The hazel or hazelnut (Corylus) is a member of the Birch family. This genus is represented by deciduous trees and shrubs. It includes about 20 species. In nature they occur in North America and Eurasia. In coniferous-broadleaved forests, they form an undergrowth.
The most popular among gardeners is the hazelnut species, or common hazelnut. Often referred to as hazel are the following cultivated species: hazel large, pontic and common. The hazelnut is among the most ancient cultivated plants in Europe. For many centuries the hazelnut has been cultivated in Spain, France, Great Britain, Turkey, Italy and Germany. On the territory of Russia the fruit of hazel appeared in 1773 in an exchange for velvet and leather.
The word hazel comes from "leshka", which means hazelnut (hazelnut).
Features of hazel
The hazelnut is represented by shrubs and trees. The plant can be up to 7 meters tall. Its crowns are egg-shaped or globular in shape with a cone-shaped top. Large leaf plates are round or broadly oval in shape and have serrated edges.
Flowers are monoecious and also unisexual. Thus, male flowers begin to form in autumn and form fluffy cylindrical earrings on short branches. They open in the spring even before the leaf laminae appear. Blossoming of the hazel-wood occurs in the last days of March or first days of April. During this time a lot of pollen is produced and it is considered the main food for bees after a long winter.
During flowering, the plant is decorated with golden-colored earrings as well as flowers. The fruit is a small (about 20 mm across) single-seeded globular nut with a brown-yellow color. It is surrounded by a mucilage (a tubular incised covering) and also by a woody pericarp. It ripens in August.
This crop prefers to grow in subtropical and temperate climates.
Plantations of hazelnut are located in the southern part of Europe, in Turkey, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Cyprus, Georgia, Belarus, and also the middle belt of Russia. However, in private gardens this crop is much less common than sea buckthorn, hawthorn, bird cherry, rose hips, actinidia, etc.
Lingnut. Hazelnut, Leschia "Kontorta". Undemanding Garden Shrubs
Planning witch hazel in the garden
What time to plant
Witch hazel can be planted in the open ground in the spring before the sap starts and also in the fall 15-20 days before frost sets in.
However, it should be taken into account that it is better to plant in autumn.
When looking for a suitable site for planting, take into account that it should have protection from draughts and be moderately illuminated. In regard to groundwater, it should not be more than 150 cm from the surface of the plot. A site close to the south or west wall of a building is excellent. For planting are not suitable sites where in the spring time there is a build-up of melt water.
Also note that the distance between the nearest big tree and the sapling should be 4 to 5 meters, as the optimum feeding area of the plant is 16-25 m. We must remember that the soil on the site should not be heavy, poor, loamy or boggy. A humus-rich, loose and light soil is best for planting this fruit, but should be slightly acidic or neutral.
In case several hazelnut trees are to be planted at the same time it is recommended to deeply dig the whole plot before planting.
Plotting hazelnut in autumn
The selected nursling should not have any leaves.
It should have 3 or 4 strong stems, reaching at least 10-15 mm across. Its root system should be very well developed. The roots should reach at least half a meter in length, but just before planting they should be shortened to 0.25 m. When planting several specimens, the distance between them in a row should be 4 to 5 meters, with a row spacing of about 6 meters.
Preparation of pits for planting should be engaged in 4 weeks before the day of planting, during this time, the soil in them will be compacted and well settle. If the soil on the plot is rich in nutrients, the width and depth of the excavation should be only 0.5 m. If it is poor, the width and depth of the pit should be increased to 0,8 m. Before planting you should fill the pit with a nutritious soil mixture: Mix the soil from the topsoil with 2 tbsp.
of wood ash or 200 grams of superphosphate and 15 kg of decomposed manure. It is very good if you add to it several handfuls of soil from the hazelnut tree.
A mound should be formed in the middle of the pit, on which the seedling should be placed. Before planting the hazel, do not forget to dip its root system into a clay-mud bolt. Note that after planting, the root neck of the plant should be elevated above the surface of the plot by 50 mm.
The excavation must be filled, after which the surface of the rootstock is well compacted. Near the seedling, a stake should be installed and its garter should be made. The plant planted needs abundant watering, with 30-40 liters of water poured under 1 bush, even if the planting was made in moistened soil. After the fluid has been completely absorbed into the soil, the surface of the root zone should be covered with a layer of mulch (humus, sawdust or peat), 30-50 mm thick.
Planning hazelnut trees
How to plant hazel in spring
In spring the hollow plant is planted in exactly the same way as in autumn.
However, in this case, the pit for planting is recommended to be prepared still in the autumn time, so that over the winter the soil could be well compacted and saturated with moisture.
To ensure that the hazelberry is accurately pollinated, experts advise planting not less than 3 specimens on the plot, and it is better if they are all different varieties. Also do not forget to pour a few handfuls of soil from the forest hazel into the pit during planting, because it contains fungi that are very favorable for this culture. For the first period it is recommended to protect the seedlings from the direct rays of the spring sun by shading them.
Wood hazel care
There is nothing difficult about growing hazel plants.
And to make things as easy as possible, it is recommended to sow lupine, mustard, or oats with vetch in the root zone. When such grass will be mowed, it will create an excellent mulching layer. The soil in the growing bed can also be kept fallow if desired and should be periodically loosened to a depth of 40 to 70 mm to remove all weeds. In addition, you will need to systematically remove the root shoots, and note that it is much easier to get rid of the offspring while they are still quite weak. To do this, the scion should be dug out and cut off where it grows from the root of the tree.
The cuttings should be covered with crushed charcoal.
How to water
Sprouts grown in the garden need timely watering. Seedlings planted outdoors should begin to be watered after only 7 days. If the plant does not drink enough water, the formation of the flower buds will be severely impaired, as will the ripening of the fruit. During the growing season 5 or 6 watering sessions will be enough, and you should let 60-80 litres of water under the tree at a time.
If there's drought in the summertime, you will need to increase the amount of watering, as it is a water-loving plant. But if the summer was rainy, then water the hazelnut tree does not have to be at all. On average, watering is arranged once every 4 weeks. Pour water under the tree should be in portions, because it should have time to be absorbed, and not stand for hours in a puddle. Loosening the ground around the tree should be done the next time you water or it rains.
Hazelnut trees growing in the garden need nutrition in a timely manner. In autumn the tree needs phosphorus and potassium, so 20 to 30 grams of potassium salt, 3 to 4 kg of manure and 50 grams of superphosphate should be added to the tree bed once every 2 or 3 years. In the springtime, this culture needs nitrogen, so, after the buds swell, 20 to 30 grams of urea or ammonium nitrate should be added to the soil under the tree. The vineyard also needs nitrogen in July, at which time it is needed so that the ripening of fruits occurs simultaneously. Young trees should be fertilized with organic fertilizers (decomposed manure or compost).
Such fertilization should be carried out once every 2 or 3 years, and under one tree should be applied to 10 kilograms of organic.
How to care for during flowering
If the plant is developing normally, it will definitely bloom. Flowering begins in April, with the flowers blooming before the leaves open. Once the air outside warms up to 12 degrees, the hazel earrings begin to grow actively and every 24 hours their length increases by 30 mm. Also note that the drier the air, the faster the growth of the earrings will be.
Once they are 10 centimetres long, they will become loose and the pollen will spread. The duration of this dusting is 4 to 12 days. Female flowers remain open for 14 days. The pollen from the male flowers falls on the female flowers, and it can come not only from their own, but also from a nearby tree. This is why we recommend that you plant at least three trees of hazel in your garden.
Breeding witch hazel
There are several ways to propagate witch hazel: by pruning, grafting, dividing, seeds, scions and cuttings. The general method of propagation is mainly used by breeders to obtain new varieties that will be adapted to certain climatic conditions. But amateur gardeners, as a rule, do not grow hazelnut from seeds because this is very long and only 1 seedling in 1 thousand grown can keep the varietal features of the parent plant.
Using generative methods of propagation, you can fully preserve the varietal features of the plant. Horizontal branches are used to propagate hazel trees.
To do this in early spring or in late autumn you should select annual branches, which should be low-growing. Under them make shallow grooves (depth of 10 to 15 centimeters) in which to lay these branches. They should be fixed and the top part left above the ground should be shortened slightly. Do not fill the furrows with soil. Over time, vertical shoots will grow from the buds on the branches.
All leaf plates should be removed from the lower part of the sprouts that have grown, and they will also need several dips to the middle. Over time, the offshoots will form their own roots, they can be replanted in a new place. Repotting such seedlings to a permanent place will only be possible after 1 or 2 years, as they need to be reared.
According to the same principle, the hazel can be propagated by arched shoots. In the springtime the selected branches should be bent in an arc to the soil.
At the place where the branch is in contact with the ground, the bark should be incised. Then the branch is fixed in a hole, the depth of which should be 0.2 to 0.3 m, after which it is filled with soil so that the upper part is above the surface of the plot, and it needs to be tied to a peg placed nearby. The offshoot that gave root in the autumn should be cut from the parent tree, and then it is dug up and planted for re-growth in another place.
It can be transplanted to a permanent location after 1 or 2 years.
The gully can also be quite easily propagated by vertical shoots. When the rejuvenating pruning is done in spring, you should find stumps of sufficiently large branches and wrap them tightly in foil at a height of 0.5m. This promotes the awakening of dormant buds and they begin to grow.
Once the young shoots have grown to a height of 15 centimeters, they should be pruned with humus to a height of 40-50 mm. But before that, do not forget to tie them at the very bottom, and use a soft wire for this purpose. After the length of the shoots reaches 0,2-0,25 m, make their dip with humus to a height of 8 to 12 centimeters. And after their length is equal to 0,3-0,35 m, conduct their dip to a height of 0,2 m, and the surface around them is covered with a layer of mulch. When the shoots will be dipped for the third time, it is necessary to remove the foil.
During the summer period, the bush should be provided with regular watering and weeding. Do not forget, before proceeding to mowing, each time cut off all the lower leaf plates from the shoot. In the autumn time, you need to dig up the shoot very carefully, while trying not to traumatize the adventitious roots. Those shoots that gave roots should be broken off in the place of overstretching. Those shoots that gave a small number of roots should not be separated.
Sprouting of hazelnut by grafts
The hazelnut grows to a diameter of 100 cm from the trunk. The first shoots appear 1 or 2 years after planting, they grow from dormant buds on the root system, but they will emerge from the soil far away from the parent bush. Breeding hazel can be detached - these are two- or three-year-old scions that grow on the periphery. Such a scion should be detached from the rhizome with an axe, and then it should be transplanted into a school for further cultivation. If desired, they may also be planted permanently, but in this case 2 or 3 clumps should be placed in one planting hole.
Also hazel may be propagated by grafting. A seedling of a wild hazel can be used as a scion. However, experts recommend taking a seedling of a bear-nut, which does not give root scions, as a scion. Grafting is done in summer by budding with a germinating eye or in spring by cuttings in the butt, behind the bark or in the cleft. As a scion, cuttings harvested from the middle part of the stem should be used, but apex cuttings can also be taken.
Cuttings are harvested in winter. They should be preserved until spring by placing them in a snow drift or in a refrigerator.
Propagation by splitting bush
Propagating a vine by splitting bush is also quite easy. The plant removed from the ground should be divided into several parts, each part should have stubs that reach 15-20 centimeters in length. The cut areas should be covered with finely ground coal and then the separated parts should be put into holes that should be prepared in advance.
Some gardeners cover the gully in a different way. To do this, they lean young bushes to the surface of the plot and cover them with lapnik. In this case, the stems not only do not freeze, but also do not get injured. Mature trees can also overwinter without covering.
Trimming the hazelnut
Trimming the hazelnut can be done in the wintertime.
But it is best done in the springtime during the late blooming phase. The reason is that during flowering the plant will shake during pruning, which is extremely beneficial for pollination efficiency.
Rules of pruning
Cultivate hazel as a tree on a stem, which height can vary from 0.35 to 0.4 m.
However, a hazel shaped shrub is easier and more convenient to care for. Seven days after planting the seedling in the garden, it should be shortened to 0.25-0.3 m. During the summer period on the bush will have to grow shoots, which should not be removed, you should remember that the fruiting of hazelnut is observed on the annual wood.
With the onset of the spring period you need to start shaping the bush. All shoots except the 10 most powerful should be removed. The remaining shoots should grow from the center of the bush in different directions away from each other.
All injured, competing, diseased, weak and deformed stems should be trimmed. Take care that the bush is not overgrown.
On the fourth year after planting the seedling in the soil, its fruiting will begin. At this time, it is imperative to make in time both thinning and sanitary pruning of the bush. When the age of the tree reaches 18-20 years, its productivity will begin to fall, to prevent this, resort to rejuvenating pruning. Every year 2 or 3 old trunks should be cut out on the stump, and they should be replaced by the same number of root scions, which should grow close enough to the center of the bush. The young skeletal branches should be shortened a little, as this helps to stimulate the growth on them of side shoots.
If you grow the ravine as a tree, then 7 days after planting the seedling in the open ground it should have all the stems removed, only the trunk should remain. As soon as new stems will appear, it will be necessary to cut those that are located in the lower part of the trunk. And in its upper part you need to form 4 or 5 skeletal branches. Remember that it is very important to cut out all the root shoots in time.
Fungnut pruning 21 02 2017 Batkiv Garden
Pests and diseases of hazel with photos
Pests of hazel
The following insects can harm hazel: leafminer, aphids, nut weevil, moustache, and also the bud mite.
The bud mite
The bud mite is a small insect up to 0.3 millimeters long. It hides in the buds of the hazelnut tree for the winter, but in the springtime it oviposits in them. Those buds where the mite lives can be easily distinguished from healthy ones. So, they strongly swell and become similar in size to a large pea.
Then when healthy buds open up, those that have become a "home" for the pest wither and fall off.
Aphids are very small sucking insects that suck the cell sap from the tree. You should also remember that this pest is a major vector of viral diseases. It is difficult to notice aphids on hazel trees, which is where the main danger lies. This pest causes curling of leaves, deformation of buds and stems, their development is relatively slow and fruits do not mature completely.
Nut weevil is a brown beetle reaching 10 mm in length. The caterpillar of this pest has a milky yellow body and a brown-red head. Its female makes its ovipositions in unripe fruits, and its larvae eat away the nut pulp. If the tree is very badly infested, up to half of all fruits may be spoiled.
Nut (hazelnut) moustache
The hazelnut moustache is an extremely dangerous pest that is a black bug that reaches 1.
5 cm in length and has yellow legs. The larvae gnaw out the core of stems, after which they begin to wither, with the upper leaf plates turning yellow and curling.
Heath leaf beetle
Heath leaf beetle is a bug reaching 0.6-0.7 cm in length, its elytra are purple in color.
This leaf-eating pest is the most dangerous insect. Larvae of this insect are colored dark green; therefore, they are practically invisible against the background of foliage, on which they live and develop for a long time. This insect harms alder, hazel and willow.
fungnut / Problems / solved..
Diseases of hazel
Fungus is relatively resistant to diseases and is only affected by branch rot, rust and powdery mildew.
Mildew is a fairly common disease that any gardener is familiar with. The affected plant has a whitish coating on the surface of the stems and leaves, which thickens after a while and changes its color to brown. Infested parts of the plant stop growing, they become dark and die off.
No ovaries are formed on the inflorescences, and the frost-resistance of the tree is greatly reduced.
Rust is a fungal disease. The affected plant has dark reddish tubercles on the front surface of the leaves, with oval or round pustules forming on the underside. With time, the spots become striped, yellowing and shedding of the leaves is observed.
White rot may affect the plant in different variants, namely as peripheral rot or as mixed rot of the branches.
In both cases the plant can be severely damaged and in some cases die.
White rot treatment
If you find pests on the bush it is recommended to cover the soil under it with plastic and shake the plant until all insects have fallen from it onto the plastic. When there are a lot of pests on the bush, it should be sprayed with an insecticide solution, remembering that sucking insects are got rid of with an acaricide. The best results are shown by such means as: Aktellik, Karbofos, Chlorofos and others of similar action.
If the hazelnut is heavily affected by fungal disease, it should be treated with fungicides, for example: copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid and others made on the basis of copper.
To prevent fungal diseases, it is advisable to follow the agronomic rules of the crop and to take proper care of the plant.
White hazel species and varieties with photos and names
We already mentioned above that there are about 20 species of hazel. At the same time, cultivated species have a large number of varieties, varieties and hybrids. The following will describe those that are most popular with gardeners.
This multi-stemmed shrub is 4-6 m tall.
The crown is spreading and wide, reaching up to 4 meters in cross-section. The round leaf blades are 9 centimeters wide and 12 centimeters long. Such a plant blooms before the leaves open. Its globular nuts are about 15 mm across and covered with a brownish rind. They ripen in September.
This species is found in both natural and cultivated conditions.
Helnut tree (lat. Corylus colurna), or bear nut
The fruits of this ornamental species are very tasty. It is considered the only one of all species that is represented by trees. Its height is about 8 m, but in regions with warm climates, such a tree can grow up to 20 m.
Life expectancy for this plant is approximately 200 years. Its broad ovate leaflets are set on petioles that grow to 50 mm in length. Its fruits are relatively large compared to other varieties but the kernels are smaller but much more palatable than hazelnut kernels.
Manchurian hazelnut (lat. Corylus mandshurica)
This multi-branched, strongly branching shrub grows about 5m tall.
The bark is cracked, dark grey in color. Characteristic of this species are the fruits and foliage, which are oblong in shape. The fruits have a prickly coating, so it is relatively difficult to peel them. This species occurs naturally in the Far East and China.
The shrub is about 300 cm tall. Its top is truncated and its foliage is bilobate. In the springtime, it produces earrings of male inflorescences and also forms little-visible buds of female flowers, colored red. The formation of fruits is observed in a leaf wrapper of 2 or 3 pieces. In nature, this shrub can be found in China, the Far East, Japan and Korea.
This species is unpretentious with regard to climatic conditions and grows well in mid-latitudes.
Red-leaved hazelnut (Corylus atropurpurea)
This decorative shrub varies in height from 4 to 6 meters. The crown is very dense. The leaves have a dark purple color, which changes to green closer to fall. The buds and sepals are colored dark maroon.
This species has given birth to a number of hybrids as well as varieties that are very popular with gardeners.
Bigger's hazelnut (lat. Corylus maxima), or Lombard nut
The shrub is about 10 meters tall. The nuts are housed in a tubular wrapper, with it being a couple of times larger than the fruit itself. The fleshy kernels have an elongated shape.
Under natural conditions, such hazel grows in Italy, Turkey and Asian countries.
There are also such species as: Chinese, American, Colchis, Horned, Himalayan, or intimidating, Zibolda and others.
In middle latitudes, the following varieties of hazel are most popular:
- Isaevsky. This variety is among the most valuable. It is characterized by good winter hardiness and large fruits with high taste qualities.
- Masha. This is a hybrid of the red-leaved hazelnut. It is frost-resistant and yielding. The medium-sized elongated nuts are very tasty and covered with a thin shell.
This medium-ripening Italian variety has resistance to pests and diseases. Very beautiful large fruits of flat-round shape have a beautiful taste.
Even in the middle latitudes are popular such varieties as: Catherine, Moscow Ruby, Memory of Yablokov, Pervenets, Pushkin Red, Ivanteevsky Red, Kudreif, Moscow Early, Purple, Sakharisty, Sugar, series of Northern, Tambovsky Early, Tambovsky Late, Lentina, Alida, Lena and others.
And in Ukraine and in the southern regions of Russia such varieties as: Panakessky, Altaisky, Cherkessky, Kuban, Perestroika, Futkuri, etc.
Feelings of hazelnut: harm and benefit
Beneficial properties of hazelnut
Hazelnut contains many beneficial substances that are essential to the human body.
For example, the kernel contains vitamins A, PP, C and E and B vitamins, as well as amino acids, fatty oils, iron, iodine, calcium, magnesium, copper, fluorine, manganese and potassium. Nuts are equal to proteins according to their biological characteristics and therefore specialists recommend eating them separately from other products.
The benefits of hazelnuts:
- has positive effects on attention and memory;
- normalizes the cardiovascular system;
- helps strengthen the immune system and accelerates metabolic processes;
- has a positive effect on the body when it is exhausted and is also used to recover from a serious illness;
- It is recommended for anemia, allergies, obesity, rheumatism, urolithiasis, burns, measles, anemia, epilepsy, and to enhance hair growth and purify the liver.
Nut leaf infusion is indicated for dilated veins, prostate hypertrophy, thrombophlebitis and trophic ulcers. Infusion of the bark is used in diabetic retinopathy, it is also able to improve blood circulation in small vessels.
And yet such an infusion has a vasoconstrictor effect. Decoction of ivy and bark is recommended to wash hair to make it darker in color. Decoction of leaves may eliminate oedema of eyelids and redness of skin.
FUELNUT BENEFITS AND DEATH | hazelnut health benefits, hazelnut health benefits, nut benefits
Wood hazelnut bark and leaves infusion help increase blood pressure, so it is not recommended for hypertensive patients. Consumption of kernels may cause exacerbation of neurodermatitis and other skin diseases.
Also, the fruit should not be eaten if you have psoriasis or are hypersensitive.