The spectacular tree Manchurian walnut is cultivated mainly in northern regions. Outwardly, this plant is very similar to the walnut, but differs from it in the shape of fruits and elongated leaf plates. To grow Manchurian walnut on your plot, you need to know how to take care of it.
Peculiarities of Manchurian walnut
Most novice gardeners have no idea what Manchurian walnut looks like, because it is cultivated quite rarely on household plots. However, with the right approach, both experienced gardeners and beginners will be able to grow this tree.
This plant is part of the Walnut family and has several names, namely the Amur or Chinese walnut, or the Assurian hazelnut. In Latin, Manchurian walnut translates as juglans mandshurica.
This plant reaches an average height of about 30 m and has a lifespan of about 200 years. The crown is difficult to describe as spreading, it almost never exceeds 100 cm in cross-section.
The crop is characterized by rapid growth.
A recently planted seedling grows very fast for several years, with an average annual growth of about 200 cm. The trunk is covered with light gray bark and the stems are brown. Leaf blades are relatively large, varying in length from 0.5 to 1 m. During summertime the foliage is a rich green color and turns golden in autumn.
First fruits are formed on the Manchurian nut at the age of 10-12 years. The tree blossoms in April, with fruit ripening observed in late summer or early fall. The fruits are oval-shaped nuts that have a lot of resemblance to walnuts in appearance. As a rule, a maximum of seven fruits are formed on one branch. The nuts are covered with a highly tough shell that is more than 0.
5 cm thick.
This tree is highly frost-resistant. Even recently planted in the open ground seedlings do not die from severe frosts, they are not afraid of temperature drops down to minus 35 degrees. Root system goes deep into the ground, that's why the plant is not afraid of strong gusts of wind or hurricane.
The Manchurian nut is a mono-homed plant.
Its inflorescences, consisting of male and female flowers, are formed separately. Branched inflorescences of female flowers are few in number and small in size. The black male flowers are gathered in long, earring-shaped inflorescences. Note that if the flowers freeze the plant cannot form fruit.
Manchurian Walnut 🌳 A worthy substitute for walnuts in the midlands / Garden Guide
Specialities of distribution
Manchurian walnut is considered "king of nuts".
The fruits are highly nutritious, and were often used by travelers during distant wanderings. This tree is widespread in Northern China, in the Far Eastern Federal District, and also on the Korean Peninsula.
In the Russian Federation, this plant is commonly found in maple-oak forests. And this tree also prefers to grow in the neighborhood of pines, larches and other conifers.
In Russia, walnut in the wild is most widely distributed in such regions as: Vologda, Moscow and Leningrad regions.
At the same time it is cultivated in almost every region of the Russian Federation.
Planning and care
Manchurian walnut has not only useful fruits, but also a spectacular appearance. Every gardener can grow it in his or her garden, as long as he or she knows a few specifics.
Bought or self-grown seedlings can be used for planting. It is not easy to grow a sapling, but you can be sure that it will be good and healthy.
To ensure that the tree is strong and healthy after planting and later on turns into a fruiting tree, special attention must be paid to the choice of a good quality sapling. To begin with, you need to assess its appearance. The sapling should be 1 year old, and its height should not be less than 100 cm. Pay attention to the fact that the root system must necessarily be with a root ball.
Plot for planting
The best site suitable for planting the Amur nut should be in the vicinity of shade-tolerant crops.
The dense crown of such a tree can provide quite extensive shade which can be harmful to light-loving plants.
The soil on the plot should be neutral or slightly alkaline. The choice of site should also take into account that young trees react very negatively to too much sunlight and also to boggy soil.
Precautions for planting
The planting hole should be prepared in advance, or rather 4-8 weeks before planting day. The size of the pit should be 60x80 centimeters.
If several seedlings are planted on the plot, a distance of 500-600 cm should be kept between them.
When the pit is ready, create a layer of drainage at its bottom, broken bricks or gravel will do. The drainage layer is filled with humus, which is previously mixed with mineral fertilizers, and it is poured in a mound, and in the middle is carried out installation of a peg, which will be used as a support for the tree. Next, 20 liters of water are poured into the hole.
Provide an inspection of the seedling, you should be alert to signs of disease or rot.
Cut out any injured parts of the rhizome, and then shake the lump of soil on the roots. The tree is placed next to the support, and then the hole is carefully filled with soil. The surface of the rooting circle should be compacted, then water it. Then its surface is covered with a layer of mulch, as peat is used.
Manchurian nut care
While the Manchurian nut is young, it requires special attention and care.
But the mature tree is not much trouble, as it is not exposed to rodents, frost or strong winds."
Slings planted in open ground require the following care:
- For 1 year after planting, the plant needs regular watering once in 2 weeks. During hot, dry periods, it should be watered more often.
- Don't forget to systematically clear the planting circle of weeds and loosen it. This is necessary to saturate the soil with oxygen.
- Feed the seedling in the summertime in June. A nutrient mixture consisting of wood ash and superphosphate should be made into the root circle.
- The trunk needs protection from the scorching sunlight, it is treated with a composition consisting of lime and clay.
In November you should start preparing the tree for wintering. First you need to collect all the leaves that have fallen off and destroy them with a fire.
This way you can destroy the pests that live on the leaves. Then conduct an inspection of the walnut tree for the presence of bloats. It is not uncommon for pests to make nests under the bark of the seedling. They are cut out with a very sharp knife.
Trees do not need additional covering for the winter.
But it should be taken into account that with the onset of the spring period, its foliage can be burned by the scorching rays of the sun, and the plant itself can be damaged by rodents. To prevent this, during the preparation of the walnut for winter it is recommended to cover it with burlap. The sacking should be wrapped with netting, and the ends should be buried next to the trunk.
For propagation of Manchurian nuts, gardeners use the seed method or cuttings.
The first thing to do is to choose a permanent place to plant the cuttings.
The fact is that a rooted cuttings react negatively to transplanting, this can even lead to its death. Choose a healthy branch and cut it off. The optimal length of the cuttings is 10 to 15 centimeters. Next, it is placed in water for rooting. Once roots have formed on the cuttings, they should be planted immediately in a permanent place.
Growing from seed
You can try to grow a seedling from seed if you wish. Nuts that can range in age from 1 to 2 years old should be used for sowing. The seed material needs to be stratified before sowing. It is kept on the refrigerator shelf until the spring period. Then the nuts are placed in a container with water for a week and a half.
Only germinated nuts are used for sowing. Bury them in a container filled with moistened sand. Keep them there until the first seedlings appear. This method of sowing is only suitable for spring.
If you decide to sow Manchurian walnuts in the fall, then the seeds will not need any preliminary stratification.
Soak the nuts in water for 4 weeks and then plant them in the open ground.
Freshly harvested fruits can also be planted in the open ground. For protection against rodents, treat the nuts with kerosene and then plant them in the soil. The first time you should water the crops is only after the first seedlings appear in the spring.
Growing Manchurian Walnut
Diseases and Pests
Manchurian Walnut is not highly resistant to pests and diseases.
The tree is most often affected by such ailments as:
- Bacteriosis. In an affected plant, the edge of the leaf plates turns black. The disease is capable of damaging more than 40 percent of the foliage, after which it can also affect the fruit. To cure the plant, treat with a solution of urea (1 percent) or Bordeaux mixture (3 percent).
The causative agent of this disease is the ascomycete fungus. It affects both leaf plates and fruits and stems. Many brown spots appear on the leaves and cracks can be seen on the pericarp. To save the tree, it is treated with a sprayer with a solution of Bordeaux liquid, the concentration of which should be 3 percent.
- Bark cancer.
On the trunk of a diseased plant, dead brown bark areas can be seen. As the disease progresses, complete peeling of the bark and drying of the branches is observed.
In order to prevent the nut from being affected by diseases, it is necessary to inspect it systematically and remove diseased stems or branches in a timely manner.
From pests, nutworms and gall mites settle on such a tree most frequently. In this case, the mite climbs into the buds during the winter time, and with the onset of the spring months it sets up ovipositions in them.
Females are able to make their way into the central part of the leaf plates. Its presence in the leaves is indicated by a small tubercle. Gradual withering and slow death of the diseased nut is observed. To clean the tree from mites, it is necessary to carry out treatment with colloidal sulfur.
Peckerworms damage not only the leaves and flowers, but also the bark of the stems.
To kill such a pest, the plant is treated with a solution of carbophos or chlorophos (0.2 percent).
Application and significance
Manchurian walnut has medicinal properties and is used in treating various diseases. Its fruits can be eaten and contain many useful substances. The kernels contain tannins, oils and cachetins, and the leaves contain various valuable acids and iodine.
Fruit decoctions are prepared from which are used for rickets, stomach diseases and diarrhea. Leaves have antimicrobial, disinfectant and wound healing properties. It is used to prepare various medicines used in the treatment of tuberculosis.
The Manchurian nut in landscape design
The Manchurian nut is quite common in landscape design. Its ball-shaped crown and very large foliage looks spectacular against the background of other trees and shrubs.
Specialists advise to plant such a plant next to coniferous trees. Near the walnut you can put a swing or a bench, and its leaves will protect people from annoying mosquitoes.
Experienced gardeners do not advise, grow walnut near fruit crops. The fact is that the pear or apple trees growing nearby may after a while become infantile and die.
Manchurian walnut or "Jupiter's acorn"