Onion: Growing From Seeds, Planting And Care In The Open Ground

The herbaceous perennial plant, onion (Allium fistulosum), also called tartar, or dud, or sand onion, or Chinese onion, is a species of the genus Onion. Many experts believe that Batun comes from Asia, as today in natural conditions it can be found on the territory of Japan, China and Siberia. This plant is cultivated in all countries. It is grown for its green feathers, which have a milder flavor than green onions. The slightly developed bulbs are oblong in shape.

The stem is thick and hollow inside and can be up to 100 cm tall. The doddery foliage is broader than that of turnip onions. During flowering, umbrella-shaped inflorescences with many florets form on the bushes. For propagation of such a plant, the seed method and division of the bush are used. Through seedlings it is grown only when one wants to get succulent greenery in early spring but forgot to sow seeds in deep autumn.

Brief description of growing

Onion: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open ground

  1. Sowing. Seeds are sown for seedlings in mid-April, and seedlings are planted in open soil in mid-June.
  2. Brightness. Shaded or sunny site.
  3. Ground.

    Neutral or slightly acidic, nutritious, loamy loam or sandy loam soil is suitable.

  4. Pouring. It must be systematic and very abundant. Thus, after watering the soil must be soaked to a depth of about 0,2 m. If it rains systematically during the summer, you can water the shrubs about 2 times every 7 days.

    However, during a prolonged dry period, water the plot once every 2 days.

  5. Fertilizer. Organics such as tree ashes, slurry or poultry manure are used for this. However, fertilize only once with poultry manure because this onion can accumulate nitrates.
  6. Propagation.

    By seeds.

  7. Pests. Onion flies, weevils and fireflies.
  8. Diseases. Peronosporosis (false powdery mildew).

  9. Properties. High in nutritional value, butternut is used in dietary foods.

Butternut onions. Growing from seed

Growing batun onions from seed

Sowing them in seedlings

Onion: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open ground

To be sure to get a spring crop of batun onions, it is recommended to grow them through seedlings. In Eastern countries this method of propagation is very popular because in this case the annual crop is much less susceptible to powdery mildew, and the ripening process is quicker too.

Sow the seeds in seedlings in the middle of April and transplant the plants into the open soil in mid-June. Harvesting of the greens is carried out in early autumn along with the false bulbs. To grow seedlings, use a substrate consisting of sod soil and humus (1:1). In 10 liters of ready mixed earth should be poured 70-75 grams of mineral fertilizer for vegetable plants, and another 0.4-0.

5 liters of wood ash. Then you need to mix everything well. Next, the soil mixture is sterilized by steaming it in an oven or heating it in a microwave oven, instead it can be simply sprinkled with a dark pink solution of potassium manganese.

Before sowing, the seeds are placed in water for 24 hours, which should be replaced every 6 hours. Then they are placed on the refrigerator shelf designated for vegetables for 2-3 days.

Removed seed should be dried to a loose state, and then you can proceed to sowing. To do this, the box is filled with the prepared soil mixture, in which shallow furrows (0.8 to 1 cm) should be made, the width between them should be 40 to 50 mm. Cultivate seedlings can be and bouquet method, for this sowing is carried out in pots, the cross section reaching 40-50 mm, and 1 put from 4 to 6 seeds. The seeds are covered with a thin layer of substrate from above, and then flatten the surface of the soil mixture in a container and slightly tamp it.

After that, its surface should be covered with a layer of calcined clean sand, the thickness of which should be about 0.3 cm. Next, the crops are watered using a sprayer, it should be done very carefully, so as not to wash away the thin layer of sand. The container is then covered with glass (film) from above and transferred to a sufficiently warm place (18 to 20 degrees).

Growing seedlings

Onion: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open ground

As soon as the first seedlings appear, the seeds are transferred to a well-lit place where for 7 days they should be at air temperature of 9 to 12 degrees.

After this time the seedlings set the following temperature regime: during the day - 13 to 15 degrees, and at night - 10 to 12 degrees. If you don't have a place with a suitable temperature you will have to arrange frequent ventilation, and don't forget to protect the plants from draughts. Since at this time of the year the daylight hours are still very short, it is recommended to provide the seedlings with extra light. It should be noted that for normal growth and development of bushes the duration of the daylight hours should be about 14 hours. LED light source or phytolamp should be set at a distance of 25-30 cm from the seedlings.

During the first two or three days the seedlings should be lighted 24 hours a day, then the light should be turned on at 6 am and turned off at 8 pm.

Seedlings need moderate watering, make sure that there is no stagnant liquid in the substrate. Seven days after sprouting, and then after another half a month, the plants are fertilized using a nutrient solution consisting of 5 liters of water, 1 gram of potassium salt and the same amount of superphosphate. Once the seedlings have formed their first true leaved plate, they are thinned out and the distance between the bushes should be about 30 mm.

When the planting is about 7 days before going out into the open soil, the bushes begin to harden.

This is done by first increasing the frequency and duration of airing, and this must always be done gradually. Then the seedlings begin to transfer to fresh air, do not forget to protect it from frosts. Planting in open soil is done after the seedlings can be outside 24 hours a day.

BATUNE GROWTH -GREEN on the SPRINGING

POWING BATUNE GROWTH into the open field

Onion: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open ground

What time to plant

To plant the bast in the open field you should plant in the middle of June after the threat of frost has passed, after the threat of a return frost has passed and the soil has warmed up well. By this time, the seedlings should be about 60 days old, have a developed root system, 3 or 4 true leaf plates and the stem should be 0.

3 to 0.4 cm thick at the base.

Suitable soil

Onion: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open ground

A plot suitable for growing lettuce can be either sunny or shaded. The soil must be chosen responsibly; it should be moist, nutritious, mildly acidic or neutral. Loam or clay loam is best.

In nature, these onions prefer to grow in low-lying wet places, but in the garden for him to choose sites where the spring or during the rains there is stagnant water. If it is planted in sandy or peaty soil, it will quickly go into arrows. To de-oxidize the soil 500 ml of wood ashes per 1 square meter should be added and it should be done not later than 6 months before planting the buttercup. When before planting seedlings will be about 15 days, the soil under the plowing add 15-20 grams of potassium chloride, 25-30 grams of ammonium nitrate, 5 kg of humus or compost and 30-40 grams of superphosphate per 1 square meter area, then its surface level. Then you can proceed to planting seedlings.

The best predecessors of this plant are peas, cabbage, green beans, beans and tomatoes. The worst predecessors for buttercup are garlic, cucumbers, onions and carrots.

Planning rules

Onion: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open ground

Batun seedlings are planted in open soil according to the same rules as seedlings of other onion species. On the prepared plot it is necessary to make holes, the distance between the holes should be about 10-12 cm and the width between the rows should be not less than 20 cm. If the seedlings were grown by bouquet method, then they are planted in wells all together, but they should be sparsely spaced.

Winter planting

Sowing seeds in open ground can be done three times during the season, namely in April, June-July and October-November. By sowing under winter you will be able to get the greens very early next season. Prepare the site for the winter sowing should be done in the summer. The seeds are sown after the first cold snap, and the temperature should drop to 3-4 degrees. The seeds are sown very densely, penetrating 20 mm into heavy soil and 30 mm into light soil.

The width between the rows should be no less than 20 centimeters. When seeding is finished, the surface of the plot is covered with a layer of peat. To see onion seedlings as soon as possible in the spring time, it is recommended to cover the surface of the plot with polyethylene film. The first seedlings should appear immediately after the snow cover melted. When they are a little older, they will need thinning.

MULTIPLE BATUNE ONIONS - SOWING IN SPRING.

Butterflies on your window sill

Onion: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open ground

You can grow fresh basted buttercup greens on your window in winter if you wish. To do this in the autumn time you have to take several two- or three-year-old butterbur bushes out of the ground, taking them together with a clump of soil. Then they are planted in containers or in pots filled with any soil mixture, as long as it was fertile. Then they are placed in a warm place (18 to 22 degrees) and kept at high humidity (about 80 percent).

After only 20 days, the first greens will appear.

You can also grow greens from seeds or from small seedlings. However, it is much faster and easier to get the greens from bulbs. If you have decided to grow from seed, then you need to be prepared for the fact that the first greens can be cut not earlier than 6 weeks after sowing. Greens grown from seedlings can be cut after only 15-20 days, but the disadvantage of this method is that the life span of the bulbs is no more than 8 weeks.

But bushes, which have grown from seeds, will regularly give greenery for 2 years, but it will be necessary to systematically feed them 1 or 2 times in four weeks, for this purpose the soil mixture in a container is watered with a nutrient solution consisting of a liter of water and ½ capful of means Rost.

Seeds need pre-seeding preparation, for this they are filled overnight with clean water, then placed in a solution of sodium permanganate pink for 8 hours. At the bottom of the container make a good drainage layer, then fill it with fertile soil mixture consisting of coconut fiber and biohumus (2:1). Deepen the seeds into the substrate for 20-30 mm. Then the seeds should be covered with glass (film) and transferred to a warm place (18 to 25 degrees).

Immediately after the appearance of the first seedlings cover must be removed, and the container should be moved to a cooler place (12 to 18 degrees). The seedlings have an extremely slow growth, so the first greens can be cut after about 8 weeks. For the bushes to grow and develop within the limits, they will most likely need extra light, with the light day being increased by about 3-4 hours.

Only small bulbs are suitable for baking. Take boxes or pots and fill them with a layer of fertile soil about 15 centimeters thick.

Then the bulbs are planted in it closely. Fill them on top with the same soil mixture. Then the plantings are watered and moved to a well-lit place, the recommended temperature is 12 to 18 degrees.

Care for butterbur

Onion: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open ground

Growing butterbur in your plot is very easy. It requires timely watering, weeding, feeding, loosening the soil surface around the bushes, and protection from pests and diseases if necessary.

The first time you should loosen the soil surface on the bed as soon as the planted seedlings take root. During the first season you will have to do at least 5 or 6 loosening of the soil, and ideally you should loosen the surface of the plot after every watering or rainfall. During hoeing it is necessary to pull out all weeds. In order to significantly reduce the amount of weeding, loosening and watering, the surface of the bed should be covered with a layer of peat. The first cutting can be done when the feathers are 10-15 centimeters high.

Watering

This crop is moisture-loving, so water it systematically. During watering, the soil should soak to a depth of about 20 centimeters. If it rains systematically in the summer, you should water the bed an average of a couple of times every 7 days. And in the dry season, watering should be carried out once every couple of days. Water should always be used warm and poured under the root.

Fertilizer

Onion: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open ground

When the seedlings are placed in the open soil after 7 days, the poor soil should be fertilized with a solution of poultry manure (1:15) or cowpea (1:10). If the soil on the site is rich in nutrients, its surface, as well as the plants themselves should be powdered with wood ash. A solution of bird droppings for feeding can be used only 1 time, the fact is that such a plant has the ability to accumulate nitrates, so for its further feeding use only wood ash, it will not only saturate the soil with nutrients, but also protect the shrubs from harmful insects and diseases.

Super top dressing against yellowing of the leaves and against pests!

Diseases and pests

Onion: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open ground

If the growing habits of this crop are followed then the plant may not become ill at all and is not harmed by pests. However, trouble can also arise with buttercup.

Onion beetles, onion weevils and flies can harm this crop.

The onion beetle gnaws out the leaf plates from the inside, leaving only a thin skin. As soon as such a pest is found, the bushes should be sprayed with a contact insecticide, such as Fufanon or Karbofos. However, the treated plants must not be cut for food for a while.

The onion weevil, which is a beetle reaching 0,2 to 0,27 cm in length, can also harm onion leaves by making punctures on their surface through which it sucks the plant juice.

Its larvae gnaw out holes in the foliage, causing it to turn yellow and die off.

The onion fly is similar in appearance to the common housefly, but it can be very troublesome. The larvae of this pest gnaw out cavities in the bulb.

This crop can sometimes suffer from false powdery mildew (peronosporosis). An affected bush develops a violet-gray coating on the surface of the foliage, after which it is observed to die off.

The best way to combat this fungal disease is to spray the bushes with a solution of copper sulfate or Hom preparation, you need 2 or 3 treatments with an interval of 1.5 weeks. However, this method of disease control is not safe for humans.

Treatment of onion-bathun

Onion: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open ground

To protect such a plant from fungal disease and harmful insects, you should strictly follow the rules of agricultural technology of such a crop, ensure proper care, and also timely loosen the soil surface near bushes and pull out all weed grasses. If regular inspections of the batun, then the defeat of a disease or pest can be noticed at an early stage, in which case you can use folk remedies for its treatment, which, compared to insecticidal and fungicidal preparations, are non-toxic.

The following folk remedies are the most popular among gardeners:

  1. To protect bushes from fireworms, their leaves should be sprayed with a strong solution of mustard powder.
  2. To prevent the appearance of pests in May or June, plants in the open ground are given a cold shower.
  3. Batunka onion fly is protected by salt solution processing (1 tbsp per 10 liters of water), which is carried out twice or three times during the season.
  4. Prevent disease and pests by spraying bush leaves from early spring with infusion of tomato, onion, potato leaves or garlic husks.

Before treatment remove all diseased leaves and dig up all diseased bushes.

Bathunions: planting and growing

Harvesting and storage of bulbs

Onion: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open ground

Bathunions are cultivated only for the purpose of growing herbs. It does not form a true bulb in the soil, but instead forms a thickening called a false bulb. It can be grown in the same plot for about 10 years, but only the first 3 or 4 years are the most productive. The fact is that over time, the bushes grow a large number of daughter plants, and this has an extremely negative effect on the quality of the crop.

For the first season, the bushes actively grow a system of roots capable of going into the soil to a depth of about 0.

3 m. Pruning of the greens begins in the second half of the summer period and continues to do so until fall. In subsequent years, pruning of feathers starts at the beginning of the spring period, about 30 days after the appearance of green shoots. Stop cutting the greens 4-6 weeks before the beginning of severe frosts, in this case the onion organs under the ground will be able to prepare well for wintering. Over the course of one season, the greens can be trimmed 2-4 times.

Once the feathers reach 20-25 centimeters in height they can be cut, it should be done at the level of the soil surface, then the feathers are tied into bundles, which are cooled, wrapped in plastic film and put away for storage on the refrigerator shelf. To preserve the bulbs extracted from the soil in the fall for future baking, they are stored in a place where the temperature does not exceed 1 degree, and the leaves cannot be cut off.

Bulb types and varieties

Onion: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open ground

Cultivating bulbs is done in Moldova, China, Western Europe, Ukraine, Russia, Mongolia, Japan and North America. All varieties of this plant are divided into 2 subspecies, namely Russian and Japanese. Russian varieties have a sharp taste in the dark green leaves, they quickly become coarse and reach a height of 0.

3 to 0.4 m. Such onions are characterized by strong branching, in connection with this, it is recommended to grow in the same place no more than 4 years. It can be propagated by seed and bush division. The main advantage of such varieties is their high resistance to frost.

The best varieties of Russian batun include the following:

  1. Maysky. This is a late maturing variety. It has a tangy flavor and branches strongly and weighs 200-340 grams. This plant is very resistant to frosts, even in snowy winters at minus 45 degrees it does not freeze. The small bulb has an elongated shape, the color of the outer scales is dark brown.

  2. Gribovsky 21. This variety with greenish, very tasty foliage has high yields and late shoots.
  3. Trinity. This frost-resistant, medium-ripening variety has delicate green foliage with a semi-spicy taste and a medium-intensity waxy patina on its surface.
  4. Russian Winter.

    A frost-resistant salad variety of medium maturity, the strongly branched foliage reaches about half a meter in height and has a mildly spicy taste.

Japanese varieties are medium-sized plants, the taste of the tender foliage is semi-spicy, with a drooping upper part. These varieties are also frost hardy, but they cannot compare to Russian varieties. All Japanese varieties are divided into four varieties: Roh, Senju, Kujo and Kaga. The Roh and Kaga varieties have many similarities in structure and appearance, since their bushes are medium in size and their leaves have a semi-acute taste.

The only difference is their precocity. The most popular varieties in Japan are the Senju variety with its strong foliage which has a delicate flavor and mild spicy taste and a spurious stem that varies in height from 0.6 to 0.75 m. Kudze varieties are represented by plants with fine foliage, with a semi-spicy taste, they are cultivated both in the open and indoors.

The following varieties are most popular with gardeners:

Onion: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open ground

  1. April 12. This early variety is resistant to disease and frost, large delicate leafy plates of semi-acute taste do not become rough for a long time. The bulb shape is elongated. Bushes weigh an average of 0.2-0.

    3 kg.

  2. Long Tokyo. A frost-resistant, medium maturity variety distinguished by its productivity. The flavor of the tender upright leaflets is sharp, about 0.6 m tall, and covered with a faint waxy patina.

  3. Long White Koshikaya. The medium maturing variety is frost-resistant and yielding. The tender upright leaflets are broad and long, with a waxy patina on the surface. Their taste is semi-spicy.
  4. Salty 35.

    An early semi-acute variety of taste with resistance to frost and disease. In the second year of growth, 2 or 3 branches appear with 5 juicy and tender dark green leafy plates, which do not coarse for a long time, and reach a height of about half a meter. However, this variety starts to shoot early, so the harvest period is short.

Horticulturists are happy to cultivate other varieties of this plant, for example:

  1. Uralsky family. The technical ripeness of this early-ripening variety comes only 3.

    5 weeks after the appearance of the first sprouts, the taste of the feathers is semi-spicy. The bush is about half a meter tall and has a large number of false stems as well as tender yellowish-green leaf plates with a waxy patina.

  2. Tenderness. Salad variety of medium maturity is characterized by yield and resistance to frost. It is about 0.

    4 m tall with a strong, branched, upright rosette that consists of tender, green leaves with a faint waxy sheen.

  3. Parade. This medium-ripening variety, created by Dutch breeders, forms a rosette of greenish-blue leaves with a slight waxy patina on the surface. The leaves are about 0.6 m long.

  4. Molodez. An early frost-resistant cultivar that stands out for its yield, it has upright green foliage with a bluish tinge of semi-acute flavor, it has a strong patina of wax on its surface and is about 0.45 m tall.
  5. Performer. The medium maturity variety has medium yields.

    The green-blue upright leaf plates are tender and succulent, about half a meter long, the taste is mildly spicy, and there is a strong waxy patina on the surface.

  6. Izumrudny. This is a hybrid between the onion and the butternut. This early salad variety is frost-resistant and also not affected by diseases, there is a strong waxy patina on the surface of the dark green juicy and tender leaf plates.
  7. Beautiful.

    This early variety appeared relatively recently, it is disease and frost resistant and is a productive one. The tender foliage does not coarse for a long time, it has a pleasant, semi-spicy taste, and its height is about 0.6 m.

  8. Baron. The taste of the foliage of this early variety is faintly spicy, and its height is about 0.

    65 m. A large number of false stems are formed on the bush with delicate leaf plates of dark green color with a waxy patina.

  9. Ladozhsky. A medium maturing salad variety with a mildly spicy, delicate flavor. The upright leaf plates are about half a meter long.

  10. Red Snowdrop. An early variety that is productive and frost-resistant. The juicy and tender foliage is about 0.3 m tall.

Bathunion Properties

Bathunion Useful Properties

Onion: growing from seeds, planting and care in the open ground

Bathunions are as useful as onions, but they contain more vitamin C.

The leaves are high in nicotinic acid, riboflavin, carotene, thiamin, salts of potassium, magnesium and iron, and essential oil, which gives the leaves a specific smell and slightly bitter taste. Spring is the most valuable because at this time a man often suffers from vitamin deficiency, and only 150 grams of leaf can make up ½ of the daily norm of vitamin A and C, as well as 1/5 of the required amount of calcium and potassium, and these elements help improve the work of the cardiovascular system. Carotene, which is part of the plant, helps to keep the mucous membranes and epidermis in good condition. In Chinese medicine, this plant is used as a remedy that has analgesic, restorative, styptic, diaphoretic, anthelmintic, antibacterial and tonic effects. Nutritionists recommend that people with metabolic disorders in the body, as well as those suffering from liver disease, gout, hypertension, kidney stones, atherosclerosis and dysentery necessarily eat watermelon.

Tincture of watermelon is used in the treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal organs and fever. To prepare it, it is necessary to combine alcohol (70%) with finely chopped ramson (4:1). The tincture will be ready after 7 days, it remains only to filter. Take it in 15-20 drops, previously diluted in 50 ml of water. To prepare it, 1 tbsp.

just boiling water is combined with 80 grams of finely chopped chives, cover the container with a lid and wait 30 minutes. Strain the infusion drink 1 tbsp. 2 times a day after meals.

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Contraindications

Eating too much butterplant can cause nervous overstimulation. Such greens should be eaten with caution if you have gastritis, pancreatitis, and duodenal or stomach ulcers.

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