The herbaceous mordant (Echinops) has a spectacular appearance. During flowering, it forms spiny, ball-shaped inflorescences that can be colored in different shades. Mordovnik is a valuable melliferous and medicinal plant and is therefore widely used both medicinally and by people.
Properties of Mordovnik
Mordovnik is a strongly growing herbaceous plant that belongs to the Aster family. The shrub can reach a height of over 200 cm, so it is most often cultivated in parks and garden plots.
Most species of mordowrn are perennials, but there are also annuals and biennials.
In appearance the plant looks quite unusual. It is also popularly referred to as bluegill, perestrel, tatarnik. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant and widely used in folk medicine and for household purposes.
The root of the plant is long, powerful and branched.
Its stems are erect and tall. The slender branching roots are thick and dense so that the plant gets the right amount of nutrients from the ground. To grow intensively and develop well, the muzzle plant needs a lot of free space.
Almost all species have only one stem per shrub. However, there are also varieties which grow several stems at once.
They are fleshy and dense, grow straight and reach over 50 mm in cross-section. There are sharp spines on the surface of the stem, which makes it appear thicker. Its color may vary from lettuce to greenish (depending on the species). Slightly larger adventitious shoots may form on the stem. The lower part may have more of these shoots than the upper one.
The whole length of the stem is decorated with intricately carved leaf plates which make the shrub look very unusual. The leaves have a smooth surface and a serrated edge. They look as if they are torn in several places. The lower part of the shrub has more foliage than the upper part. There are only isolated leaf laminae at the top of the shrub.
The leaves of the main species are dark green in color. Leaves reach up to 30 centimeters in length at the bottom of the plant, but become shorter as they approach the top. And at the top of the muzzle, it can reach only about 10 centimeters in length. The leaf plates are also quite wide, with a maximum in cross-section of about 15 centimeters. The front surface of the foliage is smooth and shiny, while the underside is rough, which helps to avoid over-wetting.
The beginning of flowering is in the last spring or first summer weeks. It is considered a good honeybee carrier and attracts bees to the site. Its large, ball-shaped inflorescences may be painted a purple or bluish-blue hue. There are some species whose inflorescences are colored white. A single inflorescence can contain up to 400 flowers, which all open at the same time.
Over the course of a season, about three dozen inflorescences bloom on a shrub. They reach a diameter of at least 50 mm. The mordowberry blooms for over four weeks.
When the bush is finished flowering, it produces small, capsule-shaped seeds inside the flowers. The seeds are no more than 0.
5 cm in size and are colored brown.
Mordovil is found in almost all regions of Russia. It is particularly widespread in Siberia, the European part and the Caucasian plain.
This herbaceous plant prefers to grow in open and well-lit areas. In nature it is most often found near rivers and in meadows.
In addition, the muzzlegrass can often be seen in wasteland and other areas characterized by their aridity. The fact is that it has an unpretentiousness and vitality. Interestingly, even if the shrub withers away completely, it will still retain its ornamental value.
Agrotechnics of honeydews. Mordovnik.
Fastest and easiest way to grow mordovnik from seed. Harvest fully matured fruits in the fall, then store them in a dry and warm place. With the onset of spring, the seed material should be combined with sawdust, and then it is sown directly into the open ground in small grooves, which should be prepared in advance. Their depth should not be more than 20 mm and the distance between them should be about 50 centimeters.
Sowing mordanthus seeds can also be done in autumn.
However, for the seeds to germinate successfully, they will need good shelter throughout the winter. When the sowing is finished, the grooves are covered with a rake. If the wintering goes well, you will be able to see the first seedlings immediately after the snow cover comes off in the spring time.
In regions with frosty winters, this herbaceous plant is grown through sprouts. In this case, the seeds are sown in the first spring weeks, and containers or small pots are used for this purpose.
Do not forget to systematically water the crops with a sprayer. To speed up the germination of the seeds, you should cover the container with foil on top, and then take it to a place where it is always warm.
If you do everything right, the first seedlings should show in about 7 days. As soon as this happens, remove the cover and provide the seedlings with systematic watering. When the weather is warm outside and the plants have several true leaves, they will be planted permanently in the garden.
Perennial planting in the open ground is recommended in May. For this purpose, a site with loose soil that is well permeable to water and air and contains a lot of peat and sand is suitable. And the soil must be weakly acidic. In a heavy dense soil the plant can die. Please note that only a site that is not located near an artificial or natural body of water is suitable for growing mordowberry.
Within the first year of growth, bushes gain strength and build up green mass. They do not flower until the second year. Each year the plant becomes larger, thicker and more showy.
Since mordant is a great honeybee, it is quite popular with beekeepers. In addition, parks and garden areas are often decorated with this flower.
For the bushes to bloom lushly and for a long time, they need good and proper care.
Gardeners most often grow such a culture from seeds. It is quite easy to do this. Those species and varieties of mordowberry, which are perennials, are undemanding to the conditions of cultivation. In this regard, you can plant such a flower on almost any site.
The greatest attention on the part of the gardener is required by the plant only in the first year of growth, when it is still weak. During this period, special attention should be paid to watering, because the mordowberry can suffer from both overwatering and overdrying of the soil. In addition, the plant in the first year of growth is characterized by low resistance to frost. Since its root system has not yet fully formed and strengthened, the bush can die from frost. This is why it needs extra care at this time.
Open and well-lit areas are best for growing mordowberries. For example, it will grow and grow well if it is placed in the central part of a bed that is on the south side of the garden plot. Remember that the sun's rays should hit this herbaceous plant for most of the day. If the flower grows even in slight shade, it may die.
This plant is not afraid of sudden changes in temperature during the day.
Mature shrubs can withstand severe frosts and summer heat equally well. They are characterized by high drought tolerance. Remember, however, that young plants that are less than 1 year old are still very weak and need more attention from the gardener.
Strong wind and draught will not be able to prevent the mordow from growing and developing within normal limits. But sometimes still the stem may break under the weight of its own weight.
As a result, adult plants growing outdoors need extra support and garter.
A fully mature shrub does not need watering even during a prolonged drought. But as a young shrub it is absolutely necessary to water regularly during its first year of growth (at least once every 7 days), otherwise it will not grow and develop properly.
Mature shrubs, however, grow perfectly well and do not wilt even when soil cracking occurs during heat and drought. But during such a period, they cannot fully bloom.
For this reason, mature plants should still be watered once or twice a month during a prolonged drought. At the same time, pour out such an amount of water that the roots can be saturated with moisture.
For the bushes to look spectacular and bloom lushly, it is necessary that the soil contains quite a lot of nutrients. This is why the mordowberry growing in the garden needs regular fertilisers. During the season, organic fertilizers are applied to the soil twice, namely in spring (after the establishment of warm weather) and in autumn (shortly before the first frosts).
For the mordowberry to grow within limits, it needs nitrogen fertilizers. In this regard, organic fertilizer should be high in nitrogen and minerals. Nitrogen fertilizers such as ammonium nitrate can be bought at specialist retailers.
To keep the shrubs looking nice and to prevent them from going wild, they need to be pruned regularly. It will also help prevent unwanted self-seeding.
Pruning is done after the bush has flowered. For this purpose, a part of the stem with faded inflorescences is cut off and destroyed.
Before the first frosts, the part of the plant that rises above the ground should be completely cut off. This will help the flower to prepare properly for wintering. The fact is that the above-ground part will wither anyway, and will no longer be of any decorative value.
With the onset of spring, active growth of young shoots from the root will begin.
The adult mordowberry is highly winter-hardy and does not need any special preparation for winter. It is able to withstand even the harshest frosts without additional sheltering. All that needs to be done is to cut the stems off after they are completely dry.
But young bushes are not as frost-resistant as adult bushes.
Therefore, they need to be covered in late autumn. To begin with, cut off the withered bushes, and then cover the area with a layer of fallen leaves or lapnik. When the snow melts off the ground in spring, the cover should be removed.
Gardeners propagate the mordowberry using two methods: vegetative (bush division) and generative (seeds).
Growing using vegetative method uses adult bushes that have flowered for at least two consecutive years.
With this method of propagation, the gardener can get 1 or 2 new bushes. The division is done in the autumn after flowering and after the fruit has fully matured.
Remove the plant from the ground and clean the root system from the excess soil. Divide the bush into several parts, bearing in mind that small dividers take root very poorly, become ill for a long time and may even die. Immediately after dividing, plant the cut parts of the plant in a permanent place.
Once the pieces are planted, water them well and give them enough sunlight.
Growing from seed
When the fruits of mordanthus are well ripe, you can start collecting seeds. Sow them in the open ground immediately in the fall or wait until spring. In this case, take into account that in any case, young bushes will please with their blossoming only in the second year of growth. Timely harvested and properly stored seeds of this crop remain germinating for two years.
Seeds are sown in the springtime in a previously prepared area with well-drained and moisture-absorbing soil. Be sure to moisten the soil before sowing. When the procedure is finished, level the surface of the plot. If the weather outside is warm, then the first seedlings should appear after 1-1.5 weeks.
In late autumn cover the seedlings with a layer of lapnik or fallen leaves. When spring arrives and warm weather, the cover must be removed. After a short time shoots should appear, then the bushes will actively begin to increase green mass.
Diseases and pests
Mordovet is quite resistant to both pests and diseases. However, the plant can suffer due to improper care, or more precisely, due to stagnant liquid in the soil.
As a result, rot can develop on the root system and shoots. It is impossible to cure a sick bush. It should be dug up and burned as soon as possible, and the area where it was growing should be treated with a fungicide solution.
Mordovetop species with photos
There are approximately 200 species of mordowberry. However, only a few dozen species are cultivated outdoors and are the most winter-hardy and undemanding.
Mordovetail spherical or round-headed (Echinops sphaerocephalus)
This species is the most common. It is a strong-growing plant with thick, powerful branching stems covered with few leaves. The large inflorescences are ball-shaped and richly colored. Bushes do not exceed 150 centimeters in height. The stem branches strongly only at the top, with the lower part almost bare.
Smooth sessile leaf plates are colored dark green. Their edges are serrated, with spines at the tips. The leaves are pinnate, broad and long, with most of them at the base of the shrub.
The stems are strong and thick (about 70 mm across). This prevents them from breaking even when exposed to strong gusts of wind and allows them to grow erect.
The mordant flowering springs up in the last weeks of spring and ends in June. At that time, snow-white, ball-shaped inflorescences form in the upper parts of its stems. They may reach up to 80 mm across and in addition to flowers they also contain prickles. By the way, compared to other species of the Mordovnik genus, this species has the largest inflorescences.
Russian Common Mordovnik (Echinops ritro)
This species is characterized by its compactness and small size.
As a rule, the bush rarely reaches more than 50 centimeters in height. It has sharp spines on the surface of its dense dark green stem. The species also has pubescence on the underside surface of the leaf blades and stem, which is composed of silvery hairs.
The alternately long leaf blades extend along the full length of the stem, with spines on the surface. The shrub blooms in the second half of summer, so it is of no value to beekeepers.
During the flowering period small globular inflorescences are formed, reaching about 30 mm across. In nature, the flowers are colored blue-purple in color. However, varieties with blue or white flowers are usually cultivated in the garden.
When the plant blooms, fruit is formed in place of the inflorescences, inside which there are small brown seeds. In nature, the seeds fall to the ground and quickly germinate, forming dense thickets.
Broadleaf mordowr (Echinops latifolius)
This species also has a short stature. Together with inflorescences it reaches not more than 0.7 m in height. This species is characterized by a dense pubescence of silvery hairs on the surface of the dark green stem. The stem branches only in the upper part.
The consecutive pinnate leaf plates are dark green in color, with a serrated edge. The fairly large leaflets at the base of the shrub reach about 25 centimeters in length and up to 10 centimeters in width. Their front surface is smooth and shiny, while the underside has silvery pubescence.
The bushes bloom in the last spring weeks. At this time, purple-blue or deep-blue inflorescences rise above it.
They are shaped like a ball and look prickly but actually feel quite soft. This variety is often grown as an ornamental plant.
Mordovnik in landscape design
Because of its unusual appearance and spherical, prickly inflorescences, it is widely cultivated in the open ground. It is often used as a background for stunted flowering crops. Quite often in gardens you can meet a compact and undemanding in the care of mordowberry ordinary.
And the broadleaf muzzle is often planted in parks, but it can also be found in gardens.
This plant will delight the eye with its unusual lush flowering for several years. It looks great when planted along a fence or in the background of an alpine hill. In addition, the mordowberry with blue inflorescences is used to dilute flower beds in which delicate flowers prevail.
When planting the mordowberry, the size of the adult bush should be taken into account.
Don't forget that the plant may also need a support. The dried mordowberry also looks quite showy and combines well with the green buds of other small flowering plants.
Mordowberry is recommended next to dahlias, phlox, asters and valianthus. It can also be grown next to Chinese rose, marigolds and primrose.
Therapeutic properties and indications for use
Because of its chemical composition, mordowberry is used to make medicines in official medicine.
For example, echinopsin, contained in morsels, used to be widely used in medicine for central nervous system disorders. But due to the fact that this substance is very toxic, experts have decided to abandon its use. But in alternative medicine even today there are many recipes using mordantel. This plant is used in the treatment of many different diseases.
In folk medicine, preparations based on this plant are widely used to strengthen the human immune system and for the general recovery of the body.
Such preparations are also often used to improve the condition of a person who has undergone surgery on internal organs. In addition, there is information about the high efficiency of mordovia in treating diseases of the heart (eg, stroke or heart attack).
This flower has the following medicinal virtues:
- a diuretic;
- a choleretic;
- a blood-quenching plant.
In addition to this, the seeds of this plant help to improve brain function and strengthen mental activity.
Mordovetica Medicinal Properties
All the medicinal properties of mordovetica are due to its unusual chemical composition.
It contains the following substances: essential oils, steroids, ascorbic acid, saponins, echinopsin, flavonoids, resins and rubber, as well as mineral compounds.
The seed material of this crop contains many tannins. They contribute to the fact that the human body is cleared of toxic substances and toxins. Also stand out are the fruits of mordowberry, which includes most of the useful components. And as a medicinal raw material, both its inflorescences and leaf plates are used.
From the harvested raw materials in folk medicine prepare infusions, tinctures, and also decoctions. Such remedies are most often used for the following health problems:
- muscle tone disorders;
- gastrointestinal disorders;
- inflammatory processes in internal organs;
- increased body temperature;
- to normalize male genital organs;
- to reduce bad cholesterol in the blood;
- for hearing loss and hearing disorders that are due to nervous system damage;
- lower blood pressure;
- mixed sclerosis;
Please note that it is highly undesirable and often dangerous to use muzzleloader-based preparations on your own. The fact is that each of the parts of such a plant contains the strongest poison. Therefore, a wrong recipe for preparing a tincture or infusion can lead to serious poisoning.
The composition of such a plant contains a lot of echinopsin. Despite the fact that this substance is poisonous, if its dosage is correct, it has a powerful healing effect. Medicines based on echinopsin are used to treat affected areas of the nervous system. In addition, this substance is used for spinal cord disorders, hypotonus, atrophy, cuts and neuromuscular paralysis. Echinopsin has also been proven effective in the treatment of optic atrophy.
Recipes of folk medicine
In alternative medicine, infusions and decoctions based on mordovia are quite widely used. There are quite a few recipes for such remedies, which are selected by the attending physician, taking into account the disease and the clinical situation of the patient. In order to prepare such a remedy, dry fruits are taken, which are harvested in the early fall, when the seed capsules are fully mature. If stored properly, the drug will keep its properties for two years.
A restorative tincture
To obtain a restorative and tonic tincture you should add 1 tbsp.
hot water and 3 tsp. seeds. Cover the top of the container and put it in a place where it is dark and cool for 12 hours. Before taking the remedy, it should be strained, for this use gauze rolled in several layers. In the strained infusion should not remain seeds, because if they get into the body, they can cause severe poisoning.
Drink it four times a day at 50 milligrams.
Treatment of impotence
To get rid of impotence, a water infusion is also used. The water is also used to get rid of impotence. 4 parts of the seeds of the plant are poured into 1.5 tbsp.
just boiled water. The infusion will be ready after 12 hours, it remains only to strain well, so that the healing drink did not contain seeds. The remedy is drunk three times a day at ¼ of a glass.
Treatment of psoriasis
To stop psoriasis, use a tincture in alcohol of the seeds of mordovia. To prepare it, 0.
25 liters of alcohol or vodka combine with 1 tbsp. medicated material. Mix well and seal the composition tightly in a bottle. Put it in a dark and cool place for half a month, remembering to systematically give the contents of the bottle a good shaking.
This remedy is used exclusively externally.
Twice or thrice a day it should be smeared on problem areas. Even from the tincture make compresses, and keep them no longer than 2 hours. Already after 2 weeks of treatment of such a disease with the tincture, the first positive changes are observed. A qualitative improvement in well-being will be noticed after three months of systematic use of the tincture.
Treatment of blood pressure and vegetative disorders
Crush the seed material of mulberry to a powdery state in a blender.
Pour 3 tsp. of the prepared seeds into 1 tbsp. just boiling water. Cover the glass with a lid and leave the mixture for 3 hours. Well strain the drink so that it does not contain particles of seeds.
Drink it four times a day for 1/3 tbsp. The course duration is not more than a week and a half.
Treatment of dystrophy
Dystrophic disorders use alcoholic tincture of mordant. To prepare it, 1 tsp. of seeds is combined with ½ tbsp.
alcohol. The mixture is poured into a bottle that is tightly corked. Tincture will be ready after a couple of weeks. It is drunk directly before meals, 10 drops. Course duration - 30 days, with positive changes seen after 1-1.
5 weeks of regular use tincture. At the end of the course a 1-month break, and then do it again.
Recipe for disorders of the central nervous system
In this case, a decoction is used. 1 tbsp. of hot water is combined with 1 tsp.
of the seed of this plant. Boil the mixture over low heat for 15 minutes. Remove the mixture from the fire and leave it to infuse for a couple of hours. The decoction is drunk four times a day by 1 tbsp.
Even with CNS disorders, an infusion of such a medicinal plant is used.
To make it, combine one glass of freshly boiled water with 3 tsp. seeds. Cover the mixture with a lid and put it in a dark place for 12 hours. Strain it well and then drink it three times a day before meals with ¼ tbsp.
For urinary incontinence
You will need to crush the seed material of the mulberry.
Mix three small spoonfuls of the resulting raw material with 1 tbsp of water that has just boiled over. Cover the glass with a lid and put it in a dark place. The remedy will be ready after 2-3 hours. Be sure to strain it well and drink a third of a cup. Improvement will be noticeable after about 2 weeks of systematic infusion.
Treatment of sciatica
Pour 100 milligrams of pure medical alcohol into a bottle and sprinkle 1 tsp. of mordowberry seeds. Put in a bottle and keep it in a dark place for one month. Shake the mixture systematically well. When the tincture is ready, be sure to strain it.
It is used to rub the problem areas, using it regularly 10 times a day.
Treatment of chronic otitis
In a small container, combine 10 tsp. sunflower oil and 2 tsp. ground seeds of this healing plant. The mixture is boiled for a couple of hours in a water bath.
When it cools, strain it. Such a remedy thrice a day buried in the ears: in each ear - 3 drops. At the same time at night in the ears are inserted turundas made with such a remedy. Course duration - 30 days.
In diseases of the ear associated with damage to the nervous system, use the following herbal mixture: seed mordowberry, bewitchia and loveseed, oregano herb and rose hips (taken in equal proportions).
1.5 tbsp. cold water is combined with 1 tbsp. such a mixture and leave for 3 hours. Then it is placed on the fire and allowed to simmer for five minutes.
Decoction is left for 1 hour to infuse, then it is well filtered. The potion is drunk 3 times daily for 30 days in ¼ tbsp.
Treatment of facial neuritis
First, prepare an herbal mixture: Combine 1 part each of peppermint, melissa and oregano, then add half of the seed material of the mordant. Combine the mixture with 200 ml of boiling water and allow to infuse for 1 hour. The infusion is used for lotions, which are placed on the problem areas twice a day.
To do this, rub the infusion into the skin, and then cover it with absorbent cotton or a bandage for 30 minutes. The course duration is 7 days.
Contraindications for the use of mordowberry
Any healing remedy prepared on the basis of mordowberry must be used with great caution. Incorrectly administered such remedies can lead to poisoning and also to nervous disorders, convulsions and other motor paralysis.
Signs of poisoning include dizziness, nausea, vomiting and a feeling of weakness in the body.
Muscle pain and headache are also observed in the poisoned person. If these symptoms are present, it is necessary to seek medical attention immediately. While doctors are en route, 1 liter of a pinkish solution of manganese potassium should be drunk.
Contraindications for taking preparations based on mordantium:
- hypertensive disease or high blood pressure;
- bronchial asthma;
- renal disease;
- uncontrollable seizures;
- pregnancy and breastfeeding period;
- diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- non-infectious and infectious liver diseases (hepatitis, cirrhosis);
- disorders of the thyroid.
No way should such medication be given to children.
If you have no contraindications, then first consult a qualified specialist who will prescribe the right dosage and duration of treatment. Do not use any medicine with mordowberry if you have an unexplained allergic history.
Gathering and harvesting
Mordowberry can only be harvested independently in regions where its area of growth is quite extensive. As a rule, in the Russian Federation this plant is harvested only in the Caucasus, but even there the area is becoming smaller every year. Raw material is collected in summertime after the first inflorescences open and the fruits mature.
Gathered inflorescences are well dried by placing in a dry, ventilated room. The dried flowers and seeds are placed in paper bags, having previously cleaned of debris. Raw material is stored in a warm and dry place. It is stored for no longer than two years.
Mordovil as a honeybee
Mordovil is considered an excellent honeybee.
Because one flower contains up to 20 milligrams of sugars, bees use this nectar when making honey. From an area of 1 hectare planted with mordowberry, bees in a season can collect about one ton of honey. The best honey-carrier is the globular mullion, because its flowers contain the highest percentage of sugars. Compared with other species of mordanthus, they contain about 1/3 of sugars.
The nectar collected from such a plant has a yellowish color.
At the same time, the honey is pure and transparent, and has a delicate taste. The sugaring makes the honey appear almost white. Bee products that have been obtained with the addition of mordowberry are distinguished by their medicinal properties. That's why for the treatment of some ailments, honey from different herbs with the addition of mordantip is used.
Bloom of the mordant and the flight of the bees