Passiflora is also called "Cavalier Star" or "Passionflower". It is directly related to the family Passiflora, which counts 400-500 species of different plants. They can be found in tropical regions of America (Peru and Brazil), in Australia, Asia and also in the Mediterranean. One species of Passiflora can be seen in Madagascar. Passiflora is formed from the Latin words "passio" - suffering and "flos" - flower.
The first missionaries to South America named the flower that way, because they thought it was a symbol of the suffering of Jesus Christ. The second name "passionflower" is also related:
The night the blood of Christ poured out
(People have a legend about it)-
It first bloomed in the shadow of the cross
and therefore is called passionflower.
Brief description of cultivation
- Flowering. From July to October.
- Light exposure.Bright sunlight (southern window sill).
- Temperature.In growing season, no higher than 30˚C, during dormancy, 12-14˚C.
- Watering. Regular, without waiting for soil to dry.
- Humidity. Elevated, with evening spraying and weekly showers recommended during the hot season.
- Feeding.From February to September once every two weeks with alternating organic and mineral fertilizers. From April to September foliar feedings have a good effect.
The plant does not need any fertilizer during the dormant period.
- Dormant period. From October to the end of January.
- Trimming.After the plant reaches three years of age, the second last year shoots are shortened by a third in spring, the resulting root shoots are cut out in summer, and after flowering the bald, too long and weak shoots are removed, and the normal ones are shortened by three quarters.
- Gartering.The plant needs a secure support, to which the shoots are tied before they begin to turn woody.
- Transplanting. In early spring after pruning: young plants are transplanted annually, adults once every 2-3 years.
- Propagation.Green cuttings and seeds.
- Pests.Aphids, spider mites, thrips, whiteflies and mealybugs.
- Diseases. Root rot, phytophthora, fusarium, scab, bacterial, brown and ring spot, yellow mosaic virus.
How to be friends with Passiflora | Passion Flower in your home | Passiflora
Description of Passiflora
This flower can be either a herbaceous plant or an evergreen climbing shrub. It is an annual or perennial plant that has single-trunked shoots. The simple dark green leaves can be entire or lobed. Rather large, star-shaped, brightly colored axillary flowers grow on long pedicels. The diameter of such a very showy flower is 10 centimeters.
Such a flower has exactly 5 petals (according to the number of wounds of Christ), the same number of sepals, there are fairly large bracts, and in the center there is an ovary with 3 stigmas. Around these ovaries, there are exactly 5 stamens with anthers of fairly large size. Most species have very fragrant flowers, but they fade relatively quickly. Typically, flowering is observed in July and October. After flowering, fruit is formed, reaching 6 centimeters in length.
In most species, these fruits are edible. This plant is very fast growing and not capricious, so it is quite popular among florists who grow it as an ampelina.
Home care for passiflora
This plant just needs good light exposure. Therefore, it is recommended to place it on a window sill facing south. During the warm season, it should be moved (if possible) to fresh air.
The fact is that passiflora grows and develops poorly in a room with stuffy stale air. However, you should not forget that the plant reacts negatively to draughts or sudden temperature changes.
Passiflora negatively reacts to excessive heat. So, in the summertime, try to keep the room temperature under 30 degrees. In winter the plant has a dormant period, during which it should be moved to a place where the temperature will not exceed 10-14 degrees.
How to water
The plant should be watered systematically and you should not wait for the soil to dry out. However, the excess liquid that has flowed into the tray must always be drained.
Humidity must be increased. It requires daily evening moistening with a sprinkler and a warm shower once a week (only during the hot summer months), being very careful not to damage the fragile shoots.
It should be pruned annually.
This stimulates the growth of both the bush itself and the new branches. In the springtime, last year's secondary stems should be cut back by 1/3, since flowers only appear on the young shoots. Also during the summer, you should remove the shoots that grow at the base of the plant. When the passiflora blooms, long, balding secondary stems that spoil the appearance of the bush should be trimmed. The remaining stems should be trimmed to ¾ of their length.
The shrubs should be cut back after the plant has reached the age of 3 years.
From February to September, the plant should be regularly fertilized twice a month. Organic and mineral fertilizers are used for this purpose and fertilized alternately. Fertilizers should be applied only after preliminary moistening of the substrate. Fertilizer should choose a ratio of elements N-P-K = 10-5-20.
It is recommended once every 1.5 months from April to September to foliar feed the flower. Do not fertilize if the flower is ill, during its resting period or after moving it to a location with unfamiliar conditions.
For a long and abundant blooming period, the plant simply needs a resting period. Put the pot in a cool, well-lit place such as an insulated loggia or porch.
During this period it is not necessary to illuminate, fertilize or moisturize the flower. Water should be sparing and infrequent. Do not worry if a few leaves fall off as this is quite normal. If it is impossible to provide the plant with a cool winter, it is not moved anywhere and care for it, as in the warm season. However, in this case, the foliage will most likely turn yellow and begin to die off, and this is quite a natural process.
You should provide sufficiently strong support for the shoots of this plant. The stems should be regularly directed in the direction you want them to go. This must be done in good time because the fast growing shoots become woody at a comparatively high rate and the many leaves, buds and flowers make them very heavy and clumsy. This procedure should be done at the beginning of the spring period and all stems of the previous year should be cut out beforehand. A container for planting should not be too large, which will ensure a long and abundant flowering.
Otherwise, only the green mass will grow strongly. A suitable soil mixture consists of equal shares of leaf, sod and peat soil, as well as sand. Transplant by transplanting, taking care not to destroy the root ball.
Diseases and pests
Aphids, mealybugs, spider mites, thrips or whiteflies may settle on this plant. All insects other than mealybugs can be controlled with products such as Fytoverm, Actellic or Aktar.
Mealybugs can be eliminated by means with cypermethrin, such as Imperator, Arrivo or Inta-vir.
Passiflora is prone to various diseases, so it can be infected by: ring, bacterial or brown spot disease, phytophthora, scab, root rot, fusarium or yellow mosaic virus. It is almost impossible to cure plants from these diseases. Because of this, experts recommend destroying it together with the container in which it was growing, so as not to allow the infection of other flowers.
Mankind has long been aware of the medicinal properties of this plant.
The Incas, for example, used to prepare a tea with passiflora which had a strong sedative effect. Passiflora can also be used for its sedative effects on the body, making sleep better and longer, without causing discomfort upon awakening.
Even though the plant has not only a sedative effect, it also relieves cramps and spasms, reduces inflammation, is an excellent pain reliever, improves potency, memory, and performance. Recommended for nervousness and irritability. This flower is able to compensate the effect of amphetamine on the body, so it is often used in the treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction.
Worthy of this plant is also the fact that preparations made from it have no unwanted side effects, and they are not addictive. They are used for all ages.
Passiflora can be propagated by cuttings or seeds.
Growing from seed
Sowing seeds one should know that the freshly picked ones have a germinating capacity of 30% while the ones from last year have only 1% or 2%. The seeds are sown at the end of the winter early spring period.
Scarification is required, for this purpose, the shell of the seeds is damaged with a fine emery. Then they are poured for 2 days in lukewarm water (about 25 degrees). The seeds left floating should be removed as they do not germinate.
Sow the seeds on the soil surface and press a little into it. A humidity of 100% is necessary for germination.
Cover the container with glass or film, put it in a well-lit place (diffused light), and keep the temperature at 20 to 25 degrees. After germination of the seeds cover should be removed, and the seedlings will need extra light to create a daylight duration of 12 hours. After the appearance of true leaves you should perform a picking. Try to keep the root ball intact and not to submerge the plant. Seedlings can appear 1-12 months after sowing, and such passiflora will not flower before 8 years.
Passiflora from seeds. How to germinate passiflora seeds
Sprouts are made from young spring stems. They should have a growth point and at least 2 pairs of leaves. The pair of leaves at the bottom are cut off. The cut should be treated in a product that stimulates the formation of roots.
In a container make a drainage layer and fill it with black earth and sod soil (1:1). With a pencil you need to make hollows to the bottom of the container. Place cuttings in them, so that the leaves remain above the ground (lay on the surface). Moisten the substrate and make a mini greenhouse (arched construction wrap film or put on a plastic bag). You need daily five-minute airing, keeping the soil moist, and a temperature of 21 degrees.
After 3 weeks, the cover is removed. Strengthened cuttings are transplanted into permanent pots. Rooting produce and in a jar with water (it is necessary to omit a piece of charcoal). Place the cuttings and wait until the roots appear, about 1.5-2 months.
Do not change the water.
Rooting Passiflora in 4 ways
Passiflora species with photos
Passiflora edulis (Passiflora edulis)
It is the most popular species among florists. This flower is called grenadilla in its native land, and it is in Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. The florets are colored creamy white. It produces round or egg-shaped fruits, which are up to 6 centimeters long and have a strong and pleasant odor.
They are used to make drinks and sweets of various kinds. The better known name for this species is passion fruit.
Passiflora blue (Passiflora caerulea)
This plant is also quite commonly grown in the home. It is an evergreen liana that has single-trunked shoots. During the flowering period, single fragrant flowers appear.
They have a pale bluish-green or mauve color and their diameter is about 10 centimeters. There are some varieties which have red or pinkish flowers. The fruit is an orange berry that reaches 7 centimeters in length. This plant is found in the Andes (southern Argentina), Paraguay, Brazil, and Peru. This species began to be cultivated as early as the 16th century.
Passiflora gentle (Passiflora mollissima)
Like Passiflora banana - found in Colombia, Bolivia and Venezuela in nature. Possesses pale pink large (12 centimeters in diameter) flowers. The fruits are fleshy and very fragrant and contain a large amount of organic acids. This species, unlike others, is able to bear abundant fruit in the 1st year of life. It is a cold-tolerant plant, not suffering temperature fall to minus 2 degrees.
From its native land is Brazil. The leaves of such a plant are similar to laurel leaves, but they are larger.
Passiflora incarnata (Passiflora incarnata)
Like passiflora meaty red, or also called apricot liana, it can be 6-10 meters long. The florets can be colored in different colors, but the most common color is purple. The lemon-yellow fruits are quite tasty and have a slight sourness to them.
This species has medicinal properties, so dried shoots and leaves are used to make medicinal tea for insomnia, neurosis, epilepsy and other ailments.
Passiflora gracilis (Passiflora gracilis)
Native to Brazil, this annual has cylindrical shoots, smooth wide-triangular-oval leaves that are shallowly dissected into 3 lobes. There are single florets, colored greenish-white. The fruit is a multi-seeded berry colored red with a coral hue.
Passiflora trifasciata (Passiflora trifasciata)
It is native to Peru and gets its name from the 3 stripes of purple that are on the front side of the tri-lobed leaves.
The underside is red-purple. The shoots are ribbed and the flowers are pale green or whitish-yellow. They reach 4 or 5 centimeters in diameter. The fruit is a rounded, blue berry which reaches 2.5 centimeters in length.
The plant of this species has a particular fragrance that is similar to lilacs.
Passiflora quadrangularis (Passiflora quadrangularis)
This is the largest plant of all passiflora. Its stems can reach 15 meters in length. The leaves are oval in shape and are colored a deep green. The flowers are large enough to reach 15 centimeters in diameter.
The huge fruits are up to 30 centimeters long and have a very tasty, sweet and juicy flesh as well as a rather thick skin. However, it is extremely rare to produce fruit at home. This genus thrives best in a greenhouse.
Besides the above-mentioned species, the following Passiflora species can be found at home: winged, scarlet, variegated, cystic, and the hybrid Imperatrice Eugenic with its large blue-pink flowers.
A very impressive Passiflora