The plant Nephrolepis is a genus of ferns in the family Lomariopsis. In some classifications, this plant is referred to the family Davalliaceae. The Latin name was formed from the two Greek words "nephros" and "lepis," which translate as "buds" and "scales," this is due to the shape of the covering. There are about 30 species of this plant in the wild, and it is distributed throughout the world. Nephrolepsis is native to the shady forests of tropical America, Southeast Asia, Africa and Australia.
Fern growing as an ampel or potted plant and use as a decoration of various interiors. Apart from its spectacular appearance, this fern is an excellent air purifier.
Brief description of cultivation
- Flowering. Flowers do not form in this fern.
Sunlight must necessarily be diffused. The pot is placed near a window of western, northern or eastern orientation. Duration of light day necessary for this plant is from 14 to 16 h.
- Temperature regime. During vegetation period - from 20 to 24 degrees, during dormancy - approximately 15 degrees.
- Pouring. The frequency and abundance of watering is influenced by room temperature. So, the cooler it is in the room, the less water the plant needs. Remember that between waterings the surface of the potting soil must be allowed to dry out.
- Air Humidity.
It must be elevated. For this purpose, moisten the bush regularly and often enough with a sprayer, systematically shower and place the pot on a tray filled with wet pebbles.
- Fertilizer. Fertilization is carried out in March-September with a frequency of 3 or 4 times a month. Use a complex fertilizer for ornamental foliage plants.
If shrubs winter in a warm place, they will need to be fertilized once every 30 days.
- Storming period. October-February.
- Repotting. Young bushes are transplanted every year, and older specimens once every 2 or 3 years.
- Propagation. This fern can be propagated only by vegetative methods, namely by shoots, scions and bush division.
- Pests. Aphids, whiteflies, spider mites, rootworms, and scale.
The plant may lose its spectacular appearance due to excessively low humidity or improper care.
Peculiarities of the nephrolepsis fern
The herbaceous plant nephrolepsis may be terrestrial or epiphytic. Its rhizome is relatively short. The rosette consists of greenish pinnate leaf plates with short petioles, about 0.7 m long.
The plates are composed of serrated-edged, lanceolate segments about 50 mm long, with rounded soruses on either side of the median vein on their undersurface. Over time, the leaf laminae turn yellow and die off. Leafless shoots depart from the rhizome, the surface of which is covered with scales. Such shoots give roots quite quickly when rooted.
Neprolepsis indoor plants - home fern Nephrolepsis
Home care of Nephrolepsis
Before you purchase a nephrolepsis to be grown in the room, you must be sure to know how to care for it.
Sunlight should be sure to be diffused, as direct scorching rays can harm the fern. Therefore, it is advisable to choose a place for it away from the window opening and from direct sunlight. If you choose to place it on a window sill, then windows in the west, north or east should be preferred.
For the normal development and growth of the fern, a 14 to 16 hour day requires light, so if you want your bush to look very lush and showy, then it must be inter-lighted. This fern develops well under daylight and is therefore often used to decorate the halls of large office buildings or hotels.
In the spring and summer the best temperature for this plant will be 20 to 24 degrees. However, if you moisten its foliage with a sprayer often enough, you can also grow it at higher temperatures. During wintering, it needs to be cool (about 15 degrees) and remember that the bush should be placed as far away from heating devices as possible. If you can not move nephrolepsis to a cool place for the winter, then let it grow where it grew, but moisten the foliage and water it in exactly the same way as during the warm season. During the warm winter its growth and development will not be halted, but it will grow much slower.
Ferns grown as indoor plants must be systematically fed with composite fertiliser, using a concentration of ¼ of that stated on the package. Fertilizer should be applied in March-September 3 or 4 times every 30 days. If the bush is kept in a cool place during the winter, there's no need to feed it at this time. However, if the shrub is overwintering in a warm place, you will continue to water it, but not more often than once every four weeks.
How to water
Pour the shrub as soon as the top layer of substrate in the container has dried out.
The frequency and abundance of watering is directly influenced by the room temperature, so the cooler the room, the less liquid the plant will need. In cool overwintering conditions, watering should be infrequent and more sparing than usual.
The air humidity in the room where the fern is located must be increased. To achieve this, moisten the foliage systematically and often enough from a sprinkler and also try to give the flower a shower at least once every 30 days. Still to increase humidity in the tray is recommended to sleep in expanded clay or pebbles and pour so much water that it is not in contact with the bottom of the pot.
Water the plant either with filtered or settled water at room temperature.
Potting out Nephrolepis
You can transplant young plants every year in the spring, older plants only need to be transplanted once every 2 or 3 years. To grow such a culture it is recommended to choose a container of plastic, because it will retain moisture in the substrate much longer compared to ceramic pots. The bush has a superficial system of roots, in connection with this for its planting, it is worth choosing a low but wide container.
When transplanting the bush, first make a good layer of drainage from claydite at the bottom of the container, then it is filled with a layer of light soil mixture, its approximate composition: coniferous and greenhouse soil and top peat (1:1:1).
Experts advise to pour bone meal into the ready substrate (5 grams per 1 kilogram of earth mixture). If you do not want to prepare your own substrate, then buy ready-made in a specialized store, for this will suit an acidic soil mixture for ferns, and still soil for callas, camellias or hydrangeas with a pH of 4.5-5.5.
When transplanting make sure that the root neck of the bush towered over the surface of the substrate.
For the first few weeks after transplanting ensure constant high humidity and make sure the potting soil is always slightly moist.
Nephrolepis fern. Replanting, care and propagation.
Pests and Diseases of Nephrolepis
If cared for incorrectly when growing in room conditions, it is very likely that aphids, spider mites, whiteflies or scales will settle on it. To get rid of these pests, the plant should be sprayed with a solution of an insecticide such as Actara, Actellic etc.
- Drying leaves. The most common reason for leaf plates to dry up is very little or no watering. When only the tips of the leaves wither, excessively low humidity is to blame.
- Foliage desiccation. In some cases, the leaves can turn brown before they curl up and fall off.
This can occur for several reasons: it is too cold in the room, the shrub has been watered too cool, too hard or too chlorinated or has been exposed to a draft.
- Dry spots on foliage. Most often, dry spots on the surface of leaf plates appear as a result of sunburn.
Properties of Nephrolepis
Some experts believe that such fern can absorb electromagnetic radiation and energy harmful to the human body. And it also helps strengthen the body's defenses and tones it, and can clean the air of harmful fumes and dust.
At home, nephrolepsis can be placed near the TV or near the computer, and also it will be a nice decoration for any office. According to psychologists, if such a plant will be around for a long time, it will contribute to the detection of assiduity, judgment and perseverance. But it should be kept in mind that smoke from tobacco contributes to the reduction of such useful properties of the fern.
Reproduction of Nephrolepsis
Nephrolepsis can only be propagated by vegetative means, namely by shoots, division of rhizomes or offspring. This is because most varieties of this fern are sterile.
Those that do form spores, they do not retain the varietal qualities of the mother plant.
That is usually done in the spring, and you try to combine this with replanting. Large mature shrubs with several growing points should be selected for dividing. Each one should have at least one growing point and should be planted in individual plastic pots, and then well watered. In order for the dividers to root quickly, they need a cool environment (15 to 18 degrees) and high air humidity.
They do not develop vigorously for a long time after planting because they need to put up a root system first.
#Natka_sun // Dividing Ferns - Neprolepis
Take a pot filled with light substrate and place it close to the fern pot. Pick out 1 leafless shoot (a whisker), take it aside and then bury it in the prepared pot at a depth of 5 to 8mm, leaving the tip unburied. As long as the scion grows roots, make sure that the potting soil in the container is always a little damp. Usually after 1.
5-2 weeks they will take root. After a while, young shoots are formed on the scion. Separation from the parent bush is carried out only after the bushes become stronger, after which they are planted in a separate pot.
The species and varieties of nephrolepsis with photos and names
Florists cultivate very few species of nephrolepsis, but also their varieties. The most popular ones will be discussed in more detail below.
Nephrolepis sublime (Nephrolepis exaltata)
In the wild, this species can be a ground rhizomatous plant or an epiphyte. It has an upright rhizome, and on it forms a rosette consisting of large greenish pinnate-compound short-cellular leaf plates that reach up to 0.7 m in length. The plates include lanceolate segments, which are about 50 mm long and serrated-ciliated along the edge. Old leaf laminae turn yellow and die off.
On the underside surface of the segments, soruses with spores inside are located on both sides of the central vein. Stolons are observed to form on the rhizome (scaly-covered shoots), and they root fairly quickly. This species is native to tropical Southeast Asia. It has a large number of garden forms and varieties:
- Nephrolepis Roosevelt. The large bush possesses wavy segments of vines.
These wills stick out in different directions.
- Nephrolepis maas. The leaves of the compact bush are wavy.
- Nephrolepis scotta. This fern is also quite compact, its segments curled around the edges.
- Nephrolepis Green Lady. This spectacular plant is distinguished by the fact that its wavy openwork leaf plates with a pointed top are gathered in a lush fountain. This rosette is arranged on an upright rhizome.
- Nephrolepis emina. A compact, low-growing plant, it has almost erect wyles.
The foliage is curly and has carved denticles along its edge.
- Nephrolepis boston, or Nephrolepis boston. This upright fern came into being thanks to American breeders. Such a plant is used to produce new varieties with double-, triple- and quadruple-ventured leaves that are about 1.2m long and have twisted or wavy segments such as:
- Hills and Fluffy Raffles nephrolepis whose leaves are double-ventured;
- Whitman nephrolepis whose leaves are triple-ventured;
- Smith nephrolepis whose leaflets are quadripetal.
This species, unlike Nephrolepis sublime, has swellings on its underground shoots which look like tubers and have a layer of white or silvery scales on their surface. It also has whorls that point almost upward and have denser, rounded segments, which may be arranged in a tortoise-like pattern. This plant is native to the subtropical forests of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. It has been cultivated since 1841. The leaves of this fern are often used to make bouquets.
Nephrolepis sword-like (Nephrolepis biserrata)
Native to Central America. Its leaf plates are very long, in some cases when grown in a greenhouse they can reach 200-250 centimeters in length. This plant is only suitable for decorating large rooms.
Promises associated with Nephrolepsis
Nephrolepsis fern is very popular with gardeners, probably because of this there are many legends about it, and there is also a large number of superstitions and omens associated with it. Some say that it has a beneficial effect on both the person and the room in which it is located, while others are confident that it has magical properties that can affect human destiny.
There is a very old legend, which tells that no man can see the flowers of the fern, because they bloom on the night of St. John's Day, and they are immediately plucked by an invisible hand. And if someone dares to go in search of such a flower, various mystical horrors await him. Another belief says that such a plant is able to protect the home from unclean forces, black magic and evil witchcraft, while it protects the owner from spoilage and evil eye.
There are also people convinced that the fern can bring success in business, and also have a positive impact on the financial condition of the owner, namely: can attract wealth in the house, and also protect people from unnecessary spending and irrational deeds.
There are rumors that after the appearance of nephrolepsis in the house, people suddenly became rich.
Some experts believe that such a plant will help find common ground for its owners who have different temperaments. It promotes the elimination of irascibility, mitigation of aggressive traits of a person's character, as well as smoothing confrontations. This is most probably the reason for its other name, the "plant of the golden mean".
For many florists who do not believe in various superstitions and omens, Nephrolepsis is simply a very beautiful plant that makes the air cleaner and the room cosier.
Nephrolepsis room fern. Cultivation and care.