Magnolia: Planting And Care In The Open Field, Growing In The Garden, Species And Varieties With Photos

The magnolia flowering plant (Magnolia) is a member of the magnolia family. This genus includes more than 200 species. This plant was first introduced into Europe in 1688. Plumier in 1703 in honor of Pierre Mannol, who was a botanist. In nature, these plants can be found in the subtropical and tropical climates of North America and East Asia.

Magnolia is a very ancient plant of the dinosaur age, which spread in the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods. Archaeologists have found a fossilized flower of this plant, which is not less than 95 million years old. Magnolia has survived mainly because it adapts relatively easily and quickly to changing climatic conditions. In ancient times, there were no bees, and pollination of this flowering plant was carried out by beetles, which still have such an ability.

There is a very beautiful and sad legend associated with magnolia.

A Japanese girl, Keiko, made beautiful paper flowers for sale, but this work brought her a mere penny because the flowers were not real. One day a parrot, which Keiko sometimes feeds, told her a secret: paper flowers can become alive, but to do it she needs to irrigate them with a drop of her own blood. But this drop must not be the last. Keiko took advantage of the secret and soon became rich, but the man she fell in love with was so greedy that he made her work all day long to get even more money. And then the moment came when the girl sprinkled the paper flower with her last drop of blood and died.

The flower, which came to life thanks to that drop, became known as magnolia. Since that time, the magnolia flower has been a symbol of generosity and nobility of soul.

Peculiarities of the magnolia

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

Magnolia is a deciduous shrub or tree. The bark is smooth grayish ashy or brown, and may be scaly or furrowed. The height of such a plant may vary from 5 to 20 meters.

On the surface of its stems, large scars from leaf plates are clearly distinguishable, as are narrow, ring-shaped scars from leafstalks. The buds are relatively large. Large leathery full-serrate leaf blades with a greenish-emerald color have slight pubescence on the underside surface and are usually elliptical or obovate in shape. Fragrant solitary, irregular flowers may be axillary or terminal, about 6-35 centimeters in diameter, in cream, red, purple, white, pink or lilac. The flower consists of 6 to 12 waxy, elongated petals, which overlap in a tiled pattern.

These petals are arranged in 1 or more rows. Typically, magnolia blooms in early spring, but there are species that bloom in the first few weeks of summer. This plant blooms so beautifully that every gardener would love to decorate their garden with it.

The fruit is a prefabricated cone-shaped leaflet which consists of a large number of two or one-seeded leaflets. The black seeds are triangular in shape and have a red or pink fleshy cotyledon.

When the leaflets open, the seeds hang down from the seedpods.

The magnolia shrub and tree are both very ornamental plants. It looks most spectacular in the springtime. A blooming magnolia is the most beautiful sight, which certainly can't be forgotten by everyone who has seen it at least once. However, the magnolia is a valuable plant not only because of its beauty.

The fact is that its fruits, flowers and leaves contain essential oils that have a powerful antiseptic effect and are used for hypertension, rheumatism and various gastrointestinal diseases.

Magnolia planting and care / ornamental trees

Potting magnolia in the open air

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

What time to plant

Cultivate magnolia in not every region. When choosing where to plant it, consider that this plant is very light-loving. Choose a well-lit area away from tall trees and provide the plant with good protection from east and north winds. In slight shade, the magnolia can only be grown in southern regions.

The soil should not be overly saline or limey, nor should it be too wet, sandy or heavy. Organic, slightly acidic or neutral soil is best. Buying material for planting, remember that the height of the seedling should be about 100 centimeters, it must have 1 or 2 buds. It is very good if the seedling will have a closed system of roots, this will completely eliminate its drying out. A magnolia seedling with a closed root system can be transplanted into open soil in the spring, summer and fall.

Most experts advise planting magnolia in open soil in the fall in the second half of October. At this time, the seedling is already dormant. Statistically, almost 100 percent of seedlings planted in the fall take root. In the springtime, the seedling is planted in the garden in April, but remember that even small night frosts cause tangible damage to the adopted trees.

How to properly plant

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

The size of the magnolia planting pit should necessarily be twice as large as the volume of the seedling's root system.

The top nutrient layer of soil that remains after digging the hole should be combined with decomposed compost. If the soil is too dense, a small amount of sand should also be added.

Firstly, a good drainage layer should be made on the bottom of the hole, the thickness of which should be 15 to 20 centimeters, for this purpose you can use crushed ceramic tiles or broken bricks. Above the drainage is poured a layer of sand fifteen centimeters thick. And already on the sand is poured a layer of pre-prepared nutritious soil mixture (composition described above).

Then in the center of the hole should be set seedling, while it is necessary to take into account that after planting its root neck should be elevated above the level of the plot by 30-50 mm. Backfill the pits with nutrient soil mixture and compact the surface of the root circle a little. A planted magnolia needs abundant watering. After complete absorption of liquid in the soil, the surface of the root zone should be covered with a layer of peat, and a layer of dry coniferous bark is placed on top of it. Mulching the soil will prevent it from drying out too quickly.

Magnolia. Planting Features

Garden care for magnolia

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

Magnolia is a moisture loving plant, so it needs systematic watering. Seedlings that are 1-3 years old especially need abundant and systematic watering. In this case, note that the soil of the root zone should not be damp, but only slightly damp, and should be watered only with lukewarm water. Loosening the soil around the bush should be done very carefully and only with a pitchfork, because the plant has a surface system of roots, which is extremely easy to injure with other garden tools.

To reduce the amount of watering and loosening, experienced gardeners recommend covering the root zone with mulch.

Magnolia plants also need systematic fertilizing. It is not necessary to feed a young plant for the first 2 years, because it has enough nutrients in the soil. Fertilizing begins only from the age of three years, these procedures are carried out from the beginning to the middle of the growing season. The plant should be fed with a complex mineral fertilizer, and the dosage should be indicated on the package.

If you want, you can make a nutrient mixture yourself, for this purpose, combine 1 bucket of water, 15 grams of urea, 20 grams of ammonium nitrate and 1 kilogram of cowpea. For 1 adult plant, you need to take 4 buckets of such a nutrient solution. They water magnolia once every 4 weeks. Remember that it is very easy to overfeed. A "overfed" specimen begins to dry out the leaf plates early.

If you see these signs, stop feeding and increase the watering.

Potting

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

Magnolia reacts very negatively to transplanting. If you do need to transplant it, try to follow the advice of experienced gardeners exactly. First, find the most suitable site for planting. The bush is abundantly watered.

Digging it out, remember that the lump of soil should be as large as possible, then the plant will endure transplanting much easier and will take root faster. A sheet of plywood or a piece of oilcloth can be used to move the magnolia to the new planting site. Next, all manipulations with the plant should be exactly the same as during the initial planting. So, at the bottom of the planting hole make a drainage layer, which is filled with sand and earth mixture. Then the magnolia itself is installed in the center and the pit is filled with soil mixture, while remembering that the root neck after planting must necessarily be elevated above the surface of the plot.

Do not overcompensate the surface of the bedding circle, it should only be slightly pressed.

The transplanted plant should be abundantly watered, and then the surface of the bedding circle is covered with a layer of mulch. If the magnolia was transplanted in autumn, its roots will need to be protected from the coming frosts, for this purpose a mound of dry soil is created on the surface of the rooting circle. The branches and trunk of such a plant should be wrapped in cloth for the winter.

Trimming Magnolia

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

Trimming Magnolia to form a crown is not done.

Sanitary pruning, on the other hand, is done only after the plant has flowered. In this case, you need to cut out all the branches affected by winter frosts and dry branches, as well as those that thicken the crown, and do not forget to remove the wilted flowers. The places of fresh cuts should be coated with garden varnish. No pruning is done in the spring, the fact is that such a plant is extremely sap-driven and the wounds received can lead to its death.

Pests and diseases

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

For years it has been believed that magnolia is not affected by any disease or pest, but it can still have quite a few problems.

For example, it can develop chlorosis, from which yellowish spots will begin to appear on the surface of the leaf plates, but the veins do not change their green color. Chlorosis indicates that the soil contains too much lime, which negatively affects the development and growth of the magnolia root system and often leads to the death of the entire plant. The soil can be corrected by incorporating coniferous earth or acidic peat. Chemicals available at any specialty store, such as iron chelate, can also be used.

The growth and development of magnolia can become slower because the soil is over-saturated with nutrients, resulting in salinity.

You can tell if the plant is overfed by a close inspection in the last days of July, you can detect the withered edges of the old leaf plates. If there are signs of overfeeding, stop fertilizing and increase the amount of watering.

The plant may be infested with mealybugs, rose thrips and peach aphids, with transparent or spider mites in times of drought. These pests feed on plant sap, which causes tangible damage to magnolia. Thus, the fall of its leaves can begin in July or August.

In some cases the pests can weaken the plant to the point that it will have no growth at all the following year. These pests also carry viral diseases which cannot be cured. To get rid of pests, you should use acaricides, for example, the bush can be treated with Actara, Actellic or other means of similar action.

In winter, rodents that nibble the root neck and roots can cause noticeable damage to the plant. But to see if there are problems of this kind, you will have to remove the top layer of soil.

The detected gnaws will have to be sprayed with a solution of Fondazole (1%). And remember, to prevent rodents, you should only cover your magnolia tree for the winter after the top layer of soil has frozen over.

Magnolia grown in mid-latitudes can become infected with fungal diseases such as powdery mildew, mildew, scab, seedling rot, mildew or Botrytis. The affected bush can only be cured if the disease is detected quickly enough and the plant is treated with a fungicide solution as soon as possible. Do not forget to also reduce watering.

In some cases, the plant has to be sprayed several times to get the desired result. If the bush is infected with bacterial spot disease, it will need to be treated with copper sulfate.

Growing a magnolia is VERY EASY! The most beautiful shrub of our latitudes!

Magnolia multiplication

Magnolia can be multiplied by seed as well as by propagation, cuttings and grafting. However, in order to retain the varietal characteristics of the plant, it must be propagated exclusively by vegetative means. However, when growing magnolia from seed, it is often possible to obtain a new variety, form or variety.

The generative method is also the easiest way to propagate.

Seed propagation

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

Seeds mature in September. Gather up the cohorts and spread them out on a paper sheet. The seeds are then shaken out and submerged in a tub of water, where they should stay for 2 to 3 days. Then they are rubbed through a sieve, so you can remove germinants.

The seeds are then washed in a soapy solution, which will remove the oily residue from them, and then they are rinsed well in clean running water. The seeds need to be stratified before sowing. To do this, put them in a bag of polyethylene, which should be filled with moistened sphagnum or sand (1:4). The bag should be placed on the middle shelf of the refrigerator for at least 20 days.

Stratified seeds should be taken out of the refrigerator, put them for some time in a solution of fungicide for disinfection.

Then the seeds are placed in moistened moss and wait for them to sprout. If everything is done correctly, the sprouts will give more than half of the seeds. But if you neglect stratification, there will not be many sprouts.

Make a furrow 20 mm deep and place the seeds in it, which should be covered with a centimeter layer of substrate. This plant has a tap root system, so a tall container should be sown with a depth of at least 0.

3m. Transplanting into the open ground is carried out after the threat of return frosts is behind, and the seedlings should be carefully poured into the wells. The young bushes should be covered with dry peat for the winter.

Grafting

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

You should choose young plants to take cuttings and cut them before the buds open. It is best if the lower part of the cuttings is woody and the upper part is green.

Landing cuttings made in the last days of June or first - July, for this use greenhouse, as it will be able to maintain the necessary temperature and humidity of the air and soil. Cuttings are planted in sand or a mixture consisting of peat, vermiculite, sand and perlite. The air temperature in the greenhouse should be kept at 20-24 degrees, in which case the cuttings will be able to root after 5-7 weeks. If you take cuttings from a large-flowered magnolia, you should note that it may take twice as long to root. Try to keep the air temperature within the recommended limits.

The fact is that if it is cooler, then the rooting of cuttings will be considerably slower, and the temperature exceeding 26 degrees can kill the plants. While the cuttings are in the greenhouse, do not forget to air it systematically and also make sure the soil is always a bit damp.

How to propagate by grafts

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

Spring propagation is only suitable for shrub magnolias. In the springtime, select a branch that grows very close to the ground. At the base you need to pull a copper soft wire, then the branch is bent to the ground and fixed in that position.

At the place where the branch is in contact with the soil, it should be covered with soil so that you get a small mound. To get roots closer, make a circular cut where the branch touches the ground.

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

Artificial twigs are sometimes used for propagation. In the last spring or first summer weeks a branch should be selected and a circular bark cut made on it, which should be 20 to 30 mm wide. The cut should be made carefully so as not to traumatize the wood.

Next, the cut is treated with Heteroauxin, and then the wound is covered with moistened moss and wrapped with food film, which should be fixed below and above the cut. After that, this branch is tied to nearby branches, which will prevent it from being traumatized by strong gusts of wind. The moss should be slightly damp all the time. To do this, several times a month it is necessary to "inject" water into it through a syringe. The roots should appear after 8-12 weeks.

In the fall, the brood should be detached from the mother plant, and it is reared in room conditions.

Magnolia after flowering

How to care for after flowering

Magnolia flowering begins in the springtime or early summer period. The magnolia, covered in flowers, is the queen among garden trees. After the plant has bloomed, it should be pruned for sanitary purposes. To do this, you need to cut off all the wilted flowers, as well as branches and stems injured and damaged by frost, as well as those that grow inside the crown.

The non-flowering magnolia is also very ornamental because it has beautiful leathery leaf plates.

Wintering

Preparing the plant for winter should be done in late fall. Cover should be good and secure because even if you grow a winter-hardy magnolia species, it can still freeze, especially if the winter is windy and low-snow. To prevent the plant from freezing, its trunk should be wrapped in two layers of burlap, while trying to ensure that the delicate branches are not traumatized. After the first frost, the surface of the bedding circle should be mulched with a thick layer.

Magnolia. Preparation for winter.

Magnolia species and varieties with photos and names

The largest magnolia collections are in Britain, namely at the Royal Botanic Gardens and at the Arnold Arboretum introductions center. There is also a quite beautiful collection in Kiev. The species most popular with gardeners will be described below.

Magnolia sieboldii (Magnolia sieboldii)

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

This deciduous tree is about 10 meters tall. Most often, however, this species is represented by a shrub. Its leaf plates are broadly elliptical in shape, and they reach 15 centimeters in length. On a slender pubescent pedicel is a slightly drooping, fragrant white cup-shaped flower. Flowers can reach 7-10 centimeters in diameter.

This species is one of the most winter-hardy ones, being able to survive short frosts of 36 degrees below zero. It has been cultivated since 1865

Magnolia obovata, or white-flowered magnolia

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

This species is native to Japan and the island of Kunashir, which is located in the Kuril Islands. The height of this deciduous tree is about 15 meters. The coloring of its smooth bark is gray. It has 8-10 leafy plates at the ends of its stems.

The spectacular white-cream flowers are about 16 centimeters in diameter and stand out because of their spicy scent. The rich red fruits are about 20 centimeters long. It looks beautiful all year round, is shade and frost hardy but requires high levels of moisture in the air and in the soil. It has been cultivated since 1865.

Magnolia medicinalis (Magnolia officinalis)

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

Native to this species is China.

This plant is considered analogous to Magnolia officinalis, but its leaf plates are larger. The large, fragrant flowers are similar in appearance to water lilies, but they have narrower petals that taper toward the top. This species is used as a medicinal plant in its native land, but is very rare in the middle latitudes.

Magnolia acuminata, or cucumber magnolia

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

This plant is native to central North America. Under natural conditions, it prefers to grow in deciduous forests at the mountain foothills and along the rocky banks of mountain rivers.

This deciduous tree can reach a height of about 30 meters. When young, the crowns are pyramidal in shape but gradually become rounded. Its leaves are elliptical or oval, measuring up to 24 centimeters in length. They are dark green on the front side and greenish gray on the underside, with short pubescence on the surface. The bell-shaped flowers are about 8 centimeters in diameter, greenish-yellow in color, in some cases with a bluish patina on the surface.

This species is the most frost-resistant of all. This species is shaped with rounded or heart-shaped leaf blades at the base. The flowers of canary-like color are not as large as those of the main species. In the USA, specialists obtained hybrid magnolias by crossing magnolia lilyflower and pointed magnolia, they are combined under the name of Brooklyn magnolia.

Magnolia stellata (Magnolia stellata)

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

This species is among the most beautiful and graceful.

It is native to Japan. The plant is a shrub or not very large tree, which can reach a height of 250 centimeters. Branches are bare brownish-gray in color. The leaf blades are narrowly elliptical in shape and about 12 centimeters long. The unusual flowers are about 10 centimeters in diameter and have a large number of snow-white petals of elongated ribbon shape, they extend in all directions, resembling star rays.

There are two ornamental forms: keystone and pink. Several varieties and hybrids are also popular with gardeners. For example, the Susan magnolia is a variety that has flowers whose outer part is colored in a dark red-burgundy color and the inner part in a paler shade. This variety is part of a series of hybrids with female names: Betty, Pinky, Jane, Judy, Anna, Randy and Ricky. This series was born in the fifties of the last century.

Magnolia liliflora (Magnolia liliflora)

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

This species is very popular with gardeners. Supposedly native to eastern China, it was introduced to Europe in 1790. Its flowers are lush, with a diameter of about 11 centimeters and a shape very similar to that of a lily. They are white on the inside and purple on the outside. The ornamental form of this species deserves special attention: its flowers are ruby-red on the outside and lilac-white on the inside, blooming in the last days of April or first days of May.

Magnolia Kobus (Magnolia kobus)

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

This plant is native to South Korea and central and northern Japan. It was introduced to New York in 1862 and from there to Europe in 1879. Under natural conditions it can grow to a height of 25 meters but in cultivation it does not exceed 10 meters. The broad, obovate leaves have a pointed apex. The front surface is a deep green, while the underside is a paler shade.

The fragrant white flowers are about 10 centimeters in diameter. The first flowering of such magnolia can be seen only when it is 9-12 years old. This species is frost, dust and gas resistant. The northern form is a plant with larger flowers that is even more hardy.

Magnolia grandiflora (Magnolia grandiflora)

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

Native of southeastern North America.

The slender trunk is cylindrical in shape. The crown has a very showy shape. The coloration of the large glossy leaf plates is dark green. The white flowers are about 25 centimeters in diameter and have a pungent, spicy scent. The fruits are also highly ornamental; they are very bright and have a cone-like shape.

While the plant is young it is slow growing, with an annual growth of only 0.6m. It has low winter hardiness, being able to withstand frosts no lower than minus 15 degrees. This species grows well in urban conditions, it is durable and highly resistant to pests and diseases. The main ornamental forms are:

  1. Uzkolostean.

    Leaf plates narrower than the main species.

  2. Lancet. Leaf shape elongated.
  3. Lancet282>. Leaf plates very broad, and flowers about 0.

    35 m in diameter.

  4. Circle-leaved. The leaf plates are colored in a very dark green hue. The flowers are about 15 centimeters in diameter.
  5. Early.

    Flowering begins earlier than the main species.

  6. Ekzon. This tall tree has a narrow-pyramidal crown shape. The leaf plates are oblong and have pubescence on the lower surface.
  7. Praverti.

    The crown shape is strictly pyramidal.

  8. Hartvisa. Crown shape pyramidal, foliage undulating.
  9. Dragon. The crown is lowered very low.

    Arc-shaped hanging branches touch the ground and root quickly.

  10. Gallison. Has greater frost resistance than the main species.

Magnolia sulangeana (Magnolia x soulangeana)

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

This hybrid was born in 1820 by the Frenchman E. Sulange, who was a scientist.

More than 50 forms of this hybrid have now been registered, and all are very popular in almost every country. The height of such a deciduous shrub or tree does not exceed 5 meters. The inversely ovate leaflets are about 15 centimeters long. The cup-shaped flowers can vary in diameter from 15 to 25 centimeters and are fragrant or, in some cases, completely odorless. They can be colored in various shades from purple to light pink.

A plant with white flowers can be seen very rarely. Such magnolia is resistant to adverse environmental influences and is not demanding to the composition of the soil. The most popular garden forms:

Magnolia: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, species and varieties with photos

  1. Lenne. The inner surface of the fragrant flowers is white and the outer surface is purple-pink.
  2. Alexandrina.

    Magnolia is about 8 meters tall and is drought tolerant. The outer surface of the flowers is dark purple and the inner is white.

  3. Rubra (red). The outer surface of the flowers is reddish pinkish.
  4. Nemetza.

    The crown shape is pyramidal.

Also this hybrid has a large number of varieties.

Besides the above described species, gardeners cultivate magnolia willowleaf, large-leaf, Lebner, naked, three-petal, or umbrella, etc.

Magnolias in the middle belt of Russia. Types, planting, care, wintering.

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