Parsley: Planting And Care In The Open Field, Diseases And Pests

The herbaceous biennial parsley (Petroselinum) is a small genus that belongs to the Celery (Umbrella) family. It comes from the island of Sardinia. The first mention of it can be found in ancient Egyptian papyri: according to tradition, this plant grew from the blood that flowed from the eye of Horus, son of the god Osiris, it was plucked by the wicked Seth. Under natural conditions, this herbaceous plant is found on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Root and leaf parsley are cultivated in southern Canada and the northern United States, and all of continental Europe except Scandinavia.

Root parsley is the most popular among gardeners because it forms a root crop and also produces greens.

Parsley features

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Parsley is an herbaceous plant that can be an annual or biennial. Its stem is erect and its leaf plates are double- or triple-petioled. The petals of the heart-shaped flowers are yellow-green or whitish, sometimes with a pale red tint at the base. The fruit is egg-shaped and flattened from sides.

This crop is frost-resistant and moisture-loving. Seeds germinate at temperatures of 1-5 degrees Celsius, and seedlings can survive frosts as low as -9 degrees Celsius. Because of this, in regions with mild not frosty winters, it is not necessary to remove the root of such a plant from the soil in autumn time.

Root parsley

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

In the first year of growth, bushes form a leaf rosette and a root vegetable, which looks like a carrot, it is colored pale yellow or white. And in the second year, the bushes give seeds.

Parsley root vegetables have medicinal properties, they help maintain vision, heal wounds, strengthen the gums, and stimulate kidney function. They contain salts of potassium, iron and phosphorus. Such a root vegetable is used as a spice, adding it to soups and brines, as well as to marinades in canning.

Leaf parsley

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Leaf parsley has no root formation, but it has a well developed and branched root system. The greens of such a plant are added to salads and also used as a spice for fish and first courses.

Such greens are eaten not only fresh, but it is dried and frozen, if such parsley stored correctly, it can retain its useful substances for up to 12 months. This crop is still widely used in cosmetology, as well as in traditional and folk medicine.

How to grow parsley.Varieties of parsley. Garden World Website

Parsley planting in the open field

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

What time to plant

Parsley can be grown through seedlings or sown directly into the ground, with the second method being more popular with gardeners.

With the help of seedlings this plant is grown only in some regions. Sowing seeds into open soil is carried out from the middle to the end of April, and it can also be done in the fall, namely from the middle of October. To keep leafy parsley greens on the table throughout the summer, it is recommended to sow them in a conveyor way: once every 15 days until the last days of July.

A site suitable for sowing should be sunny, and the soil should be loose, not very wet, light and saturated with nutrients. This crop grows best on light sandy loam or loamy clay with a pH of 6.

5-7.0. For sowing parsley experts do not recommend choosing a site with a high groundwater table. If there is no other place to grow, you need to make high beds. It is possible to grow parsley on a plot after the following crops: onions, tomatoes, zucchini, parsley, potatoes, cabbage and cucumbers.

Bad predecessors are members of the Umbrella family, such as carrots, parsley, celery, fennel, coriander, dill, etc. However, parsley can be grown together with them, for example, in the same plot you can grow carrots and parsley, dill and parsley, coriander and parsley, etc. It can also be planted in the same area as cucumbers, beans and tomatoes.

Planting rules

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

If you plan to sow this plant in the spring, you should prepare the area in the fall. If the seeds will be sown under the winter in autumn, it will be necessary to prepare the plot not less than 15-20 days before the day of sowing.

For root (fodder) parsley, it is necessary to apply manure to the soil, but this is done about 12 months before sowing such a crop before growing the precursor plant. Leaf (green) parsley grows well on manure. When digging the plot in the fall, 4 to 5 kilograms of manure (compost) should be added to the soil at the rate of 1 square meter. If the soil is poor, then in addition to organic fertilizers still make a complex of minerals, but this should be done in the spring time in preparation for sowing. If the winter sowing of such a plant is conceived, the organic and minerals in the soil should be made at the same time.

As dry seeds are very slow to germinate, it is recommended to immerse them in water for 30 minutes, after which the seeds should be dried until they begin to crumble.

Furrows should be made in the prepared area, reaching a depth of 10-15 mm, and the width between them should be about 0.5 m. The furrows should be generously moistened with lukewarm water, and once it has been completely absorbed, the seeds should be sown. The holes should be filled with soil, and then it is tamped down.

As a rule, the first seedlings appear after 15-20 days. In autumn time for sowing dry seeds are used, then the surface of the bed is covered with a layer of mulch (humus or peat).

How to sow parsley. Parsley in the garden

Growing parsley seedlings

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

How to sow parsley seeds in the open field is described in detail above. But in some cases, such a plant is grown by seedling method.

Before sowing, the seeds should be soaked in water, where they should stay for 24 hours, this will allow them to be cleaned from essential oils that help to slow down germination. The seeds should then be placed in a dampened cloth. Once the white sprouts appear, the seeds should be sown, having previously dried them until they are loose. Sprouting should be carried out after they begin to form two true leaf plates, peat pots are used for this purpose. After 8 weeks from the time of sowing the seeds, parsley root sprouts should be planted in open soil.

They are planted together with the pots, and depending on the variety, a distance of 7-15 centimeters between bushes should be observed. When planting seedlings of leaf parsley, a distance of at least 20 centimeters between them should be observed. The distance between the rows should be about 0.5 m. In this case, site preparation should be done well in advance.

Growing parsley on a windowsill

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

To grow parsley indoors, it should be sown exactly as described above, using seedling boxes filled with a soil mixture of biohumus as well as coconut fiber that is placed over a drainage layer. The seed needs pre-sowing preparation. To do this, it is placed for two to three days in a container with water, which should be replaced twice a day. At the same time, 2 hours before sowing the seeds should be disinfected by dipping them into a weak solution of manganese. The seeds should be deepened into the soil mixture by no more than 5 mm, then the surface of the substrate is covered with loose soil, with a layer thickness of about 10 mm.

Then the box is removed to a dark place. To make the seedlings appear as quickly as possible, containers should be covered with film or glass from above, but the seeds should be regularly aired and condensate should be removed from the surface of the cover.

After 15-20 days the first seedlings appear, the container with seeds should be moved to the window sill. When the seedlings grow up, they need to be thinned, and the distance between the plants should be at least 40 mm. The optimum temperature to grow parsley from 15 to 20 degrees.

If the room will be colder, the growth of plants will be slower, and in the heat the seedlings will dry up. For seedlings to grow normally, they need a long day of light. If it is shorter than necessary, parsley will need additional artificial lighting, so place a fluorescent lamp at a distance of 0.6 m. After about 6 weeks you will be able to harvest the first crop.

When the height of the branch reaches 10-12 centimeters, it can be plucked and used for cooking, if necessary, with part of the stem with 1/3 of the leaf plates remaining in the container.

For growing in room conditions, early varieties are recommended, in which case the first harvesting is done half a month earlier than when growing late- and mid-maturing varieties. The most common green varieties grown on the windowsill are: Aster, Russian Table, Fitness, Beads, Green Pearl, Morning Fresh, Gloria, etc.

Parsley - planting parsley and growing parsley at home

How to grow from a root vegetable

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

This method of growing parsley allows you not to wait for seedlings to appear. In the last days of October, before frost sets in, the parsley bush should be removed from the ground with roots about 50 mm long and about 40 mm wide.

To decontaminate the seedling box, a strong solution of manganese potassium should be used, a drainage layer should be made on its bottom, over which a soil mixture for violets is poured. In it almost close to each other should be planted the roots of the plant, which have been dug in the garden, with only the apex buds should rise above the surface of the substrate. The soil should be a little compacted and well watered, then the container is transferred to an unheated veranda or a heated balcony. Plants need moderate watering, and after the appearance of green sprouts container transferred to a well-lit and warm (about 20 degrees) room. Young plants on a cloudy day will need additional light.

Once the active growth of green mass begins, watering should be made more frequent and abundant. If you do it right, you will be growing fresh, fragrant greens by New Year's Eve.

How to water

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Growing parsley in room conditions, it needs a systematic moderate watering. The substrate in the containers should not dry out, also do not allow water stagnation in the soil mixture. Water such a plant every day with a moderate amount of water at room temperature.

Once a crust appears on the surface of the substrate, it should be removed by loosening the soil mixture.

Fertilizer

If this crop is grown from seed, the seedlings will need liquid fertilizer, an environmentally friendly fertilizer should be applied no more than 2 times in 4 weeks. For this purpose, you can use organics or mineral complex fertilizers that have proven to be good.

Care for pertushka

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Growing such a crop in open soil is simple enough. To do so, the bushes must be thinned, weeded, feed, water, and loosen the surface of the bed in time.

In the springtime while parsley is still very weak, it needs special protection from weeds, because they can choke out any cultivated plant. Therefore, parsley will need to be systematically weeded, with weeds to be removed both from the rows and from between the rows. This procedure should be carried out 24 hours after the rain has passed or the bed has been watered, and along with removing the weeds, you should also loosen the soil surface. Loosening improves the aeration of the bush root system.

How to water

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

This crop should be watered systematically when growing in a vegetable garden.

Note, however, that root varieties are less demanding to water than leafy varieties. Fodder parsley is characterized by its resistance to drought, and therefore throughout the growing season it will need to be watered about 2 times. But the green varieties need more watering.

You can tell by the condition of the leaves on the bushes whether or not the plants need watering. Water the parsley in the early morning or in the evening when the sun goes down.

For watering you should not use cold water, its temperature should not be lower than the air temperature. Therefore, the water is left in the sun to heat. And if tap water is used, you should wait until it has settled.

Fertilizer

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Green parsley varieties need more nitrogen than root varieties, so fertilize twice during the growing season, using nitrate (5-6 grams of substance per 1 square meter of plot). Fodder parsley needs more potassium and phosphorus, so you should use a full mineral fertilizer in spring, and in August you should add 7 grams of superphosphate and 5 grams of potassium salt per 1 square meter of soil.

If nitrogen fertilizer is added in autumn, it may cause nitrates to accumulate in the root crops.

What to plant on a plot where parsley was growing

The place where this crop was grown is not suitable for the cultivation of Umbrella family members. The next time parsley and other related crops can be grown on this site only after 4-5 years. The site where parsley was previously grown is excellent for planting onions, potatoes, peas, garlic, tomatoes, and beans.

Parsley diseases and pests with photos and names

Parsley diseases

Parsley is not highly resistant to diseases.

This crop is most commonly affected by the following diseases:

Mildew

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

When a plant is affected by this fungal disease, a loose, nearly white-colored plaque forms on the surface of its above-ground parts. As the disease progresses, black dots appear on this plaque, which are the fruiting bodies of the fungus. The reproductive ability of such bushes is severely impaired. This disease actively develops in wet weather, if there are sharp fluctuations in temperature. In order to combat this disease, after harvesting parsley, the area must be cleaned of plant debris, which should be destroyed.

Then the soil should be treated with a solution of Bayleton, and the instructions should be strictly followed.

Stolbur

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

This disease promotes chlorosis on the edges of the leaf plates of the lower tiers of plants. Over time, the leaf margin turns red, and then the entire plate becomes red. Affected bushes have reduced turgor of root crops, which makes them worse for storage. Cicadas transmit the causative agents of this disease, and the first signs of Stolbur appear in the last days of July or the first days of August.

Control measures include timely extermination of cicadas settled on the plot, timely removal of weeds, regular site recultivation and herbicide treatment of bushes.

Black rot or Alternaria

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Infestation by this disease may occur both in the storage facility and on the bed. When the disease begins to develop, it will show similar symptoms to Blackleg: The bush will be affected by the root neck and as it progresses the whole stem will be affected, relatively quickly. Then the bush becomes yellow and dies. When the entire above-ground part of parsley is affected by black rot, the disease can also spread to the root system.

The causative agents of the disease most often penetrate into the existing micro-injuries on the bush (cuts, cracks or scratches), there it begins to actively develop. In order to prevent it, it is necessary to follow the rules of crop rotation, and the site should also be necessarily cleared of plant residues, which should be destroyed. After the height of the tops of bushes will be 10-12 centimeters, they should be sprayed with a solution of Homa (40 grams of the substance per bucket of water). In the midsummer period near the root crops you should evenly spread Barrier solution (1 tbsp of the substance per 1 square meter of plot).

Parsley Septoria, or white spot

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

This fungal disease affects leaf petioles, leaves and shoots.

In mid-summer, brown spots form on the lower leaf plates, later becoming lighter in color but with their dark border unchanged. As the disease progresses, the upper leaf plates are also affected. Over time, the leaves turn yellow and dry out, and the petioles break. As a result, the yield of parsley suffers greatly. At the end of the growing season, all plant residues must necessarily be removed from the plot, and they are burned.

Then recultivate the plot. For preventive purposes, seed should be warmed at 45 to 50 degrees before sowing. Spend 2 treatments on the leaves in the first decade of July with a break in 1.5 weeks with a solution of Energen (20 drops of the substance per 1 liter of water).

Rust

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Parsley is usually affected by this disease during the first weeks of summer.

The diseased bushes develop brownish-reddish spots on the underside of the leaf plates, which eventually merge with each other. As a result, the leaves turn yellow sooner, wither and lose flavor. To cure the diseased plant, it will need the same treatment as white spot disease.

Early blight or cercosporose

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Brown to pale yellow spots, about 0.6 cm across and irregular in shape, develop on the surface of shoots and leaves of the diseased bush.

If humidity is raised, a light grayish patina appears on the surface of spots. Diseased bushes show retardation in growth, as well as yellowing and desiccation of leaves. The disease is active during the daytime if the weather is humid and warm, as well as on foggy nights and if abundant dew falls in the morning. If the disease is just beginning to develop, the area will need to be sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%). If it is necessary, the same spraying is carried out several more times with a break of 10-12 days.

The last spraying should be done no later than half a month before harvesting.

Parsley may also be affected by diseases such as: felt and white rot, peronosporosis (false powdery mildew), aster yellowing, etc.

Parsley pests

The most common pests on parsley bushes are:

Carrot leafminer

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

This small pest feeds on the plant juice. Its larvae also feed on the juice of parsley, and in doing so, they wrap themselves in the foliage and the bush becomes like a macerated bush. To get rid of the leaf beetle, you need to spray the bushes twice with Iskra, Fitoverm, Iskra Bio or Karbofos.

Such treatments are carried out in May when mass appearance of adults is observed and also in July after formation of larvae.

Stem nematode

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

This small worm is only 1.5 millimeters long and it makes its egg-layers in the tissues of the plant. This pest feeds on the juice of parsley at almost any stage of development, and the affected parts of the bush will stunt, warp and die off. As a preventive measure, when preparing the seed for sowing, it should be warmed in a thermos with hot water (about 45-50 degrees) for a quarter of an hour.

When the parsley crop is harvested, the plot will need deep recultivation. It is also necessary to follow the rules of crop rotation.

Carrot fly

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

This pest is only half a centimeter long and has a green, tinted coloration. This fly prefers damp places. If it settles in a bed of parsley, the bushes will be stunted and the foliage will turn purple-red, then yellow, and eventually it will die off.

If parsley grows near carrots, the likelihood of such a fly settling on the bushes increases greatly, because this pest is attracted to the smell of carrots. To mask the strong smell of carrots, it is recommended to treat their bushes with a solution consisting of 1 bucket of water, 1 tbsp. red or black pepper and 1 tsp. liquid soap. And you can also fill the soil surface between the rows with a layer of a mixture consisting of sand and mothballs (10:1).

Since such a pest is taken into the ground for wintering, it is recommended to make a deep recultivation after harvesting in autumn.

Bulberry aphid

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

This pest is an omnivore. It usually appears on a plot in the last days of June, and it can produce up to 10 generations in 1 season. These insects are on the underside of leaf plates, stems and flowers, and they suck the sap from the bushes. The affected plant stops growing and dies.

Another thing to keep in mind is that aphids are considered the main vector of various incurable diseases. As a preventive measure, you must remove all weeds from the bed as soon as they appear, trim and kill the yellow parts of the bush, and make sure to do a deep digging of the plot after harvesting. If aphids do settle on bushes, they will need to be sprayed with any soap solution, for example: you can take 40 grams of laundry soap for 1 bucket of water. If it is necessary, the bushes are sprayed 3 or 4 times with a break of 5 days.

Parsley types and varieties

It has already been mentioned above that there are 2 types of parsley cultivated by gardeners, namely leaf parsley and root parsley.

Leaf parsley has two varieties, namely, curly and smooth. They differ from each other only in appearance. All varieties of this plant are divided by maturity. The most popular varieties of parsley will be described below.

The top 3 parsley varieties for winter sowing: Maestro, Root Berlin, Curly Moskrause

Smooth leafy parsley varieties

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

  1. Gloria.

    This early variety is notable for its yield and is designed to be cultivated in the open field as well as in the greenhouse. The rosette is low and the leaf plates are large and long. This kind of parsley is used for eating fresh and also for making preparations for the winter.

  2. Bogatyr. This crop variety is very fragrant and grows quickly after cutting.

    The long-petioled, large leaf plates are dark green in color and have a triangular shape. Maturation duration is 70-80 days.

  3. Hamburger. This variety, created not so long ago, has medium height and with fragrant tender foliage of deep green color. The variety matures in 75-90 days.

    It can be eaten both dried and fresh.

  4. Carnival. The variety is noted for its high yield. The fragrant, medium-sized, long-petioled leaves are dark green in color. The leaves grow back relatively quickly after cutting.

    After the seedlings show, it will be no more than 60 days before harvest.

Attractive varieties such as Italian Giant, Green Crystal, Appetizing, Flavorful Wall, Rosava, Green Carpet, etc.

Curly varieties of leaf parsley

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

  1. Moskrause 2 are also popular with gardeners. This German variety, characterized by its compactness, has strongly frilled, fragrant leaflets of dark green color. Once cut, it will take no longer than 40 days for the young leaves to regrow.

    This variety is drought- and frost-resistant.

  2. Bravo. The bushes have upright long shoots and are quite easy to harvest. The very fragrant, strong-fluted leaf plates have a deep green color.
  3. Astra.

    An early maturing variety with high yields, it has fluted leaf plates that are part of dense rosettes. The foliage grows in a fairly short time after cutting. This parsley is designed to be grown both in the greenhouse and outdoors.

  4. Esmeralda. This is a medium maturing variety with foliage that grows quickly after cutting.

    The bush can weigh up to 50 grams. The rosette contains 25 to 30 short cotyledonous, curly leaves. The leaf rosette height of this strong-growing variety is about 0.75 m, with a ripening time of about 80 days. A single bush can weigh about 60 grams.

    The delicate leaves remain fresh for a long time after cutting.

Also popular among gardeners are such varieties as: Frise, Curly, Triplex, Cinderella, Verse, Claudia, Moskurland, Erfurt Glory, Caderava, Darkey.

Root parsley varieties

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

  1. Sugar. This early-ripening variety is notable for its yield. Its dense, whitish-gray root vegetables are conical in shape, about 0.

    3 m long and 65 mm across, weighing up to 60 grams. Very tasty white flesh has a light yellow middle. From the moment seedlings appear until technical ripeness occurs, it takes from 85 to 100 days.

  2. Alba. Late maturing variety, distinguished by its productivity.

    Very tasty root vegetables weigh about 0.3 kg. The advantages of this variety also include the absence of lateral roots in the roots, as well as their excellent storability.

  3. Bordovician. In this late variety, the white roots have a shape similar to carrots and weigh about 0.

    2 kg. The flesh is fragrant and white. If stored properly, the roots will have excellent storability.

  4. Yielding. The medium maturity variety is resistant to frost and disease.

    Once seedlings appear, they reach technical ripeness in 130 days. The juicy root crops are about 20 centimeters long.

  5. Final. The medium-ripening variety is characterized by its productivity. They are about 23 centimeters long, weigh up to 0.

    2 kg, and are shaped like an elongated cone. They have high taste qualities.

In addition to these varieties, popular are such as: Konika, Healer, Eagle, Good Morning, Verts and Spines, Berlinia and Spicy.

Parsley properties: benefits and harms

Parsley: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Parsley health benefits

Fresh parsley leaves contain a lot of trace elements and vitamins that the human body needs. Interestingly, already in ancient Egypt such a crop was valued by weight of gold.

Today this herb is also quite popular and is used in medicine, cooking and cosmetology.

Few people know that this herb contains the same amount of carotene as carrots and approximately the same amount of vitamin C as lemons. 50 grams of parsley contains the daily norm of ascorbic acid. The greens contain vitamins A, C, B1, B2, B12, PP, as well as folic acid, fatty acids, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, potassium and calcium. Because of these vitamins and elements, parsley has useful properties, viz:

  • helps the adrenal and thyroid gland function;
  • helps improve the body's metabolic processes;
  • helps strengthen the blood vessels;
  • has an anti-inflammatory effect;
  • helps strengthen the gums;
  • helps improve oxygen exchange and stimulates the brain function;
  • helps control satiety and appetite;
  • favors vision;
  • is effective in the treatment of urogenital diseases and nephritis;
  • assists in overcoming depression as well as in restoring strength.

The decoction, infusion and juice of this crop have medicinal properties. The juice is used during the therapy of cardiac, respiratory and eye diseases. A mixture of parsley and carrot juice (1:3) is very effective during the therapy of diseases of the optic nerve system. The mixture of garlic and parsley has a powerful diuretic effect, it is most often used to normalize high blood pressure. In addition, products containing garlic and parsley help stabilize cholesterol levels and are also distinguished by their antiviral effect, remove toxins from the body, reduce high blood clotting, and are also used to prevent cardiovascular disease.

The extract of this plant is used to make creams with a bleaching effect, because this herb helps whiten the skin and lighten pigment spots and freckles. This plant is also used to eliminate edema, treat bruises and insect bites, as well as to improve the scarring of fistulas and ulcers.

The decoction, oil, extract and infusion of such a medicinal plant is used to treat female illnesses, such as pain during periods, menstrual disorders, and they also help improve mental and physical condition during menopause. This parsley decoction should be prepared by taking 2 tbsp. finely chopped roots of the plant and combining them with a tbsp.

of water that has just boiled over The mixture should boil for only 1 minute, then cover the container and leave to cool. The decoction is recommended to drink 3 times a day before meals, 1-2 tbsp. It helps with anemia, malaria, prostatitis, intestinal disorders, increased gas and is used to strengthen the immune system.

Parsley. Therapeutic properties and contraindications.

Contraindications

Parsley can be harmful if eaten in very large quantities. It contains myristicin, an overdose of which causes headaches, hallucinations, nausea, agitation, weight loss and muscle cramps. It is better to refrain from taking remedies made from parsley during pregnancy, as well as patients with oxaluria, urolithiasis, inflammation of the bladder and nephritis. During breastfeeding parsley is also recommended to be excluded from the diet, since it contains spicy essential oil.

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