Horseradish: Planting And Care In The Open Field, Growing From Seed

The herbaceous perennial plant horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), or country horseradish or common horseradish, is a member of the genus Horseradish in the cabbage (Cruciferous) family. Under natural conditions this plant can be found in the territory of the Caucasus, Siberia and Europe, and it prefers to grow in damp places on the banks of various bodies of water and rivers. Horseradish is cultivated in all countries, including Greenland. As early as the Ancient Ages in Greece and Rome, people began to use it as a food. The first written sources, which mentions radish, date back to the 9th century AD, according to scientists it was at this time it began to be cultivated in Russia.

It was used as a seasoning for meat and fish dishes, added in grated form to kvass, as well as in various pickles. In Western Europe, more precisely in Germany, such a culture began to grow again only in the 16th century, it began to season various dishes, and also used as an additive in beer and schnapps. After that, it began to be cultivated in Scandinavia, France and England, where it was also called "horse radish". At this time horseradish was already used, not only adding it to various dishes, but also as a folk remedy with powerful medicinal properties.

Cultivation Summary

Horseradish: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

  1. Potting.

    Last days of March or first days of April.

  2. Brightness. Needs bright sunlight.
  3. Ground. Loamy, loamy or chernozemic soil, which must be nutritious.

  4. Pouring. Water systematically with 1 to 2 buckets of water per square metre. If it rains regularly in summer, horseradish can do without watering.
  5. Fertilizer. The first feeding is done after the formation of the first true leaf plates, for this purpose a solution of complex mineral fertilizer is used.

    After 15-20 days repeat feeding, for this use organic, more precisely, a solution of cowpea.

  6. Propagation. Vegetatively (parts of the rhizome), less often use the seed method.
  7. Pests. Cruciferous fleas, rapeseed bugs and flower bugs, cabbage bugs and fireworms.

  8. Diseases. White rot, white rot, scab, verticillosis, and viral mosaic.

Horseradish characteristics

Horseradish: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Horseradish forms a fleshy and thick root crop. The stem is straight and branched and can vary in height from 0.5 to 1.

5 meters. The very large, horny root leaves are oblong-oval, but heart-shaped at the base. The upper leaf blades are full-length, linear, while the lower ones are pinnately parted. White flowers have petals up to 0.6 cm long.

Fruits are swollen pods of oblong-oval shape, 0.5-0.6 cm long, with a net-like vein pattern on the surface of the pods. Inside the pods there are nests with 4 seeds in them. This perennial plant is remarkably unpretentious and frost-resistant.

Once planted, it is impossible to get rid of it, as it behaves extremely aggressively akin to a weed.

The composition of each part of the shrub contains an essential oil, which has a pungent smell and taste. The juice of the rootcrop of this plant contains ascorbic acid, thiamin, riboflavin, carotene, starch, carbohydrates, fatty oil, resinous substances and the protein lysozyme, which has a powerful antimicrobial effect. The root crop contains mineral salts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, phosphorus, copper and iron. Official medicine has known for a long time that horseradish has powerful therapeutic properties, so it helps to improve intestinal function, has a choleretic, antichingon and expectorant effect.

It is used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, liver and bladder diseases, colds, gout and rheumatism.

HOW TO GROW HECK IN THE GARDEN

Putting horseradish in the open field

Horseradish: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

What time to plant

Put horseradish in the open field in early spring or in April if it is warm. This culture is not afraid of any frosts or cold snaps. A small, well-lighted area near a fence will be perfect for planting such a plant.

The most popular method of reproducing horseradish is vegetative reproduction by parts of the rhizome.

However, it can also be grown from seed, but this method is relatively time-consuming, which is why gardeners do not like it.

Soil for horseradish

This crop grows well in nutritious soil that can be chernozem, loam or sandy loam. If a clay soil is prepared properly, such a plant will also develop and grow within limits. To do this in the autumn months, when digging such a site in the soil should be added sand, peat and manure (10 to 12 kilograms per 1 square meter). At the same time, in the spring time, minerals are added to the soil: 30 grams of superphosphate, potassium salt and ammonium nitrate per 1 square meter of the plot.

If a plot with suitable soil for growing such root-crops is selected, it is recommended to apply organic fertilizers under the previous crop, such as legumes or cereals.

Planting rules

Horseradish: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Root cuttings should be prepared in autumn time together with the harvesting of the crop. Put them in the cellar or basement and bury them in dry sawdust or sand. Root cuttings can be harvested in the early spring before the bush leaves appear. When up to planting in the ground will be 10-15 days, cuttings should be taken out of storage and, having covered them with a moistened cloth, put in a warm place.

This is to allow the buds to germinate.

Before planting, the side shoots should be separated from the main root up to 25 centimeters long and up to 1.2 centimeters across. If the cuttings are very long, they should be divided into parts, and the lower cut should be oblique, and the upper one should be horizontal. Then carry out their planting on a pre-prepared plot, taking into account that in 1 square meter there should be no more than 4-6 bushes.

When planting cuttings, the distance between them should be 0.3 to 0.4 m, and the width between the rows should be kept within 0.65 to 0.7 m.

To get a rich harvest of even root crops, the cuttings should be prepared before planting. Take a coarse cloth and rub the middle part of the cuttings with it, as a result, you will remove excess buds from it, leaving only the upper buds to form leaves and the lower ones to form a root system. When planting such a vegetable in order to obtain planting material, it is not necessary to remove from the cuttings the germinated buds, in this case the root of the bush will be very branched and you can get a large number of cuttings.

Transplanting cuttings into the open soil should be slanted, with their top deepening into the ground only 50 mm, and the lower part - 100 mm. Small pieces of roots no thicker than 25mm and up to 80mm long will also be suitable for propagating this vegetable, they should be planted horizontally into the soil, without removing the buds from them.

How to Properly Plant a House Horseradish Root. Properties of Horseradish

Potting Horseradish in the winter

This plant is planted in the ground in the fall just as it is planted in the spring. In this case, it is recommended to choose a site where tomatoes or potatoes were grown before, and before planting such crops in the ground all the necessary organics should be introduced. From the plot should be removed all weeds and crop residues, and when it will be recultivated, you can start planting horseradish. The best time to plant horseradish for the winter is in the middle of October.

Horseradish care

Horseradish: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

After the horseradish sprouts appear from the soil, they should definitely be thinned. During this procedure, all weak and poorly developed shoots should be removed, leaving the strongest ones. In July, prune the rootstock from the lateral branches, for this purpose it should be carefully dug out and removed from its upper part (up to 0.25 m) all the existing lateral roots. When all the rhizomes will be processed, they are again carefully filled with soil, which is then well compacted and watered.

At the same time, try to ensure that there are no voids near the rhizome. The rest of care for such a plant is very simple, it should be timely watered, weeded, loosen the soil surface near the bushes, as well as provide protection against various pests and diseases.

Watering

Throughout the growing season watering of such a vegetable should be systematic. During this procedure, 1-2 buckets of water should be used per square meter of land. Special attention should be paid to watering during a prolonged drought.

If it rains systematically in summer, horseradish can do without watering at all, because if the liquid stagnates in the soil, rot may occur on the roots, which will cause the loss of the entire crop.

Fertilizer

Horseradish: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

After the first leaves have emerged, the bushes should be given a mineral complex, for this purpose 8 grams of superphosphate, 5 grams of ammonium nitrate and the same amount of potassium salt per 1 square meter of bed. If the growth and development of bushes is very slow, then 15-20 days after the first fertilizer application, it is necessary to feed them with a solution of cowpea (1:10).

Pests and diseases of horseradish

Horseradish: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Horse has greater resistance to diseases than other crops belonging to the Cruciferous family. If not well cared for or given optimal growing conditions, they can be attacked by blemish, mosaic, white rot or Verticillosis.

Such root crops can be harmed by cruciferous fleas, rapeseed mites and blossom beetles, cabbage mites and fireflies.

Today viral diseases are considered incurable so if horseradish is attacked by mosaic or Verticillosis wilt it should be dug up and destroyed. If the plant will be affected by white rot or squirrel rot, which are fungal diseases, they can be treated only at the very beginning of the development of the disease. To do this, they are treated with a solution of a drug containing copper (for example: copper sulfate, Tiovit Jet, Bordeaux liquid, Oksihom or other similar means).

To prevent the appearance of pests on plants, it is necessary to adhere to the rules of agricultural technology of this culture: observe the rules of crop rotation, timely remove weeds from the plot, when the harvest is gathered, the plot must be cleared of crop residues and then it is subjected to deep recultivation.

Insecticidal preparations can also help in the fight against pests. If bed bugs and fleas have settled on bushes, they should be sprayed with a solution of Foxime or Aktellik, fireflies and bloomers are killed with Etafos, Zimbush or Zolon.

Remember that 20 days before harvesting all treatments with chemical agents should be stopped. Remember that the most common diseases are those which are weakened by improper care, and also pests prefer to settle on them. But if you take care of your horseradish in the right way and stick to your farming techniques, you will be able to protect it from many diseases and pests.

Harvesting and storing horseradish

Horseradish: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Since August, horseradish leaves begin to be cut, they are used as spice during canning of tomatoes, cucumbers and other vegetables. Remember that if all the leaf plates are cut from the bush, it will have an extremely negative effect on the development of the rhizome. The leaves should be cut about 10 to 15 centimeters above the ground so that both the root bud and the leaf remain unharmed.

The mass harvesting of root crops takes place in the last days of October or first days of November before frost sets in, at which time the leaves turn yellow and begin to dry out. When planting large cuttings, harvesting is carried out in the same season.

If relatively small root cuttings were planted, however, normal root crops will not grow from them until the following season. Before you start harvesting, cut off all the leaves from the bushes, then use a shovel to dig up the rhizome and pull it out of the soil. Remember that if at least a few pieces of small roots remain in the soil, next year they will be more like a weed. Once the roots are removed from the soil, they should be put away in a cool room, with no need to procrastinate. Then from them remove the remnants of soil and lateral branches, the places of cuts are necessarily coated with iodine.

For drying, the horseradish is placed in a warm, well-ventilated place for 24 h.

For storing root crops, wooden boxes are used, with a layer of soil on the bottom, and they are laid out in rows on it so that their surfaces do not touch each other. After the row of horseradish is laid down, it should be overlaid with clean sand. When the vegetable is placed in boxes, it is stored in the cellar or basement. For storage, you can also put the root crop on the shelf of the refrigerator, but in this case its length should not exceed 0.

3 m, and each of them should be wrapped in food film, in which do not forget to make a few holes for ventilation. In the refrigerator shelf intended for vegetables, horseradish retains its properties for about 20 days. In a frozen form it can be stored for up to 6 months, for this purpose remove the skin from the root and cut it into cubes, after the moisture has been removed from them (you can use a napkin) they are piled into a bag of polyethylene and put into the freezer.

Pickles can be dried if you wish. To do this, the root should be cut into small slices, which are placed on a baking tray in 1 layer, then it is taken into the oven for 90 minutes.

at a temperature of no more than 60 degrees. Dry and hardened root is crushed, for this you can use several devices: grater, coffee grinder or mortar. The resulting powder should be poured into a bowl made of porcelain or glass, which should be covered. Before you use the ready-made powder for its intended use, it should be mixed with water to soak. The shelf life of dried horseradish is not more than two years.

Such a vegetable can be pickled. To do this, take 1 kilogram of root vegetables, which need to be peeled and washed. The vegetables are grated or minced, and the resulting mass is placed tightly in a glass jar, which must be sterilized in advance, and then the marinade is poured into the container. For its preparation, 1 tbsp. boiling water is put in 1 large spoon of salt and sugar, and when the marinade is removed from the stove, ½ tbsp.

apple cider vinegar (6%) is added to it. If desired, 1 large spoonful of citric acid can be used to replace the vinegar. Just boiled marinade is poured into a jar with horseradish, which is rolled with a presterilized metal lid. The pickled vegetable retains its properties for several years.

The types and varieties of horseradish

The following will detail the varieties of horseradish that are considered the best:

  1. Atlanta, or Wild.

    This medium-ripening variety is characterized by resistance to drought, frost, and moisture. The root can vary in length from 0.2 to 0.5 m, it reaches 40-50 mm across and weighs 190-380 grams. The color of the not too juicy dense flesh is milky white.

  2. Valkovsky. This late variety has resistance to diseases and cruciferous midge. The cylindrical, pale yellow root crop reaches 0.5-0.6 m in length and 20-30 mm in cross-section.

    The average root weighs about 150 grams.

  3. Suzdalsky. The flat root has no side branches, its length is about 0.3 m, and it reaches - 30 mm in cross-section. Its white flesh is juicy and very sharp.

  4. Tolpukhovsky. The root crops of this late variety reach 25 to 35 centimeters in length and weigh 65-250 grams.

Besides these horseradish varieties, such as: Riga, Jelgava, Latvia, Rostov, Volkov, Marune, Boris Yeltsin etc.

Horticulturists also cultivate the plant katran, which is a relative of horseradish and is notable for its unpretentiousness, nutrition and resistance to frost. This plant is also used as a medicinal plant, it contains a lot of minerals and vitamins.

Despite all its merits, it is not cultivated as widely as horseradish, although plus it does not grow on the site like an aggressive weed. Horseradish has large, greenish leaves with a blue cast. They are boiled and served as a garnish to meat and fish dishes.

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