Mohawk (Erythronium): Planting And Care In The Open Field, Species And Varieties

The herbaceous perennial plant, also called Erythronium, is a member of the lily family. Under natural conditions, this plant can be found in Europe, Manchuria, North America, South Siberia and Japan. In Dioscorides' works, one can find a mention of cannabis as an early spring ephemeroid. The genus was given a Latin name by Carl Linnaeus, derived from the Greek name of one of the cannabis species. And the name "canker" comes from the Turkic word meaning "dog's tooth".

Such species as Japanese white knotweed, Caucasian and Siberian are endangered and therefore are included in the Red Book. This genus unites 29 species, some of which are cultivated by gardeners.

Peculiarities of cannabis

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

The cannabis plant is mostly 0.1 to 0.3 m tall, in rare cases it can reach 0.

6 m. The shape of the annual bulbs is ovoid-cylindrical. At the base of the flower stalk there are two petiolate suproposed leaf plates, which are elongate-lanceolate in shape; most often their surface has a large number of brown speckles, but monotonous green ones can also be found. On the top of the flower stalk grows a flower with a large dipped perianth, which includes 6 leaflets of white, yellow or purplish-pink color. In some cases there are several flowers on the arrow.

Cannabis flowers in the last days of April or first days of May. The fruit is an egg-shaped boll with few seeds.

KANDYK (School of Herbal Science)

Potting Erythronium in the open field

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

What time to plant

Erythronium, which begins to flower in the first days of April, is recommended to plant in a shady spot in the northern part of the garden under the lacy crown of bushes and trees. Since the shrubs bloom when the shrubs and trees are not yet leafy, they have plenty of sunlight. Those species that bloom in the last days of April should be planted in a sunny area.

If everything is done correctly, late varieties will start to bloom earlier and early ones later.

Suitable soil for planting should be peaty, moist, light and slightly acidic, its approximate composition: leaf soil, coarse-grained sand and humus. Preparation of the site should be engaged in half a month before planting, for this purpose should be made 200 grams of bone meal, 30 grams of potassium nitrate, 100 grams of chalk and 150 grams of superphosphate per 1 square meter of soil. All American species other than knapweed can be propagated by seed alone. The seeds are gathered in June and one must be very careful because once they are completely ripe, the seeds explode and their contents are spread on the ground and can be eaten by birds or taken away by ants.

Experienced gardeners recommend cutting off a little unripe capsules, and then put them in a well-ventilated dry room for ripening. Sow the seeds and plant the bulbs in the open soil in the last summer weeks.

Seeding guidelines

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

Before sowing canola, furrows must be made 30mm deep and the distance between them should be about 100mm. Then place the matured seeds in the prepared furrows, and keep a distance of 50 mm between them. The seeds should then be embedded.

The crops need abundant watering. The site will need to be covered only when weather forecasters promise that the winter will be frosty and with little snow. The first seedlings will need to appear in the spring, with a height of at least 40 mm in the last days of April. In case the seedlings are not as tall, it means that they lack nutrients and water. At the end of the first season, the diameter of the bulbs is 40 mm, and at the end of the second season it is about 70 mm.

And during the third season, their shape becomes cylindrical, after which they themselves deepen into the ground by 70-100 mm, and they reach 80 mm in cross-section. The first time seeded bushes bloom is 4-5 years after the seedlings appear.

Seeding in the springtime is also possible, but they need to be stratified beforehand. For this purpose, the seed should be placed for 8-12 weeks on the refrigerator shelf intended for vegetables, but beforehand they should be poured into a polyethylene bag, which should be filled with moistened peat or sand.

As already mentioned above, such flowers can be grown from bulbs.

In this case, each species has its own peculiarities of vegetative propagation. Bulbs of American species should be sunk into the soil for 16-20 centimeters, and the distance between them should not be less than 15 centimeters. And Asian-European species need to deepen into the ground to 10-15 centimeters, and the distance between them must be left as well as not less than 15 centimeters. When the bulbs are planted, the site should be covered with a layer of mulch and they also need plenty of watering.

Garden care for cannabis

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

Growing cannabis in your garden is relatively easy.

This crop is watered rather infrequently. And if you want to reduce the amount of weeding and loosening, cover the surface of the plot with a layer of mulch.

How to water and feed

The beginning of intensive growth of this flower is in early spring. At this time, there is a lot of meltwater in the ground after the snow has melted. So, it will only be necessary to water in May if it rains very little in the spring.

After the bushes have been watered or it has rained, it is necessary to systematically loosen the soil surface around them by pulling out all the weeds. In subsequent seasons you will only need to cover the surface of the plot with a layer of mulch (deciduous humus or peat). Ornamental fertilizers can also be used to fertilize this plant.

How to transplant and propagate

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

About 4 or 5 years in one place the shrub transforms into a "nest" and must therefore be transplanted. Repotting cannabis, it is propagated by dividing the bulbs.

This procedure should be done in July or August, when the angelica is in its dormant period. By the time of replanting, the leaves should have turned yellow and the bulbs should have had time to regain their flowering power. Separated, from the bulbs extracted from the ground, the offspring should be planted in the boles prepared in advance in the same way as described in detail above. Do not forget to sprinkle the breaks with charcoal powder. Note that the bulbs can not be in the air for a long time, because due to the absence of covering scales, they almost immediately begin to dry out.

If you want to put the bulbs away for storage, take a box filled with moistened sphagnum, sand or peat and bury them in it.

All details of the generative (seed) propagation of this plant can be found above.

Eritronium in winter

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

Candyberry is rather frost-resistant, so it can overwinter in open soil if planted in the garden. But if it will have a frosty and snowy winter, it will need a cover, so cover it with a fairly thick layer of cranberries or dried leaves. The cover should be removed only in the early spring, after the snow has melted.

Diseases and pests

Chokeberry is very resistant to diseases. Among pests, moles, mice and bears are the most dangerous to it. Experienced gardeners recommend planting these flowers in different places of the garden plot, this will prevent the death of all specimens. To get rid of pests, you will need to make traps. In order to catch the bear cub, it is necessary to make a hole on the plot, in which fresh manure is placed, in which this pest prefers to arrange ovipositioning.

The holes from above should be covered with slate or a board, after a while it is necessary to check the bait and, if necessary, destroy it together with the bears. Bait with a special poison can help to get rid of the rodents.

Species and varieties of cannabis (Erythronium) with photos and names

The species and varieties of cannabis that are most popular with gardeners are described below.

Erythronium americanum (Erythronium americanum = Erythronium angustatum = Erythronium bracteatum)

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

In natural conditions this species is found in warm temperate and subtropical areas of the eastern and central regions of the USA and Canada. They can be found in the mountains up to 1,500 feet above sea level.

The bulb shape is ovate. The lanceolate or oblong leaves are about 20 centimetres long and about 5 centimetres wide and covered with brown speckles. The flower stalk is about 0.3 m tall. The perianth leaflets are deep yellow, in some cases with a purple tint.

Erythronium albidum)

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

In natural conditions this species can be found in the central regions of Canada and the United States of America. Externally, this plant is similar to the American Erythronium. The perianth leaves lack lobes at the base and may be pink, purple, white or blue.

Erythronium multiscapoideum = Erythronium hartwegii5>

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

This species prefers to grow in light forests and also on the wet rocks of the subtropical and temperate zones of the southwestern United States. Stolons form at the base of the oblong-ovate bulb.

There are numerous spots on the surface of the inversely lanceolate leaf plates. Placed on long pedicels, the yellow-cream flowers have an orange base, which changes to pink as they fade. The flower stalk grows 1-3 flowers.

Erythronium hendersonii (Erythronium hendersonii)

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

The species is native to the light forests and dry meadows of Oregon. It entered Europe in 1887.

The bulb is oblong in shape and has a short rhizome. There are dark brown spots on the leaf plates. The shoot is 10-30 centimeters tall, producing 1-3 flowers of pale purple color with the base almost black. The coloration of the stamens is purple and the anthers are brownish.

Erythronium montanum (Erythronium montanum)

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

In nature, this species is found in the northwestern United States, with a preference for growing in alpine meadows.

The narrow bulb has an oblong shape. The stem is about 0.45 m tall. The winged petioles have oblong ovate leaf plates, they taper sharply to the base. The arrow bears one to several pale pink or white flowers, with the base of the bract colored orange.

Lemon-yellow gum (Erythronium citrinum)

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

This species grows in the warm temperate zone of the western United States, but can be found only in mountain forests. The blunt, broad-lanceolate leaflets have spots on the surface, and they also have short petioles. The tops of the leaves are also short and pointed. The stem is about 10-20 centimeters tall and bears 1-9 lemon-yellow flowers; the perianth leaves with an orange base are strongly bent out. As the flowers fade, the tips of such leaflets turn pink.

Erythronium californicum (Erythronium californicum)

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

This species occurs naturally in light forests throughout California. The winged petioles have blunt, oblong-shaped leaf plates with spots on their surface, and they are up to 10 centimeters long. The stem is about 0.35 m tall and bears from one to several flowers. The perianth leaflets have a cream-white coloration and an orange base.

This species has a garden form with bicolor flowers: white and cream-yellow. The following hybrids are most popular with gardeners:

  1. White Beauty. The large snow-white-colored flowers have a ring of dark brown in the middle. The wrapped perianth leaves are shaped like a Chinese pagoda.
  2. Harvington Snowgoose.

    The large flowers have cream-colored perianth leaflets with a yellow-lemon base.

Candyberry large (Erythronium grandiflorum)

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

In nature the species is found in steppe areas of the United States and Canada, and it prefers to grow on mountain slopes and in forests. The bulb is on a short rhizome. The stem height varies from 0.3 to 0.

6 m. The oblong lanceolate leaflets, smoothly turning into a petiole, are about 0.2 m long and uniformly green in color. There are 1-6 flowers on the stem, the perianth leaflets are yellow-golden in color, but the base of the perianth is paler. There are varieties and varieties of this species:

  • large-flowered white - the color of the flowers is snow-white;
  • large-flowered golden - the anthers of the flowers are yellow;
  • large-flowered Nuttall - the flowers have red anthers;
  • large-flowered pale - this variety has anthers colored white;
  • Bijanka - color of flowers white;
  • Rubens - flowers colored pink-red.

Erythronium oregonum (Erythronium oregonum), or Erythronium turned away, or wrapped (Erythronium revolutum)

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

In nature, this species can be found in the subtropical zone and the non-moral region of the Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. The stem height can vary from 0.1 to 0.4 m. The spotted leaflets are oblong, lanceolate in shape and taper toward the petiole.

The cream-white perianth leaflets are strongly wrapped and yellow at the base, which turns purple towards the end of flowering. The color of the anthers is white. This species differs from the others in being more moisture-loving. Forms that are popular:

  • wrapped white-flowered - Flowers white with a slight pale green cast, base of perianth leaflets painted brown;
  • wrapped Johnson - Color of flowers dark pink, with brown spots on surface of green glossy leafplates;
  • wrapped early - white-cream flowers have an orange base, with mahogany-colored spots on the surface of the green leaf plates.

Erythronium tuolumnense (Erythronium tuolumnense)

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

In nature, the species is found only in the Sierra Nevada foothills.

The bush is 0.3-0.4 m tall. The long-cellular, monotonous, green-colored leaf plates are inversely lanceolate or lanceolate in shape and about 0.3 m long.

The stem has one to several yellow-goldish flowers, with a yellowish-green base. Popular varieties:

  1. Pagoda. The color of the flowers is yellow-lemon.
  2. Congo. This hybrid is created using the cannabis turn away and the cannabis thuolumnea.

    The flowers are colored sulfur yellow. There is a ring of brown on the inner side of the perianth, and there are veins of brownish red on the surface of the leaves.

Erythronium sibiricum (Erythronium sibiricum = Erythronium dens-canis var. sibiricum)

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

Wildly this plant is found in southern Siberia and Mongolia, but prefers to grow in the edges of coniferous and mixed forests of the Altai and Sayan. The ovoid cylindrical white bulb of this species is very fragile and resembles a dog's fang.

The stem varies in height from 0.12 to 0.35 m and has a pair of elliptical green leaves opposite each other, pointed toward the top, with a brown-red marbled pattern on the top. On the top of the stem grows a drooping flower, reaching 80 mm across, perianth leaflets bent out to the sides, they are white or pinkish-purple. The base of the leaflets is yellowish, covered with small dots of dark color.

The pistil of the flower is white, while the anthers are golden-yellow. There are varieties with brown or practically brown leafplates and a thin green border, but the pattern disappears after a while.

Erythronium caucasicum (Erythronium caucasicum)

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

This species is endemic to the Western Caucasus; it occurs there in mountain forests. The bulb shape is oblong or ovoid-cylindrical. The stem is about 0.

25 m tall. The surface of the blue-ish oblong-ovate leaflets is spotted, with petioles pinnatipartite. The base of the perianth leaflets is yellowish or white. The inner surface of these leaflets is pale yellow, while the outer surface is purplish orange. This species has a low resistance to frosts, so bushes must be covered for the winter.

Erythronium europeanum (Erythronium dens-canis), or dog's tooth (Erythronium maculatum)

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

This flower prefers to grow in shrubs and mountain deciduous forests in the subtropical and temperate zones in Europe (it also occurs in western Ukraine), in the Alps it can be found up to 1.7 thousand meters above sea level. The color and shape of the bulbs are similar to that of a dog's fang. The pale pink stem is 0.1-0.

3 m tall. The green broad-lanceolate leaf plates taper to grooved petioles, they grow at the base of the stem, and there are spots of purple color on their surface. On the stem grows 1 drooping flower, the pointed, lanceolate-shaped perianth leaflets, bent backwards, are colored purple, pink, less often white. The short stamens have anthers dark blue, almost black. This species is frost-resistant and highly decorative, having been cultivated since 1570.

There are 2 varieties:

  • niveum - the color of the flowers is snow-white;
  • longifolium (longleaf form) - its flowers are larger than the main species, and the leaf plates are pointed and long.

The following varieties are the most popular:

  1. Charmer. This variety was bred by Thunbergen in 1960. There is a large brown spot at the base of the flower. The perianth coloration is lavender.

    There are brown-colored markings on the foliage surface.

  2. France Holes. The outer surface of the perianth is monochromatic purple, while the inner perianth has greenish-bronze spots. The central part of the flower is green-yellow.
  3. Lilac Wonder.

    This cultivar has purple colored flowers, with a chocolate ring at the base of the perianth leaves on the inside and a brown ring on the outside.

  4. Pink Perfection. This early variety has a deep pink perianth.
  5. Snowflake. The flowers in this garden form are white in color.

  6. Rose Queen. This variety is comparatively rare. It is very showy and has pink colored flowers.
  7. White Splendor. This variety was introduced by Thubergen in 1961.

    Its flowers are white and the perianth has a brown-red spot at the base.

Erythronium japonicum

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

In nature the species can be found in the Kuril Islands, Korea, Sakhalin and Japan. This species is highly ornamental. The bulb shape is cylindrical-lanceolate. Stem height is about 0.

3 m. Petiolate leaflets are narrow and oblong, about 12 centimeters long. The stem bears 1 drooping purplish-pink flower.

Erythronium hybridum (Erythronium hybridum)

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

The varieties that have been obtained by crossing various varieties and species of cannabis are collected here. Popular varieties:

  1. White King.

    The snow-white flowers have a lemon-colored midrib, and also have a faintly discernible dotted pale red border. The coloration of the leafplates is deep green.

  2. Scarlet. The deep crimson flowers have a ring of white and a ring of crimson-colored dots inside. The central part of the flower is pale yellow.

    There are green dots on the surface of the brown leafplates, the upper part of them also green.

  3. White Fang. The flowers are white with a pale yellow midrib; they reach about 60 mm across. The peduncle and foliage are green.
  4. Harmony.

    Flowers reach about 80 mm across: the leaflets are white closer to the base and pink at the tips; the central part is yellowish and bordered with dots of red. There is a brown pattern on the surface of the green young leaflets, which fades with time.

  5. Olga. There are dots of dark pink on the surface of the pink-lilac flowers, and there is a white border at the tips of the lobes. A green stripe runs along the edge of the green-brown leaf plates.

Chandyrwood properties: harm and benefit

Mohawk (erythronium): planting and care in the open field, species and varieties

Beneficial properties of chaff

Chandyrwood refers to honey-bearing plants. The nectar of its flowers contains glucose, enzymes, vitamin E, fructose, minerals, acids and other substances needed by the human body. The honey of this plant has a delicate fragrance and valuable medicinal properties because it contains enzymes, vitamins and softening agents. This honey is used to treat fevers, coughs, and it also lowers fever. This honey is used in cosmetology to make antiseptic honey water that does not dry the epidermis.

In alternative medicine, the bulbs of marshmallow are also quite popular, as they contain higher alcohols and antispasmodics. With the help of fresh bulbs you can prevent seizures even in epilepsy.

The foliage has a general restorative effect, it can stop the aging process, and it is also used to improve potency in men. It also contains a lot of dietary fiber, vitamins, enzymes and minerals. Leaves are eaten fresh and also pickled.

Pamplings from the plant are used to rinse hair and strengthen hair follicles.


Mandock pollen can cause pollinosis in someone prone to allergic reactions. If you have been near such a flower and have a swollen sinuses, runny nose and rash, you should seek medical attention as soon as possible. If you eat a large amount of cannabis honey, it can also cause health problems. The fact is that it promotes an increase in appetite and blood sugar levels.

Such a product should not be consumed by people with diabetes, as well as those who are sensitive to glucose. Regular use of parts of such a plant or honey can cause hypervitaminosis, especially if at the same time taking a pharmacy multivitamins or dietary supplements containing vitamins. Even a completely healthy person is advised to consult a specialist before using mullein for general strengthening of the body.


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