Moniliosis: Treatment And Prevention, How To Fight It On Cherry, Apricot

The causative agent of a fungal disease such as moniliosis, either fruit rot or moniliasis, is Ascomycetes monilia. This disease is widespread in areas with temperate climates, especially in those regions where the spring is wet and cold. Moniliosis most commonly affects fruit crops:

  • bone trees are affected by the pathogen Monilia cinerea;
  • seedle trees by the pathogen Monilia fructigena;
  • aiva by the pathogen Monilia cydonia.

Special features of moniliosis

Moniliosis: treatment and prevention, how to fight it on cherry, apricot

The moniliosis pathogen most often affects the plant during flowering. It can enter the plant through the bark, with an incubation period of about 15 days.

Then gradual boring and withering of flowers and leaves begins, until they eventually die. On leaf petioles and pedicels, in warm and damp weather, very small white pustules appear on the underside, containing fungal spores. Carriers of these spores are garden pests and wind, hitting healthy plants and trees, they affect them moniliosis, resulting in the formation on the surface of fruits patches of brown, which as the disease increases in size until they cover the entire surface. Flesh of an infected fruit becomes soft, brownish, and has an alcoholic taste. 1-1.

5 weeks after the fruit is infested, small creamy pads (sporodochia) appear on its surface. With time, affected fruits mummify, containing sclerocia or mycelium, which may fall to the ground or remain on the plant branch until spring.

The disease develops most actively under the following conditions: air temperature of 15 to 20 degrees and humidity of 95 to 100 percent. In middle latitudes, this disease occurs everywhere.

Treatment of moniliosis

Moniliosis: treatment and prevention, how to fight it on cherry, apricot

To get rid of moniliosis, a comprehensive approach, including proper care, rules of agricultural technique, preventive measures, as well as chemical preparations and folk remedies, will be required.

In order to protect plants from this disease next year, when the growing season is over, it is necessary to remove all diseased fruits from the site, cut diseased stems and shoots, and be sure to destroy it all by fire. And also, shortly before the beginning of the dormancy period, the base of skeletal branches and boles of fruit-trees are whitewashed with a solution of lime, in which a fungicidal preparation is added. Throughout the growing season, inspect trees regularly, and at the first symptoms of moniliosis, immediately begin fighting the disease. This is done by treating fruit crops with a special agent that can kill the pathogen. However, before treating, all diseased stems and branches should be cut out, and the diseased fruits should be cut off, after which everything should be destroyed.

Preventive measures

Moniliosis: treatment and prevention, how to fight it on cherry, apricot

Many gardeners know that any disease is much easier to prevent than to fight it later. This also applies to moniliosis, since the best method of dealing with it is prevention. So what can be done to protect your garden from this fungal disease? Basic measures to prevent moniliosis:

  1. When planting seedlings, try to maintain the distance between them that is recommended by experts. If the trees are planted too close to each other, they will be more difficult for the wind to blow through, which has a positive effect on the spreading and development of pathogens.
  2. Trees should be planted in areas well ventilated by the wind.

    Therefore, all frost bruises and wounds should be treated and plastered over in a timely manner.

  3. Don't forget to prune in a timely manner. When removing diseased branches, be sure to grab some healthy tissue and do not forget to treat all cuts with garden varnish.
  4. In winter time, no diseased fruit should remain on the branches of the tree. They are cut off and destroyed along with the cut stems and branches that are affected by the disease.

  5. For pests that injure the bark and above-ground parts of fruit crops, be controlled in a timely manner. Don't forget to eradicate their larvae as well.
  6. In autumn, make sure that the soil in the plant's root zone is always recultivated.
  7. When feeding the plants, be careful of the amount of fertilizer applied and avoid both deficiency and excess of nutrients.
  8. Only disinfected garden tools may be used for fruit-tree cultivation.

  9. Specialists advise, to grow on a garden plot choose those varieties of trees that are highly resistant to pests and diseases.

Also one of the main preventive measures are regular treatments with special chemical preparations, which are carried out before flowering. Solutions such as Micosan-B, Horus, Bordeaux liquid (1%) are used for foliar treatment, and other fungicides containing copper can also be used. Repeated preventive spraying is carried out immediately after the tree blossoms, then treatment with fungicide preparation is carried out 1 or 2 times in July. In the autumn after harvest, the plants are also sprayed once or twice with copper-containing products.

Moniliosis on pome and stone fruits

Pears and apples

Moniliosis: treatment and prevention, how to fight it on cherry, apricot

Moniliosis is very dangerous for stone fruit crops because affected fruits cannot be eaten. Plants in this case are affected by conidia of Monilia fructigena. Apple or pear trees can be recognized as infected by the following symptoms: Firstly, a roundish brown spot appears on the fruit, followed by rapid increase in size. Eventually, the spot covers a large part of the fruit or its entire surface. Affected fruit turns brown, and its flesh becomes tasteless.

These crops can also be infected by moniliosis, manifested as scorch, caused by conidia of Monilia cinerea. Flowers, branches, ringlets and twigs of the diseased tree turn brown and wither. As a rule, active infestation of plants by moniliosis scald is observed if there was a lot of snow in winter and the spring was long, cold and wet.

In order to prevent moniliosis of pears and apples, the fallen and withered fruits should be collected during the whole vegetation period, and the diseased branches and stems should be cut off. Both the collected diseased fruits and the cut branches must be destroyed by fire.

Do not forget preventive measures to help prevent mechanical damage to the fruit. Regularly and timely spraying of plants and against pests and diseases. Also for preventive purposes throughout the growing season pears and apples are sprayed with solutions of fungicidal agents, for example, you can use: Horus, Strobi, Abiga-Pik, Gamair, Alirin-B or Planriz. Also remember the rules of cultivation for these crops and be sure to follow them.

Fruit Rot Apples on a Tree.

Fruit Rot - Moniliosis, What to Do How to Treat.

Cherry and Cherry

Moniliosis: treatment and prevention, how to fight it on cherry, apricot

The following stone fruit crops, plum, apricot, cherry and peach, are also affected by moniliosis. The disease is caused by the fungus Monilia cinerea that overwinters in mummified fruits or diseased branches. Because of this, with the onset of spring, branches killed by monilias blight are mistaken by many gardeners for freezing during the winter.

Sick cherries and cherry trees show withering and desiccation of flowers, fruit branches, and leaves, and the unwooded young shoots look as if they were burnt by fire.

During flowering, the fungus spores on the pistil successfully germinate and cause vascular lesions.

In both seed and stone trees, this disease can develop in two forms: as fruit or gray rot and as monilien blight. Firstly, those fruits, which have mechanical injuries, are affected by the rot. Dark spots are formed on such fruits, which rapidly increase in size. As a result, the spots can cover the entire surface of the fruit, and as the disease progresses, pads with spores form on it.

Over time, shriveling and desiccation of such fruits is observed.

The pathogenic fungi that cause this disease are able to overwinter in diseased above-ground parts of the plant. And with the onset of the spring period, the fungus manifests itself by spores that reach healthy trees in the neighborhood due to rain, wind gusts, or pests. However, it is through the pistil that the initial infestation of the tree occurs, after which the fungus penetrates the bark and wood through the pedicel, with its partial destruction being observed. As a result, moisture stops flowing into the affected part of the branch.

As the disease develops, the diseased part of the branch above the fungus penetration area dries up and dies off. After pruning a branch infected with moniliosis, dark rings of color can be seen on the cut area.

See the trees and cut off all branches that have begun to wither, and be sure to capture 10 to 15 centimeters of healthy tissue, also cut off the diseased fruits. These plant remains must be destroyed by fire to prevent further spread of the disease. Plants infected with moniliosis, as well as those trees that are near them, are sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux liquid or preparations such as Horus, Kuproksat, Fitosporin-M, Abiga-Pik, Topsin-M or Phytoflavin.

Spraying should be carried out on a windless day.

To avoid encountering moniliosis when growing cherries in your garden, it is recommended to choose varieties with high resistance to this disease for planting, for example: Anadolskaya, Shokoladnitsa, Alexa, Tamaris, Novella, Brunetka, Nochka, Valunya, Bystrinka, Turgenevka, Octava, Memory of Babylova and Spanka Krasnokutskaya cherries. Note that felted cherry and varieties such as Vladimirskaya and Lyubskaya are extremely susceptible to this disease.

Plum

Moniliosis: treatment and prevention, how to fight it on cherry, apricot

The symptoms of plum moniliosis are very similar to those shown on other fruit trees, namely: the fruits turn brown and spore pads form on their surface, while the leaves, branches and flowers wither and look as if burnt by fire. Cracks appear on the surface of old branches, from which gum begins to flow, eventually forming bumps.

Note that with fruit rot, the spore pads on the fruit surface are placed chaotically, but with gray rot, they form concentric circles.

Cure plum infested with moniliosis in the same way as cherry, pear, apple or cherry trees. Do not forget to take all the necessary preventive measures to help prevent the appearance of pests (fruit beetles, weevils, geese, etc.) on plum, protect plants from mechanical injuries, and timely conduct the collection and destruction of diseased branches and fruits. Preventive spraying of such a tree, as well as the soil surface under it is carried out before the flowers open on it, for this use a one percent solution of Nitrafen, Bordeaux mixture or copper vitriol.

As soon as the tree blossoms, preventive treatment is repeated, and this time a solution of Bordeaux mixture, Captan, Cyneb or Kuprozan is used. In summer time, plum is sprayed again with one of these means, but in this case, bordeaux mixture should not be used, as it can cause burns on the leaves. In autumn, preventive treatment of plants with copper sulfate or Nitrafen is carried out, but the best solution for this purpose is urea (7%). In autumn, the base of scaffold branches and the plant's trunk should be whitened with a solution of lime mixed with a fungicide.

Diseases of cherry and plum trees.

Signs of moniliosis. Garden World Website

Peach and Apricot

Moniliosis: treatment and prevention, how to fight it on cherry, apricot

Moniliosis also affects apricots and peaches. In May, the dead flowers and ovaries may be found near the diseased tree; in June, the branches of these plants become desiccated; after a while, the leaves darken and wither, while the fruits turn brown. If you examine such trees more closely, you will find cracks and gum influxes on the branch surfaces and creamy or grayish spore pads on fruits. As a result, the diseased plant gives poor yield, and only a small part of fruits remains healthy, but they also burst after a while before ripening.

Moniliosis of such trees occurs exactly the same way and under the same conditions as those of other fruit-trees. To prevent infestation of an apricot or a peach tree with the disease, you should strictly follow the agronomic rules of culture, ensure good and proper care, regularly prune them. For prevention before the flowers open on the tree and immediately after flowering, as well as 1 or 2 times in June and July and the same number of times - after harvesting, trees are treated with fungicides such as: Bordeaux mixture, Horus, Mycosan-B, you can also use other drugs of similar action. It is very important to treat plants timely and regularly in late autumn, in which case the effectiveness of the first spraying carried out in spring will be much higher. Also for prevention, do not forget to conduct a systematic inspection of plants and pruning of diseased branches, and be sure to capture a few centimeters of healthy tissue.

In the autumn, all diseased fruits, as well as cut branches, must be destroyed by fire. Also re-cultivation of bedding circles is carried out.

Treatment of stone fruit moniliosis - cherries, apples, pears, cherries. Super remedy for moniliosis.

Moniliosis preparations (fungicides)

Moniliosis: treatment and prevention, how to fight it on cherry, apricot

To deal with moniliosis on fruit trees, the following fungicides are used:

  1. Abiga-Pic.

    A broad-spectrum contact agent containing copper. It is used to treat bacterial and fungal diseases.

  2. Alirin-B. This biological product is used to treat soil and plants and is characterized by its ability to suppress fungal diseases. It is used as a protective and therapeutic agent.

  3. Bordeaux liquid. A contact agent characterized by a wide spectrum of action.
  4. Hamair. This biological agent is used to treat soil and plants against some bacterial and fungal diseases.
  5. Captan.

    This broad-spectrum contact preparation is used to treat fruit trees for the prevention of moniliosis, scab and black spot.

  6. Cuproxate. A contact action preparation is used for both protective and medicinal purposes. It is effective against the whole complex of fungal diseases.
  7. Coproxate.

    A broad-spectrum contact agent containing copper is used for the treatment of fungal diseases on seed and stone fruit trees.

  8. Mycosan-B. The action of this biological agent is to stimulate the immunity of the plant.
  9. Nitrophen. It is an intestinal insecticidal, fungicidal and herbicidal agent that is used to protect plants from fungal diseases.

  10. Planriz. Such a preparation based on soil bacteria is environmentally friendly and highly effective.
  11. Strobi. This broad-spectrum product is characterized by high efficiency, it is used for treatment of ornamental, fruit and vegetable crops against fungal diseases.
  12. Topsin-M.

    A preparation of systemic action used for treatment and prevention of fungal diseases. It is very efficient for preventive spraying.

  13. Phytoflavin. A systemic action biological bactericide used for the prevention of most bacterial and fungal diseases.
  14. Phytosporin-M.

    Biological contact preparation. This microbiological agent is used to prevent a range of fungal and bacterial diseases.

  15. Horus. This systemic agent is used for the prevention of diseases such as: moniliosis, scab, etc.
  16. Cyneb.

    It is used for treatment and prevention of fungal diseases.

MONILIOSIS signs / HOW TO TREAT moniliosis / Igor Bilevich

Primary treatments for moniliosis

Horticulturalists very often use such folk remedy as urea solution to control moniliosis. To prepare it, 10 liters of water are combined with 1 kilogram of urea, which is enough to treat two mature trees. To make such folk remedy better adhere to the plant, 40 mg of dishwashing detergent is dissolved in it. When spraying, try to get all the branches and all the leaves wet, and both sides of them.

When all the leaves fall off the tree in autumn, they should be covered with a thick layer of straw in the root zone. A solution of urea exterminates fungus, removing it both from branches and leaves, and a mulching layer of straw can preserve in the soil those pathogens that were able to survive the treatment. In addition, straw will be able to protect the root system of the tree in winter time from freezing. In early spring, before the sap starts to emerge, another treatment with urea solution can be carried out if desired.

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