Home Chrysanthemum: Proper Care, Transplanting And Propagation

The herbaceous annual or perennial flowering plant Chrysanthemum is a member of the family Asteraceae, or the Compositae. There are about 30 species in this family, which can be found in temperate and cool climates, but most occur in Asia. Horticulturists have been growing the chrysanthemum for over 1,000 years, and it only appeared on European soil in the 17th century. Most chrysanthemums are grown outdoors, but there are also species that grow well both indoors and in greenhouses.

Brief description of growing

Home chrysanthemum: proper care, transplanting and propagation

  1. Flowering.

    Usually in autumn or winter.

  2. Brightness. Needs plenty of bright light, which must necessarily be diffused. East or west orientation windows are best.
  3. Temperature range.

    In summer time - from 20 to 23 degrees, in spring and autumn - from 15 to 18 degrees, and in winter - from 3 to 8 degrees.

  4. Watering. When the plant has intensive growth, it is watered at least twice every 7 days, at this time the soil mixture in the container should be slightly moist all the time.
  5. Air humidity. For normal growth and development, it is recommended that the bushes be moistened daily from a sprayer in the morning and evening.

  6. Fertilizer. An adult flower during intensive growth needs regular fertilizing, which is carried out once every week and a half, for this purpose mineral fertilizers are used. If the flower is fed with weak organic solutions, then fertilize the substrate every four days. As soon as the buds begin to form, feeding should be discontinued.
  7. Dormant period.

    After the bush has bloomed, cut off all shoots and remove it to a cool (2 to 3 degrees) and dark place where it will remain until spring arrives. During the spring, the bush will begin to actively grow young stems.

  8. Transplanting. Young chrysanthemums are transplanted every year at the beginning of the growing season. Mature specimens need more infrequent transplants, which are done once every 2 or 3 years.

  9. Propagation. By bush division and cuttings, much less often by seed.
  10. Pests. Aphids, chrysanthemum nematodes, thrips, and drooling pennywort.
  11. Diseases.

    Can get powdery mildew, septoriosis, and gray rot.

Peculiarities of domestic chrysanthemum

Home chrysanthemum: proper care, transplanting and propagation

The domestic chrysanthemum is a compact and not very tall bush. The fact is that during its cultivation special preparations are used which artificially suspend its growth. However, there have been cases where bought cuttings of domestic chrysanthemums grew from cuttings of garden size.

As a rule, in the room grow low-growing varieties of chrysanthemum Chinese or silk-flowered.

Height of luxuriantly blooming bushes can vary from 0.15 to 0.7 m. Their flowers are both large, reaching a diameter of about 50 mm, and small (no more than 25 mm across). And varieties may also differ in the shape of the flowers.

Some Indian and Korean varieties of chrysanthemum can also be cultivated at home.

Flowering of indoor chrysanthemums is usually observed in the fall and winter. In order for the shrub to flower for as long as possible, it must be properly cared for and will also need special growing conditions.

How to care for a potted chrysanthemum

Home care for chrysanthemum

Home chrysanthemum: proper care, transplanting and propagation

To succeed with indoor chrysanthemums, they need proper temperature control, optimal light levels and timely watering.

Temperature Regime

Home chrysanthemums need a certain temperature regime to grow and develop properly as well as to bloom for a long time.

This culture is not heat-loving, so in summer it will feel fine at a temperature of 20 to 23 degrees. In the spring and autumn in the room where the plant is, it should be from 15 to 18 degrees Celsius, and in winter it is kept in a cold place (from 3 to 8 degrees). If you strictly adhere to the established temperature regime, then the flowering of the bush will be as lush and long as possible.

Lightness

Home chrysanthemum: proper care, transplanting and propagation

Windows facing east or west are great for growing chrysanthemums because they need plenty of diffused sunlight. If you put it on a window facing north it will not bloom as it needs lots of light, and if you put it on a southern window it will starve because the light is too harsh.

The best place to grow such a culture is considered a cool loggia, balcony or veranda, and it must necessarily be well-lit. During the warm season, if possible, move the flower to the garden.

Throughout the growing season, the chrysanthemum will need regular pruning and pruning, so that the bush will be lush and compact. Yellow leaves and fading flowers should also be cut off systematically.

Watering

Home chrysanthemum: proper care, transplanting and propagation

For the chrysanthemum to bloom and grow healthily, it needs to be watered in time and correctly.

This flower is a damp-loving plant and therefore the substrate in the container must be kept slightly moist all the time. During the growing season, the bush should be watered at least twice every 7 days. In any case, do not allow the clod of soil to dry out. But also take care that there is no stagnant liquid in the soil mixture and also in the tray.

Wetting the shrubs with a sprayer on hot days is not superfluous at all.

Carry out such a procedure in the evening or in the morning. The plant will be able to do without it, but in this case, it will look more dull and less attractive in the heat.

Chrysanthemum transplanting

Home chrysanthemum: proper care, transplanting and propagation

Young indoor chrysanthemums should be transplanted regularly once a year in the spring, with the new pot being slightly bigger than the old one. Mature shrubs can be transplanted less frequently, namely once every 2 or 3 years.

For transplanting, prepare a soil mixture, which should include: turf, white sand, garden soil and humus (4:1:4:1).

For the culture to flower more lushly, a small amount of bird droppings is poured into the ready substrate. For its planting, in no case can you use acidic soil, as it reacts extremely negatively to it.

On the bottom of the new container make a good drainage layer, and the soil mixture before planting is poured with boiling water and wait until it dries.

Chrysanthemums in a pot! Repotting, how to care for them!

Fertilizing

The flower should be fertilized regularly. Compound fertilizer is recommended for this purpose because the phosphorus and potassium it contains help to stimulate flowering.

To make the bush to flower much earlier than it was due, in the soil make a solution of potassium monophosphate in a ratio of 1:10 or use another complex fertilizer, in which the proportion of phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium is 3:1:2. Still such a flower can be fed with liquid organic fertilizers.

Mature plant is fed with minerals 1 time in 1.5 weeks, and every four days in the soil mixture is made a solution of cowpea (1 part of fertilizer per bucket of water). As soon as the buds begin to form, stop feeding the chrysanthemum.

Care after flowering

Home chrysanthemum: proper care, transplanting and propagation

After flowering ends, the plant should be put to rest. Cut off all the stems from the shrub and take the pot to a cellar where it will stay at 2 to minus 3 degrees until spring. As soon as young shoots begin to appear, repot the bush into a larger pot and return it to its original location in the house.

Propagation methods

Chrysanthemum propagation with cuttings

Home chrysanthemum: proper care, transplanting and propagation

Home chrysanthemums are best propagated with untreeable green cuttings. When preparing the cuttings, the side shoots are cut off from the branch and the length of the piece should be 10 centimeters.

From the lower part of the cuttings all the leaf plates are cut off, and then they are placed in a container with water for rooting. After the roots reach 40-50 mm in length, carry out their planting in pots, and in one container plant several pieces at once. Do not forget to make a good layer of drainage at the bottom of the pot, use soil slightly alkaline or neutral. After planting around the cuttings tamped substrate and watering. It is also advisable to prune the tips of the cuttings to stimulate the growth of lateral shoots.

The rooting cuttings can be planted immediately in the potting soil. They must be covered with a polyethylene hood from above, which will help to create a greenhouse effect, necessary for successful rooting. Every day the cuttings are ventilated, for this purpose remove the hood for a while, do not forget to remove accumulated condensation from its surface. Once the foliage has regained its turgor, rooting is complete and the cover can be removed.

Chrysanthemum Propagation.

Cuttings of a room chrysanthemum

Shrub division

The culture can be multiplied by shrub division during transplanting. Take the plant out of its container, gently remove any remaining potting soil from the root system and rinse it off. Then take a pre-sterilized very sharp tool and cut the bush into several pieces with each partition should have several stems and well-developed roots. Treat the cut areas with charcoal powder. The divisions should be potted in the same way as the adult shrubs.

Growing from seed

Home chrysanthemum: proper care, transplanting and propagation

Korean hybrids and varieties are most commonly propagated using seeds. The seeds are sown in low containers with a good layer of drainage at the bottom. Fill them with soil mixture, which includes humus and peat (1:1), before sowing it must be ignited at a temperature of 110 to 130 degrees. For sowing you can use and ready-made soil mixture for flowers, which should also be disinfected. Deepen the seeds of perennials in the soil mixture is not necessary, they are only slightly pressed into the substrate.

Seeds are moistened with a sprayer and covered with a film (glass) from above. A container with seeds transferred to a warm place (23 to 25 degrees), they need systematic airing, as well as timely watering. Also, do not forget to remove condensation from the surface of the shelter in time. The first seedlings should appear after 10-15 days, immediately after that the container is moved to a well-lit place. Covering with a container is removed not immediately, giving the seedlings an opportunity to get used to the new conditions.

To do this every day with them removed from the glass, increasing the duration of ventilation gradually, and remove it completely only when the plants are fully adapted. Diving into individual containers is carried out at the stage of formation of 2-4 true leaf plate. At the bottom of cups or pots pour a layer of drainage, and soil for planting use the same as for sowing. During the picking, try not to traumatize the roots. To root more successfully and quickly, transplanted seedlings are treated with a solution of Epin-Extra or Zircon.

Take the transplanted seedlings to a cooler location (16 to 18 degrees) and care for them as you would for an adult chrysanthemum.

Chrysanthemum pests and diseases

Diseases

Home chrysanthemum: proper care, transplanting and propagation

If the chrysanthemum is in unsuitable conditions and not properly cared for, it can be affected by fungal diseases such as: septoriosis, powdery mildew and grey rot.

If the plant is affected by powdery mildew, a white-colored coating will form on its petioles, leaves and stems. Over time, it thickens and turns brown, causing the ornamentation of the chrysanthemum to suffer. To cure the flower, treat it with a solution of a fungicide such as Topsin, Skor, Fondazole or Topaz.

Chrysanthemums with septoriosis develop rusty or brownish-gray spots with yellow borders. Over time, these spots increase and eventually occupy the entire surface of the leaf plate. Fungus pycnidia, which are black dots, appear in the middle of such spots. Affected shoots and leaves begin to wither, stems turn brown, shrivel and kink. Try to isolate the affected bush from other plants.

Cut off any diseased stems and foliage, then spray it with a solution of Oxychom, Cuproxate or copper sulfate. The shrub can only be placed next to other indoor flowers when it has fully recovered.

Chrysanthemum infested with grey rot, also called Botrytis, is relatively difficult to cure. In this case, a fluffy, gray-colored plaque forms on the surface of the above-ground parts of the plant, the flower tissues underneath it die and rot appears. To cure the plant, it should be treated with a solution of Bordeaux mixture, and it is best to spray the bush before the flowers form on it.

Chrysanthemums Keeping Home Controlling Pests

Pests

Chrysanthemum nematodes, slobbers, aphids or thrips may infest the shrubs. Aphids, thrips and fungus are sucking pests that suck the cell sap from the plant. To get rid of them, the flower is sprayed with a solution of an insectoacaricidal agent, such as: Derris, Biotlin, Aktellik, Confidor or Actara.

The nematode is a very small, filamentous worm that cannot be seen with the naked eye. You can tell that such a pest has settled on a plant by the mosaic-like white spots that appear between the veins of the lower leaf plates.

Over time, these spots turn brown. After a while, curling, withering and flying off of the affected leaves is observed, with mosaic spots beginning to form on the upper leaf plates as well. As a rule, nematodes affect bushes through substrate that has not been disinfected. A flower affected by nematodes cannot be cured, so it will have to be burned together with the soil in the pot.

Branches and varieties of domestic chrysanthemums with photos and names

Home chrysanthemum: proper care, transplanting and propagation

We have mentioned above that dwarf and stunted varieties as well as hybrids of Korean, Chinese and Indian chrysanthemums are cultivated by florists in domestic conditions.

The Korean chrysanthemum is of hybrid origin, but no one has ever seen the mulberry chrysanthemum in natural conditions either. The history of such a plant is very confusing and complicated, so it is better not to delve into it. Below will be described those varieties of chrysanthemum that are most popular among florists:

Home chrysanthemum: proper care, transplanting and propagation

  1. Malchish-Kibalchish. The bush reaches about 0.3 meters in height and up to 0.

    6 meters in cross-section. This variety is characterized by very lush flowering. Its inflorescences are similar in structure to daisy, have a lilac-pink color and reach about 70 mm in cross-section.

  2. Evening Lights. The compact bush reaches about 0.

    35 meters in height. The simple inflorescences are up to 55 millimeters in diameter and are colored red, with a yellow ring around the middle.

  3. First Snow. The height of this luxuriantly blooming variety does not exceed 0.35 meters, but it can reach up to half a meter across.

    The semi-major white inflorescences are about 50 millimeters in diameter.

  4. Talisman. The bush is short, only about 0.25 meters. Dark crimson small inflorescences reach about 20 mm across.

  5. Cheburashka. Compact, hemispherical shrubs reach about 0.4 meters in height. The diameter of the lilac-colored, majestic inflorescences is up to 40 millimeters.
  6. Varvara.

    This abundantly flowering variety has a bush that reaches up to 0.4 meters in height. The marching lilac-pink inflorescences with yellow midrib form so many that it is sometimes impossible to see the foliage because of them.

  7. Flamingo. The bush is about 0.

    5 meters tall. The pale pink inflorescences reach about 75 millimeters across. The middle of the inflorescence is more saturated in color.

  8. Pink and cream. Bushes do not exceed half a meter in height.

    The diameter of the dense-branched inflorescences is about 80 millimeters and they are colored pinkish-mauve, which after a while becomes pinkish-cream.
    Home chrysanthemum: proper care, transplanting and propagation

  9. Listopad. Such a chameleon plant is about 0.45 m tall. The pinkish-red inflorescences reach about 70 mm across.

    They can change their color to fleshy yellow.

  10. Mallow Pompon. This variety is a dwarf, the height of its bushes does not exceed 0.3 m. The diameter of the hemispherical-shaped inflorescences is about 60 mm, they are colored crimson-pink.

  11. Okishor. The powerful bush is about half a meter tall, the inflorescences are about 80 mm in diameter and their color is pinkish-lilac.
    Home chrysanthemum: proper care, transplanting and propagation
  12. Siaivo. The variety, created by Ukrainian breeders, reaches about 0.6 meters in height.

    The large inflorescences are about 80 mm in diameter with an egg-yellow hue.

  13. Appleflower. The stems of the half-meter shrubs are powerful and thick. The majestic inflorescences reach about 80 mm across and have a white-pink color.

Home chrysanthemum: proper care, transplanting and propagation

How to properly care for a Chrysanthemum? / chrysanthemum room

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