The herbaceous annual or perennial plant Leucanthemum is a member of the Asteraceae or Compositae family. Previously, this plant was referred to the genus Chrysanthemum. Leucanthemum differs from the chrysanthemum in that it has no odor characteristic of this genus and also has no pubescence, which consists of a light gray pile. According to various information, this genus includes 20-70 different species. The scientific name of this genus "Leucanthemum" in Greek means "white flower", the Russian name of this flower "Nivyanik" comes from the word "niva".
Most species of niviants are found in Asia and Europe in regions with temperate climates. It is also found in New Zealand, North America and Australia. Gardeners often refer to this plant as garden daisy. It is very popular in landscaping as well as in landscape design.
Peculiarities of Nivian
The flowering herbaceous plant Nivian has a red rhizome.
Oblique straight shoots are sparsely branched, varying in height from 0.3 to 1.2 m. Whole lobate or crenulated along the edge, leaf blades are lanceolate-long in shape and dark green in color. Leaf blades can be root or stem, depending on the species of daisy.
Large flowers in cross-section reach 60-120 mm, and they look very similar to daisies. The flowers are basket-shaped inflorescences, which include tubular florets of yellow color, which are surrounded by marginal lingual florets of yellow or white. Inflorescences are located at the ends of shoots. Niviennia blooms twice a season, in May-July and in August-September. The seeds in the center of the basket mature and take two to three years to germinate.
Growing daisies from seed
Growing daisies from seed has one advantage in that such plants will start blooming already in the current season. The seeds are sown in the last days of February or the first days of March. For sowing, you can take absolutely any container (crates, cups, pots, etc.), because later seedlings will need to unseed. However, to make it easier to control the humidity of the soil, it is better to take a shallow container for sowing.
Containers are filled with a ready-made soil mixture designed for planting flower seedlings, but if desired, you can take a mixture consisting of sand and high peat. Before sowing, the soil mixture and the container should be disinfected with a solution of manganese potassium. To begin with, a good drainage layer should be made at the bottom of the container, which is filled with the soil mixture. The container should not be filled to the top, 20-30 mm below the edge. The surface of the substrate should be smoothed, and then you need to evenly distribute the seeds, which deepen only 10 mm and covered with a thin layer of soil mixture.
The seeds should be moistened with a fine sprayer.
The container does not need to be covered, but it should be moved to a warm place (about 22 degrees). After the first seedlings appear, the container should be moved to a cooler place (18 to 20 degrees). When the plants will be 4 weeks old, they should be fertilized with a weak solution of cowpea. Prick seedlings produce in a month and a half age, for this she was seeded on the individual cups, which should be filled with soil mixture of the same composition, but it should be sprinkled with a little humus.
When choosing cups, take into account that in them the seedlings will grow before transplanting into open soil. When a few days pass after transplanting, the plants will need another 1 fertilizer, which uses a solution of organics. Note that the interval between the two fertilizers should be about 20-30 days. Planting seedlings in open soil in May, but only when the threat of spring frosts is over. However, the plants should be hardened for 15 days before planting.
The planting holes should reach 0.3 m across, the distance between them directly depends on the type of daisy and varies from 0.3 to 0.7 m. The distance between the rows should be at least 20 centimeters.
Before planting 20 grams of complete fertilizer and 300 to 400 grams of compost or humus should be put in the bottom wells. The seedlings are planted with a root ball and the wells are covered with nutrient soil. Planted seedlings need plenty of water. After the liquid has been completely absorbed into the soil and its surface has dried a little, cover the area with a layer of mulch, which is a mixture consisting of nitrate and sawdust (20 grams of nitrate per 1 bucket of sawdust).
Putting the loosestrife into the open ground
If you sow the seeds directly in the open ground, the plants will form a rosette of leaves and root system during the first year.
The first flowering can be seen only in the second year of growth. Sowing seeds into an open soil in the early spring or in the fall.
The plant can be cultivated in the same spot for seven years without replanting, so choose your planting plot particularly carefully. The location should be sunny, with moderately moist, well-drained soil and it should be cultivated to a depth of 0.25 to 0.
3 m. Black earth is best for the cultivation of wolfberry. If the soil is dry or poor, the value of inflorescences, the bushes growing on it will be small compared to those grown on fertile soil. When growing in the shade, the bushes are slower to develop, but their flowering is less lush and showy. In excessively heavy or light soil should be made humus (1 square meter takes respectively 20 and 15 kilograms).
Do not plant this plant in light sandy or clayey soils and also not in very wet locations because there is a great chance that the marigold will get fungal diseases and grow old too quickly. Then you need to make furrows, with a distance between them should not be less than 20 centimeters. The seeds should be buried 20 mm into the soil. After that, their embedding is made, and the plot is abundantly watered. The following day, the surface of the plot should be covered with a layer of mulch (peat).
After the seedlings appear, it is necessary to make their thinning.
If the sowing was under-wintering, the first seedlings should appear already in the early spring period, if in May to make the transplanting of plants to a permanent place, it is high probability that the bushes will bloom in autumn. If the seeds were sown in the spring, then in the fall you will have a strong and fully formed seedlings. It should be transplanted to a permanent place (planting scheme described above), after the plants have taken root, they will need to be covered for the winter.
Garden care of the wilting plant
There is nothing complicated about caring for the wilting plant.
Just give the shrubs timely watering, fertilizing, weeding and loosening the soil surface. To ensure that the bushes always look spectacular and beautiful, it is necessary in time to rip off the baskets that have begun to fade. Watering should be done only during drought, with 1 bucket of water per square meter of the plot. Once it has rained or watered, the ground between the bushes should be loosened up by pulling out all the weeds.
Nitrophoska fertiliser should be used: at the beginning of the vegetation period it should be a nitrogen rich solution and during budding potassium should dominate.
It is also recommended to feed this culture with a solution of cowpea. If there is such a possibility, then in the soil such organic material should be made once every six months, and then nivyanik fertilizer will not need to be fed with mineral fertilizers. However, in this case, during the budding period in the soil should be made bone meal instead of Nitrophoska. When flowering ends, the bushes will begin to lose their decorative effect very quickly and the stems should be shortened to 10-15 centimeters.
Diseases and pests
In rainy weather, fungal diseases may attack the bushes, especially if it rains for a long time.
Nivianthus can suffer from rust, powdery mildew, peronosporosis, spot disease, fusariosis, stem base rot and bacterial cancer. At the first symptoms of any of these diseases bush should be well sprayed with a bordeaux mixture (1%), if necessary, this procedure must be repeated 2 or 3 more times at intervals of a week and a half. However, before you start treatment, it is best to dig out and destroy those shrubs that are very severely affected.
Bushes may be infested by barnyard pest, meadow thrips, and chrysanthemum miners. To get rid of these pests, the bushes and the soil surface under them should be sprayed several times with a solution of Bazudin, Inta-vir, Aplaud or Vermitek.
Infusion of plants with insecticidal properties, such as celandine, marigold or yarrow, can also be used. Experienced gardeners recommend treating plants immediately with insecticides because they are much stronger and more effective than traditional remedies.
Pictures and varieties of the wilting plant with photos and names
Gardeners cultivate several species of wilting plant and also a very large number of its various varieties.
The swamp wort (Leucanthemum paludosum), or marsh chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum paludosum = Hymenostemma paludosum)
This species is native to southern Spain and Portugal. The bush is no taller than 0.
25m but is incredibly luxuriant. Its foliated, branched shoots can be angled or upright. The rich green sessile leaflets are crenate or spatulate on the edge in a row. Grows many baskets, which reach 30 mm across, tubular yellow flowers aggregated in a large disc, which is framed by short, marginal lingual flowers. Flowering begins in the last days of June and lasts until the first frost.
Curilaceae (Leucanthemum kurilense)
This species is a Curial-North Japanese endemic. This rock chamomile blooms late and is native to the East Asian islands of Hokkaido, Kurily and Honshu. This perennial reaches a height of only 0.2 m, and prefers to grow on coastal sands, rocks and rubble screes. The palmate leaf laminae are either three-lobed or five-lobed, with kidney-shaped to rounded outlines.
The rhizome is thick and fleshy. The large inflorescences may be solitary or few, consisting of yellow tubular and white lingual flowers.
Leucanthemum maximum (Leucanthemum maximum)
Native to this species are the Pyrenees. This perennial has a ground-rooted rhizome. It has many branching shoots that can range in height from 0.
5 to 1 meter. The stem leaves are petiolate and spatulate on the lower and oblong, sessile and cuneiform on the upper. Inflorescences are about 12 centimeters in diameter and include tubular median yellow flowers and lingual white flowers, which are arranged in 2 rows. In the mahre varieties, the baskets are very similar to chrysanthemums: they are filled with several rows of reed-like white flowers, while the corolla, which consists of tubular flowers and is located in the middle, is also colored white. Flowering of this species begins somewhat later than in other species, namely, after the first decade of July.
It has been cultivated since 1816. Popular varieties:
- Alaska. Inflorescences reach 10 centimeters across, lingual white flowers arranged in 1 row.
- Bethoven. The bushes bloom very abundantly and are about 50 cm high.
The inflorescences are simple, similar in appearance to a daisy.
- Christine Hagemann. Shrub height about 0.7 m, the baskets are terry.
- Little Princess.
A graceful bush about 0.2 m tall, the inflorescence is large, white in color.
- Snow Lady. This annual has baskets that reach 17 centimeters across.
- Stern von Antwerp.The bush is tall, with baskets that reach about 10 centimeters across. The tubular flowers are yellow and the lingual flowers are white.
The common willy (Leucanthemum vulgare), or meadow chamomile
This species is the best known, and is also called garden chamomile. In the wild, it prefers to grow in forest glades and meadows in the southern regions of Siberia and Europe. The height of this perennial ranges from 0.
8 to 0.9 m. The lower leaf laminae are stem-like, solid, and have an obovate shape, while the upper ones are oblong. Single inflorescences reach 60-70 mm across, they consist of small yellow median and 1 row of white lingual flowers. It has been cultivated since 1500.
In the middle latitudes the beginning of flowering of this species occurs in the last days of May or first days of June. Popular varieties:
- Maxima Koenig. The shrub is about 100 cm tall. The inflorescence reaches 12 centimeters across and consists of dark yellow tubular median flowers and 1 or 2 rows of lingual white flowers.
- May Quin.
The bush reaches half a meter in height. It has very showy baskets as well as beautiful dark green shiny leaf plates.
- San Souci. The bush is about 100 cm tall. The baskets are up to 12 centimeters across and consist of a small number of median yellow flowers and lingual white flowers, reaching 50 mm in length and arranged in 6-8 rows.