.

In this case, they will have time to gain mass. When watering, you should take 3-6 buckets of water per square meter, depending on the age of the plant. Remember that you can then water the peach only after harvesting the fruits, otherwise they will be watery and not as sweet.

Also, special attention should be paid to watering in the winter, which improves the frost resistance of the plant. Nine to ten buckets of water per square metre of bedding should be applied.

Peach tree fertilisation

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

Fertilise the peach tree every year. The amount and composition of the fertilizer depends directly on the quality of the soil on the plot. For example, if the soil is poor, both organic and mineral fertilizers should be applied every year. If the soil is nutritious, then organic fertilizer should be applied to it once every 2 or 3 years. If the tree is watered relatively often, the amount of fertilizer added to the soil should be increased, because during the irrigation can be washed away.

In spring, before the buds swell peach can be sprayed with a solution of urea (7%). This preparation will not only be a source of nitrogen for the plant but will also exterminate all pests and pathogens that have settled for wintering in the bark and also in the upper layer of the root zone. Remember that such a treatment should not be carried out if the buds have begun to open, as they can be burned. If you were late in spraying the bush with urea, you have to recultivate the root stock, adding 50 grams of urea and 70 grams of ammonium nitrate to the soil under the young tree on the basis of 1 square metre of the root stock. As the plant matures, the amount of fertilizer per unit area should be gradually increased.

So, once every 2 or 3 years you must increase the dosage of each fertilizer by 15-20 grams.

Summer peach should be fertilized with foliar application. During growth and ripening of the fruits experienced gardeners recommend the following nutrient mixture: 1 bucket of water takes from 30 to 50 grams of urea or 50 to 60 grams of ammonium nitrate, 100-150 grams of water extraction of superphosphate, 50-70 grams of sulfate or 30-60 grams of potassium chloride, 50-80 grams of sulfate ammonium, 10 grams of borax and 15 grams of manganese. If the fruit is nearing the end of ripening, borax and nitrogen-containing fertilizer need not be added to this nutrient mixture.

Fruit ripening is done by foliar feeding with a solution of potassium sulfate or potassium salt (30 grams of substance per 1 bucket of water).

This will increase fruit sugars and color intensity.

In autumn the root zone is ploughed over, adding 50 grams of calcium chloride and 40 grams of superphosphate per square metre. Once every 2 or 3 years in the autumn time in the soil should be added organic matter (compost or humus). This fertilization can be replaced by growing such items as green manure (e.g.

, colza grass, rape, oil radish, or lupine) between the rows.

Wintering Peach

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

This crop is heat loving and therefore must be covered for the winter. Two stakes should be driven into the immediate vicinity of the trunk, reaching up to the height of the plant's trunk. Then, both the stakes and the trunk should be wrapped in a bag from under the sugar. This construction can be replaced by a cardboard box, which is installed around the trunk, it is wrapped in film.

If the winters in your region are mild enough, you can do with the dip of the plant's trunk to a height of 0,5-0,6 m. In winter, the surface of the root crop circle should be covered with a layer of mulch (humus or peat), the thickness of which should be 10 to 15 centimeters.

Winter coverings with spunbond (lutrasil) for protection against frost and freezing.

Peach tree pruning

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

Time to prune

The time interval of 15-20 days between the beginning of sap production and the beginning of flowering is recommended. If you want the tree to go through the trimming process fairly easily, it should be done from the time the pink buds start to blossom, which is about 7 days.

At this time, the risk of infecting the peach with cytosporosis is minimal. When all the fruits have been harvested from the tree, sanitary pruning should be carried out.

The tree will need to be shaped from the first year of growth. The crown will not be fully formed until 4 years later. Is crown formation pruning really necessary? Primarily this procedure helps to regulate the balance between the root system and the crown.

It also promotes the health of the plant. It also makes the peach bear fruit earlier than usual and is easier and more convenient to pick.

How to prune a peach

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

Trimping varies for different ages of peach trees. Generally, the crown is given a bowl shape. For this purpose, after the seedling is planted in the open ground, its conductor should be cut at a height of 0.

6-0.7 m. The branch that is located above all others, the angle of departure should be wide. Look for 2 more branches, which should be just below and at the same angle. All 3 branches should be shortened to 10 centimeters on the outer buds.

The remaining shoots, which are placed on the conductor and stem, should be trimmed immediately after budding.

It is very important that the optimum slope is maintained on the skeletal branches of the second year's plants. Cut back to 0.6-0.7 m.

Powerful lower and upper branches should be cut out, and side branches should be thinned. The remaining branches should be shortened by 2 buds.

In a third year old plant, two of the strongest second-order branches should be found on the upper skeletal branch; they should be shortened to 0.6 m from the main branch bifurcation. The part of the conductor above the upper branch should be removed.

All strong growth should be cut off from the lower and upper sides of the skeletal branches. Annual shoots which have reached 0.8 m in length should be pruned back by a couple of buds to encourage the formation of a fruiting link. Shorten the lower shoot to half a metre. Branches located on branches that were shortened last season by 2 buds and growing upwards should be shortened for fruiting, with the lower ones cut by 2 buds.

Next season, they will be used to form fruit links.

In a fourth year old tree, find a pair of successful third-order branches on the second-order branches of the skeletal branches and cut them back to 1/3 of their original length. Complete the formation of the fruiting links on the second-order branches. Thin out the third-order branches and shorten some of them by 2 buds, but use the remaining branches as fruiting non-permanent branches, so do not cut them back. Cut out all of the non-bearing parts of the first-order fruit links.

Cut back the branches which were severely shortened in the previous season to 2 buds which are underneath. To stimulate future fruiting, 7 or 8 groups of buds should be pruned on the upper branches.

PERSICK. PRUNING THE PEACH. Detailed review.

Peach pruning in spring

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

The formative pruning described above is done in springtime. This will result in a bowl-shaped crown, making it easier to care for the tree and also making it easier to pick the fruit. This culture also needs sanitary pruning. For this purpose, all branches and stems injured, damaged by frost or disease should be cut out. Always use a garden varnish on these cuts.

Peach tree trimming in autumn

In autumn the peach should be prepared for overwintering. Carefully cut off all withered, injured, old and disease-damaged fruit branches as well as those that grow inside the crown and contribute to overgrowth. Only fully healthy branches and stems should remain on the plant that will bear fruit in the coming season. In autumn, no crown formation is done.

In summer, a fruiting tree should only be pruned if absolutely necessary.

Peach multiplication

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

The crop can be multiplied by seeds, cuttings and grafting. Only specialists in fruit-growing farms deal with propagation from cuttings, because it is extremely difficult for an ordinary fruit-grower to establish the conditions necessary for rooting:

The seed propagation of peaches has several significant disadvantages. For example, a seedling does not always retain all the varietal characteristics of the parent plant. To find quality peach seeds is difficult, those fruits that are sold in the market or in the supermarket are undesirable for this purpose, besides, they rarely meet the necessary requirements. A peach fruit from a tree growing in your area would be optimal.

The method of propagation by grafting is also not ideal. It is difficult to find and buy the right scion, but you can grow it yourself, but it will take at least a year. For the scion and scion to become fused, their tissues must be compatible. You should also follow the instructions strictly, because even a small mistake can lead to a disastrous result.

Peach propagation by seed

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

Growing peach from seed has both disadvantages and undoubted advantages:

  • longevity of seed-grown rootstock peaches is twice as long as that of grafted plants;
  • these plants are more drought- and frost-resistant, as well as resistant to gum disease and other diseases;
  • it happens that rootstock trees have better characteristics than the parent plants.

First of all, the most suitable site must be found for the peach. In doing so, consider that the distance between the future seedling and any other shrub, tree or building should be at least 300-400 cm. It should be well lit and reliably protected from cold winds in winter. Winter sowing is preferable. The seeds should be sown in October or November so that they can undergo natural stratification during the winter months.

Before sowing, the pips should be dried in a shady place. After they have been gently opened, the kernels should be removed. A trench should be made on a site selected in advance, into which nutritious loose soil should be poured. In this trench should be planted excavated kernels, the distance between them should be 25 to 30 centimeters, and deepen them into the soil to 50-60 mm. At the very end, embed the seeds and water the plot.

Seedlings may not show for quite a long time. The fact is that in the beginning the seedling forms a root, and only then a sprout. In this regard, you should always use very loose and soft soil for backfilling the trench. At first, the seedlings need daily watering. After the seedlings will appear in the spring, they will need fertilization with a weak solution of humus.

Their leaves should also be sprayed with a solution of Tiovit or Ridomil, but note that it should be very weak.

Sprouts need three transplants. Once the plant should have 8 to 10 true leaf laminae it should be lifted out of the soil with the root ball. The central root of the plant should be neatly cut back about 60mm below the root neck. After that the plant is planted in the same place, the soil around it should be well tamped.

Then the seedlings are watered.

When the plants are 0.9-1 m high they should be transplanted a second time. This should be done in the spring before the sap starts to flow. Plants should be dug around the perimeter, departing from the trunk 0,25-0,3 m.

Then the peaches are pulled out together with a root ball and replanted by swapping them with each other.

Hardened and grown up seedlings should be replanted a third time already in a permanent place.

Growing peaches from a seedpot from A to Z. Part 1. How to sprout a peach pit.

Grafting Peach

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

This crop is not well resistant to frost, but it is drought tolerant. For grafting peach varieties, it is advisable to choose one of the following rootstocks: plum, quince, apricot or almond seedlings. Whichever one you choose, the rules are the same. First, prepare a cuttings of the peach variety you want, then graft it onto a one- or two-year old seedling (scion).

The cuttings are prepared in deep autumn before frost sets in.

They can be stored directly in the garden or stored in the cellar. From above, cuttings are covered with any warm material, which is covered with a thick (about 20 centimeters) layer of sawdust. After it gets warmer outside, the cuttings should be placed in the refrigerator on the vegetable shelf. The grafting procedure itself should be carried out in the spring and the sap movement should be awaited.

A peach seedling that has been grown from a stone, or a bud of the crops listed above, can be used as a scion.

The thickness of the scion should not be less than 15 mm. The scion is shortened to the desired height, while inspecting the bark, it should be smooth and without buds. Which method of grafting is most suitable in a particular case depends directly on the thickness of the scion and scion, or rather, whether they coincide or not. Possible grafting methods: cuttings, buds or split grafting.

Peach grafting by cuttings.

(Italy).

Diseases of the peach

The peach is distinguished by the fact that it can contract a countless number of very different diseases. Only those that are the most common and also quite dangerous to the crop will be described in detail below.

Clusterosporiosis

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

Clusterosporiosis - This very dangerous disease is a fungus, to which the nectarine is also prone. This disease affects all parts of the plant that are above the ground.

Pale brown discoloration with a raspberry or crimson border appears on the surface of the leaf blades. With time, the tissue inside the spots dries out, then dies out and falls off. As a result, holes appear on the leaves, which is why this disease is also called hole-in-the-head spot. In annual seedlings, varnished orange-colored spots appear on the bark covering young shoots, spreading out along the fibers. The bark itself is cracked, and gum leaks from the cracks that appear.

The affected shoots die off and the tree begins to wither.

Leaf Curl

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

The most dangerous disease of this crop is leaf curl. It often occurs when the spring period is long and wet. On the surface of the leaf plates of infected plants bloats of pale red color are formed, it becomes wavy, uneven. The swellings gradually swell, and a white coating appears on the underside of the leaves.

The leaves turn brown and fall off. The stems gradually become bare, resembling a lion's tail, because a bundle of leaves remains at the tips instead of the tips. The shoots become distorted, thickened and yellowed. If no measures are taken to control the disease, the tree will be retarded and die.

Brushy mildew

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

If a white felt-like growth has developed on the underside of the leaf plates, on the fruit and on the top of the stems of the current season, it means the peach is affected by powdery mildew.

Deformation, stunting and partial stem death can be observed. The first signs of powdery mildew on the plant can be seen from the last days of April to the second half of May. During the hottest time in mid-summer, this disease reaches its maximum development.

Moniliosis

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

It is quite common for peach trees to become ill with stone fruit moniliosis. Affected specimens show desiccation of stems and individual branches, and the fruits develop dark-colored spots that gradually increase in size.

The flesh color of the diseased fruit changes to brown, and rotten peaches shrivel up and dry out. An infected fruit can infect healthy fruit with the disease.

Treatment of peach

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

To treat the plant against Klasterosporiosis, the first spraying should be done before the buds swell (necessarily before they open) and either Meteor or copper chloride is used. The plant is then sprayed before and after flowering, using Topsin M or Horus (follow the enclosed instructions). In spring, before the peach blossoms, cut off all infested stems and branches, treating the cut areas with a solution of lime (8%) with a solution of copper or iron sulfate (2%).

The cut areas should then be treated with a garden varnish.

Meteor or copper chloroxide should be sprayed on the curlew infested tree. This spraying should be done after the harvest has been completed and the leaves have started to fall off. The same treatment should be carried out in early spring and at the beginning of the appearance of rose buds, and instead of these products containing copper, you can take Horus or Skor with the addition of Delan. Infested stems and foliage should be cut out and destroyed before sporulation begins.

To protect the tree from powdery mildew, it should be sprayed with Topsin M, Vectra, Topaz, Skor or Strobi at the end of flowering. As a preventative measure, trim and destroy infested stems in spring and fall, and collect and burn all fallen fruits and fallen leaves. The soil in the root zone should be re-cultivated.

A moniliosis-infected plant will require three treatments. Before the plant flowers in the pink bud phase, it should be sprayed with Chorus.

The second treatment is Topaz at the end of flowering. The third treatment is made half a month after the second spraying, and Topsin is used for this purpose. Infested areas should be cut out and burned.

This crop also suffers quite often from coccomycosis, scab, fruit rot or grey rot, cytosporosis, milky blight, gum disease, verticillosis, homose or fungal blight.

Peach pests

All stone fruit crops have pests in common.

However, there are pests that are only harmful to peaches. Those pests that most often settle on the peach tree will be described below.

The plum moth

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

The plum moth and the oriental moth are small butterflies. They need the peach to feed their young, and they also hide in it for the winter. Their caterpillars eat the young shoots of the plant, while the adults eat the fruit bones.

In winter, such pests hide in cracks in the bark or under the leaves in the root zone, and they overwinter in cocoons. To destroy the moth, the plant needs to be sprayed 3 times with an interval between treatments of half a month. Insecticides such as Metaphos, Durban, Chlorophos and Carbophos are used.

Aphids

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

Aphids can settle on any crop and feed on plant sap. This sucking pest contributes to the weakening of the plant's immune system.

The products of this insect almost always harbor a sooty fungus that coats the stems and leaf plates of the tree with a dark-colored plaque. You should also be aware that aphids are the main vector of incurable viral diseases. In this regard, as soon as such insects are found on the plant, you should immediately take all necessary measures to eradicate them. Green peach (greenhouse), black peach and large peach aphids can settle on a given crop. If there are very few aphids, they can be removed mechanically, then the affected areas should be thoroughly washed with a soapy solution.

If the plant is heavily infested, it can be sprayed with Aktellik, Karbofos or another agent of similar action. If necessary, spray again in 1.5-2 weeks. About 15 to 20 days before harvesting, all spraying should be discontinued.

Mite

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

Mite is capable of damaging any ground part of peach.

Within 24 hours after a scab sucks on a tree, red spots are formed on fruit and bark surfaces. The pests settle on the upper parts of shoots, on skeletal branches and bark and contribute to plant exhaustion. As a result of the activity of scabs, peach tree bark cracks and dies, growth shrinks, fruits become small and deformed, and leaves fall off prematurely. To kill such pests, the plant should be sprayed with Aktara, Inta-vir, Actellic, Bancol or Mospilan (follow the instructions enclosed with the product). Onion water or pepper tincture is also quite often used, but such folk remedies are not very effective.

Striped moth

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

The striped moth is also a particular danger to the plant. The caterpillars of this pest gnaw into young shoots and buds and eat their cores, causing them to wither and die. If caterpillars damage fruits near the stalk, they begin to ooze gum. One caterpillar can cause damage to 3-5 shoots. To get rid of moths, spray the tree with Chlorophos, Carbophos or Zolon during the bud opening period.

Examine the plant regularly and cut out and destroy diseased shoots.

Peach tree is also often infested by weevils, fruit and minnie moths, mites and other pests.

Diseases and pests of peach

Peach varieties with description

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

Subspecies of peach

The peach is divided into several subspecies:

  1. Peach Common. A description of this subspecies can be found at the beginning of this article.
  2. Peach (or almond) Potanin.

    This stunted plant is about 200 cm tall. The bark is pale red and the flowers are large, pink or white. The shape of the fruit is rounded, with an elongated pit. Fruits are inedible. In natural conditions, this species can be found only in China.

    It is not cultivated by gardeners because its fruit is not edible.

  3. David's Peach. Such a tree reaches 300 cm in height. The small fruits have a dry pericarp and a sparse flesh of sweet and sour taste. Because of this, this subspecies is usually cultivated as an ornamental plant.

  4. Gasuan Peach. Occurs in natural conditions only in the territory of China. This medium-grown plant is 300 to 400 cm tall. When the tree is covered with small white or pink flowers it looks extremely impressive. The small light yellow fruits are round in shape.

    The white flesh is comparatively tough and has a rather poor flavor. This subspecies is very often used in the breeding of valuable varieties of the common peach. The fact is that it is able to endow the peach with resistance to frost and disease.

  5. Peach of the World. This subspecies is an oriental.

    The height of this tall wild plant can reach up to 8 meters. The shape of the fruit is spherical and has low taste qualities. Not cultivated by gardeners.

  6. Nectarine. Has many similarities to the peach.

    The most important difference between a nectarine and a peach is that the fruit is covered with a slippery, smooth skin. They can be colored white, yellow or reddish-yellow. The juicy yellow flesh is less sweet than that of the peach. However, the seeds in the nectarine seeds are very sweet and can be used as almond kernels if desired.

  7. The Fergana Peach, or Fig.

    Such a plant is singled out as a separate subspecies by only some scientists. The tree can reach a height of about 5 meters. The crown is broadly spreading. This subspecies is not related to figs. The flattened, rounded fruits have a sunken top.

    The dense, slightly powdery skin is greenish-yellow. The fibrous pale yellow flesh is very fragrant and sweet. The stone is relatively small. This subspecies is resistant to bud and bud blight.

Peach varieties

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

Today there are many varieties of the common peach.

They differ from each other in size, taste, shape, odor, color and texture of flesh and peel.

Fruits are divided into 4 classes according to appearance:

  • real peaches--the skin of the fruit is velvety, the pit separates well from the pulp;
  • pavia--the skin is velvety, the pit does not separate from the pulp;
  • nectarines--the skin is bare, the pit separates well from the pulp;
  • brunions--the skin is bare, the pit does not separate from the pulp.

Varieties are also divided by color of fruit:

  • green, such as: Grisboro, Juicy;
  • red, for example: Suncrest, Harmony, Krasnodarets;
  • yellow, for example: Memory of Rodionov, Sunny, Donetsk Yellow, Glo Haven and Bogun.

The best nectarine varieties include: Ornate, Pink Princess, Autumn Blush, Rilance, Skiff, Lola. The best frost-resistant nectarine varieties are Skif, Krasnodarec, Fodor, Favorite 1 and Favorite 2.

Peach varieties are also divided by ripening time into early-ripening, mid-ripening and late-ripening.

Early peach varieties

The most popular early-ripening peach varieties are:

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

  1. Morettini. This ultra-early early-fruiting variety, created by breeders in Italy, is self-pollinating. It bears fruit 2 or 3 years after planting in the open field. Up to 30 kilograms of fruit per plant.

    Average size fruits weigh about 115 grams. On the surface of the rich yellow skin has gentle pubescence. On 60 per cent of the surface of the fruit is a red blush in the form of dots and spots of bright red. The fragrant juicy flesh with delicate fibers is creamy yellow in color. The medium sized pit is quite difficult to separate from the pulp.

  2. Barbed. This medium-growing variety is notable for its yield. The fruits are large and medium sized weighing about 140 grams. They are deep yellow in color, have a rounded shape and a carmine blush that covers almost the entire fruit. There is faint suede pubescence on the surface of the skin.

    The yellow-golden flesh with delicate fibers is very juicy and tasty. The pit, which does not separate well from the flesh, is small in size. This Ukrainian early maturing variety is very productive and frost hardy, and undemanding in its growing conditions. The pale yellow medium-sized fruits of elongate-round shape weigh about 100 grams, in some cases they may be covered with bright blush. The juicy and tasty flesh is colored white-green.

  3. Redhaven. This variety is resistant to mottling and cold. The large yellow-orange fruits have spots and specks of red on the surface and weigh about 150 grams. The tender yellow flesh is very fragrant. Failure to maintain the growing season will result in the tree being attacked by fungus diseases easily.

    This variety is characterized by yield and resistance to frost, curl and powdery mildew. The yellow-red fruits have pubescence on the surface and weigh about 150 grams. The flesh is sweet with a pleasant acidity. Such plants need good care: need frequent watering, feeding and timely pruning.

The following varieties are also quite popular: Forest-steppe early, Juicy, Fluffy early, Memory of Rodionov, Greensboro, Novoselovsky, May flower, Arp, Early Rivers, Domestic, Excellent, Red Bird Kling, etc.

Medium peach varieties

The most popular medium-ripening varieties:

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

  1. Veteran. This Canadian variety is high yielding and frost-resistant. The yellow rounded fruits are lightly fluffed, they weigh about 130 grams and most of their surface is covered with red blush. The medium-fleshy, juicy flesh is yellow in color and has a sweet and sour taste. The flesh is well separated from the stone.

    The plant is mildew-resistant.

  2. Peace Ambassador436>. A self-fertile variety, distinguished by its yield and frost resistance. The carmine yellow fruits are very large, they weigh about 220 grams. The fibrous yellow flesh is juicy and tasty.

    It is quite difficult to separate it from the seed. The ripening of the fruit is observed in the middle of August.

  3. Nectarin Krasnodarets. Rounded small fruits weigh about 50 grams and have an almost imperceptible seam. They are yellow in color and have a rich red blush, presented in the form of stripes and dots.

    The smooth skin has no pubescence. The tasty juicy yellow flesh has tender fibers.

  4. Soviet. This variety is zoned for the southern regions of Ukraine. The shape of the fruit is oval-obtuse, a little compressed from the sides, they weigh about 170 grams.

    Yellow medium velvety skin has a blush carmine color. The medium-fibered, fragrant, very juicy flesh is yellow in color. The medium sized pit separates well from it.

  5. Druzhba. This frost-resistant variety was obtained using Chinese material.

    The fruit is rounded and has a ribbed ventral seam and weighs 140-250 grams. There is slight pubescence on the surface of the supple tender skin and it is yellow-cream colored and has a red blush consisting of strokes and dots. The sweet creamy white very juicy flesh separates well from the stone.

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

Such varieties as White Swan, Golden Jubilee, Champion, Dakota, Toskan Kling, Double Mountain, New Harvest, Beautiful, Pineapple Nectarine, Salami, etc. are also quite popular.

Late varieties of peach

Late varieties compared to early and medium varieties are very few. But since this crop is heat-loving, there is nothing strange about that. The most popular late-ripening varieties:

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

  1. Jaminate. This variety has a high yield. The elongated fruits are slightly squashed on the sides.

    They are colored a deep yellow with marbled redness. The very juicy and sweet medium flesh has a deep orange color and subtle acidity. The flesh can easily be separated from the seed.

  2. Irganai late. This cold-resistant variety can be easily affected by curlew or klasterosporiosis.

    The rounded fruit weighs about 160 grams. There is suede down and beautiful red speckles on the deep yellow skin. The delicately fibrous sweet flesh is orange-yellow in color. The small pit can easily be separated from the pulp.

  3. Kremlin.

    This variety, notable for its productivity, is zoned for the southern regions of Ukraine and the Crimea. Fruits are rounded in shape and weigh about 200 grams. Most of the orange-yellow skin with soft pubescence is marbled maroon-carmine blush. The medium juicy and dense, fragrant yellow-orange flesh is very tasty. The pit is not very large and easily separates from the pulp.

  4. Zolotaya Moskva. This variety is characterized by high yield and resistance to frost. The rich yellow fruits weigh about 180 grams, and most of the skin surface is covered with a blurred red blush. The velvety down on the skin is relatively weak. The fragrant, dense, medium juicy yellow flesh easily separates from the seed.

  5. Turist. Average hardiness variety zoned specifically for the southern part of Ukraine and the Crimea. The broadly rounded fruits weigh about 200 grams; they have a creamy-greenish color and a fuzzy burgundy blush that may cover about half of the skin surface with a slight suede down. The medium-dense, fibrous white-green flesh is fragrant, juicy and sweet, with slight acidity. The flesh easily comes off the large pit.

Peach: planting and care, pruning and grafting, diseases and pests, varieties

Late varieties such as Aydinov oblong, Champion late, Hudistav late yellow, Geokchai late, October, etc. are cultivated quite often.

Self agronomist - Tasting peaches

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