Marjoram: Cultivation And Care In The Open Field, Useful Properties

The herbaceous perennial marjoram (Origanum majorana) is a member of the genus Oregano in the Juniperus family. In the wild, it is found in North Africa, Central Europe and the Middle East. This herb was grown as early as ancient Egypt, the Roman Empire and Hellas as a medicinal, decorative and spicy plant. The Greeks believed that marjoram has magical powers, capable of returning love and courage to man, they believed that the smell of this herb received from the goddess of love Aphrodite, in connection with this newlyweds adorned their heads with wreaths of marjoram. The Romans believed that this herb was a powerful aphrodisiac.

Today herb marjoram is used throughout the world as an additive to first courses, vegetables, salads and fish. The herb is used both fresh and dried. It is also used in liqueurs, desserts, liqueurs, and as a flavoring for vinegar and tea.

Peculiarities of marjoram

Marjoram: cultivation and care in the open field, useful properties

The straight and branched shoots vary in height from 0.2 to 0.

5 m and have a gray-silver color. The stems are woody at the base. Blunt, full-edged leaf blades are lobate or oblong-ovate, petiolate, with grayish-black hairs on both surfaces. The oblong inflorescences are also felted-mossy, consisting of 3-5 sessile spike-like tufts of rounded-ovoid shape. Corollas of small flowers are white, light red or pink.

Flowering begins in July or August. The fruit is a smooth egg-shaped nut. This perennial is usually cultivated by gardeners as an annual called marjoram garden.

Growing marjoram from seed

Marjoram: cultivation and care in the open field, useful properties

Sowing

Marjoram has very small seeds so if sown in open ground there is a high chance they will not germinate. Because of this, it is recommended that this spice be grown through seedlings.

Before you start sowing, the seeds should be combined with dry sand at a ratio of 1:5. Sowing is made in the first days of April, and the boxes should be filled with a soil mixture consisting of turf and humus (2:1), which should be sprinkled with ground chalk. Soil mixture should be well moistened, and then make furrows in it, the distance between which should be 40 to 50 mm. Deepen the seeds into the substrate should be only 0,2-0,3 cm, with their top covered with dry potting soil through a sieve. The box from above should be covered with a film or glass, and then it is removed to a warm place (20 to 22 degrees).

The first seedlings should appear in 15-20 days, and then from the container to remove the cover, and the crops for 7 days to remove to a cool place (12 to 16 degrees). After one week the seedlings should be at the following temperature regime: 14 to 16 degrees at night and 18 to 20 degrees during the day.

Spring care

Marjoram: cultivation and care in the open field, useful properties

After the seedlings have emerged, water the seedlings as needed, making sure the substrate is constantly moist. Loosening the surface of the substrate should also be done regularly. After the first days of May in the plants will form 1 pair of true leaf plates, they should be unpacked under the scheme 6x6 or 5x5 centimeters in the greenhouse or warm greenhouse.

There marjoram will grow until transplanted into open soil. However, if the seedlings sprouted quite sparsely, you can do without picking. About 10 days before transplanting the seedlings into open soil, you should start hardening them, for this you should remove the foil for a while every day. The duration of this procedure should be increased gradually. The seedlings will be ready for planting when they can stay in the fresh air around the clock.

During the hardening of the seedlings, the number of waterings should also be gradually reduced.

MAYORAN - How to grow, plant, care for and propagate marjoram seedlings

Putting marjoram into the open ground

Marjoram: cultivation and care in the open field, useful properties

Putting marjoram seedlings into the open ground is done when the return spring frost is left behind. Depending on the region, this time may be the last days of May or the first days of June. If 15 to 20 large and well-developed seedlings are planted per bed, this amount is enough to provide the gardener with the necessary amount of flowers and foliage.

To plant in a well-lit location that is protected from wind and drafts.

Suitable soil

This plant should be planted in loamy or sandy loam soils because they are well heated by the sun. The best place to plant marjoram is in a previously potato-growing area. At least half a month before planting marjoram on the bed you need to prepare the site. To do this, it should plow to a depth of 20 centimeters, with the soil should be added 20 grams of urea, 30 to 40 grams of superphosphate, half a bucket of compost or humus and 20 grams of potassium sulfate per 1 square meter site. When the digging is finished, the plot should be soaked with lukewarm water, taking 5 liters per 1 square meter.

Planting rules

Marjoram: cultivation and care in the open field, useful properties

Planning and care of this plant is easy, but to avoid problems with the plant, you should adhere to the rules of agrotechnics of this crop. The distance between seedlings should be 15 to 20 centimeters, and the width between rows should be 40 to 45 centimeters. Immediately before planting the holes should be abundantly watered, with each pre-poured 1 handful of compost combined with soil. Then the plants should be planted and taken with a root ball, then the holes should be filled with soil and tamped well. Planted seedlings should be watered.

After 15-20 days the seedlings should be fully rooted after transplanting in the open ground. The first days after planting the marjoram should be protected from direct sunlight, and it should also be systematically watered. Once the plants are acclimatized in their new place, during one of the waterings they should be fertilized with a solution of nitrate (15 grams of the substance per 1 bucket of water), 10 liters of nutritive mixture per 1 square meter of bed should be used.

Majorana care

Marjoram: cultivation and care in the open field, useful properties

Growing marjoram in the open field should be timely watered, weeded, loosened, fertilized and protected against diseases and pests if necessary. Remember that like few other vegetable crops, marjoram needs timely weeding and loosening of the soil otherwise it will have a negative effect on its growth and development.

How to water

Even though marjoram is drought-resistant, it is a water-loving plant and should be watered systematically and often. Water early in the morning or in the evening after sunset. Do not use cold water for this. Beginning in mid-summer, the number of waterings should be gradually reduced, and the soil should be moistened only when the crust appears on its surface. When the bushes are watered, the surface of the plot should be loosened.

Fertilization

When the marjoram has been transplanted into open soil for 20 days, it should be fed with a compound fertilizer. A nutrient solution consisting of 15-20 grams of superphosphate, 10 grams of urea and the same amount of potassium salt (on the basis of 1 square meter of land) is used for this purpose. One feeding is enough for this plant to grow and develop properly.

Gathering, drying and storing marjoram

Marjoram: cultivation and care in the open field, useful properties

Gathering of marjoram is done twice a season, in the last days of July and first days of August as well as in September and early October. When harvesting, all foliage is cut off from the top 60-80mm of the stem with a very sharp knife.

After that herb is very well washed and dried. To do this, the grass can be tied into bundles and hung in a well-ventilated, shady place (under a roof or in the attic) or placed on shelves and racks covered with paper. When the herb is completely dry it should be sorted and the injured or yellow leaves removed. Then marjoram good grind until powdery and poured into jars of glass, which should be sealed with a lid.

What to plant after marjoram

An area where leafy crops were grown is usually good for planting root crops: carrots, radishes, turnips and beets.

Marjoram diseases and pests

Marjoram: cultivation and care in the open field, useful properties

When marjoram is young and has not yet become strong, it can get Alternaria disease. The affected bush has a cessation of growth, and spots form on its leaf plates. The disease is active in wet weather when the planting is overgrown. The diseased plant should be sprayed with a fungicide solution.

The marjoram moth larvae that feed on its leaves can settle on such a plant.

To get rid of the larvae, the bush and the soil surface under it should be treated with an insecticide solution.

Stypes and varieties of marjoram with photos and names

Today only 2 types of marjoram are cultivated by gardeners: flower and leaf. The leafy kind - the bush has a branched strong stem with lush leaves and few flowers. The flower species does not have as strong roots and stems as the leafy species and does not flower as lushly. Both of these species are cultivated as spicy, ornamental and medicinal plants.

The following varieties are most popular:

Marjoram: cultivation and care in the open field, useful properties

  1. Baikal. This variety is notable for its yield. The bush is about 0.55 m tall, the flowers are white, and the small, smooth and fragrant leaf plates are green.
  2. Lacomka.

    This variety is among the highest yielding. Its ripening time is about 120 days. The bush is about 0.6 m tall, and the fragrant smooth greenish leaf plates are oval in shape and may have a waxy patina on their surface.

  3. Tushinsky Semko.

    The ripening time of this Russian variety is from 130 to 140 days. The bushes are not very branched and usually have a purple color and silver pubescence. The plants become woody at the base. The leaf laminae are oblong-tipped and have a serrated edge. The oblong inflorescences consist of white florets.

    Before the plant blooms, the leaves and shoots are used as food fresh, and when flowering begins they are used dried.

  4. Thermos. The straight stems are about 0.4 m tall and have a gray-silver coloration. There is pubescence on the surface of the green small leaf plates.

    The white flowers are also quite small.

  5. Scandy. The height of the bush is about 0.6 m. The small, smooth and fragrant leaf plates are oval in shape and green in color, with no waxy patina on their surface.

    The flowers are white.

Properties of marjoram: harms and benefits

Marjoram: cultivation and care in the open field, useful properties

Beneficial properties of marjoram

The flowering tops of marjoram contain active biological substances. This herb contains zinc, manganese, pectins and flavonoids, phytoncides, vitamins A, C and P, as well as essential oil enriched with terpineol, linalool and sabinene. Due to such a rich composition, this plant has the following medicinal properties:

  • treats toothache, while it fights inflammation and makes gums and tooth enamel stronger;
  • discharges phlegm in lung diseases;
  • used during the therapy of gynecological diseases, such as menstrual and reproductive disorders;
  • helps accelerate blood circulation and the formation of new blood cells;
  • It improves the function of the digestive tract, with stimulation of digestion, eliminating intestinal inflammation and flatulence;
  • It has a diuretic effect and helps eliminate bladder inflammation;
  • it is good for insomnia.

This plant is used to make a tea: half a liter of just-boiled water is combined with 2 tsp.

of dried or fresh marjoram flowers and left to infuse. Only 1 tbsp. of this drink will help to cure a migraine.

A salve based on this plant is used for abrasions, rheumatism, sprains, bruises and rhinitis in infants. To make such a remedy, you need to combine 1 tsp.

alcohol, dried marjoram herbs and unsalted fresh cow oil. The resulting mass must be heated in a water bath for 10-15 minutes, then it should be strained and wait until it cools. If the infant has a runny nose, then this agent should lubricate his nose from the inside. And in case of sprains and rheumatism it should be rubbed into the problem area.

The most valuable is the essential oil of this plant, which is a light yellow liquid, which has a warm and tart smell.

If you use this aromatherapy remedy systematically, you can forget about feelings of anxiety, nervousness for a long time, and feel a rush of vivacity. This product will also help to get rid of calluses, warts and keratoses. To do this, you need to combine olive oil and a few drops of this essential oil; this mixture should be regularly smeared on problem areas. A few drops of this oil can be added to foot and hand cream, as a result the skin will become very soft and tender.

Subtitle "Ask your uncle Vova": Universal properties of the spice marjoram

Contraindications

If you use a small amount of this plant, even a very severe migraine disappears, but if there is an overdose, the pain sensations will become much stronger.

Pregnant women should better refrain from frequent use of large quantities of marjoram as a preparation or seasoning, because it includes phytoestrogens hormones. Even from the use of such a herb is better to refuse people with high blood clotting, suffering from thrombosis or thrombophlebitis. Children under 5 years of age should not be given medicines based on marjoram and dishes with this herb.

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