Gooseberry: Planting And Care In The Garden, Diseases And Pests, Varieties With Photos

The common gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa), either European or deviated, is a member of the currant family of the gooseberry family. This plant is native to Western Europe and North Africa. Under natural conditions it is still found in Southern and Central Europe, Central Asia, the Caucasus and North America. J. Ruel was the first to describe the gooseberry in 1536 in his book "De natura stirpium".

The existence of the gooseberry in European countries became known only in the 16th century, while in England in the 17th century its popularity dramatically increases, as a result of which intensive work began on the breeding of new varieties of this crop. Initially only a few varieties of gooseberry were produced, but by the 19th century there were already several hundred. Specialists from America also worked on the gooseberry: they obtained a hybrid of the plant that is resistant to powdery mildew, which is considered to be the main enemy of this crop. Nowadays gooseberry is cultivated practically in every country. In Russia this plant is called the "northern grape".

Peculiarities of gooseberry

Gooseberry: planting and care in the garden, diseases and pests, varieties with photos

The gooseberry is not a very large shrub, the height of which does not exceed 1.2 m. The peeling bark is colored brownish-gray. The plant has prickles of leafy origin. On the surface of young shoots of cylindrical shape there are thin needles - these are thorns.

Petiolate dull leaf blades are shortly pubescent, heart-shaped or circular in shape and about 60 mm long. The leaves are three to five-lobed, with blunt denticles along the edge. axillary pale red or light green flowers open in May. Fruits are globular or oval berries, up to 1.2 cm in length (some varieties are about 4 cm long), their surface may be bare or covered with coarse bristles, with clearly visible veining.

They may be white, green, yellow or red in color and ripen between June and August. The fruits of this shrub are very tasty and useful, they include metal salts, vitamins, organic acids and tannins. This plant is an early melliferous, it helps to attract to the garden plot a large number of insect pollinators. Gooseberry is self-fertile, so you can plant just 1 bush in the garden if you wish, and it will produce a harvest.

Gooseberry.

Care of gooseberries. Planting gooseberries

Putting gooseberries in the open field

Gooseberry: planting and care in the garden, diseases and pests, varieties with photos

When to plant

Putting gooseberries in the open field can be done in spring or in fall (from the last days of September to the second half of October). Experienced gardeners recommend planting such a crop exactly in the autumn time, because before frosts the seedlings take root well and they grow quite a powerful system of roots.

Before proceeding to the direct planting of gooseberry, it is necessary to find the most suitable site for this, which would meet all the rules of agricultural engineering of this culture. It should be taken into account that the root system of such a shrub is long, and therefore the lowlands for its planting will not suit, as on such a site there is a high probability of fungal disease.

For planting will suit a well-lit place, located on a flat area or on a hill, which should have reliable protection from the cold winds blowing from the east and from the north. The soil should be slightly acidic or neutral with a pH of about 6. Sandy, loamy, sandy loam and clayey soils are suitable, but in the latter case you should loosen the soil very frequently.

Planting gooseberry in autumn

Gooseberry: planting and care in the garden, diseases and pests, varieties with photos

Weeding this shrub is complicated by the fact that it has sharp thorns, therefore in the first autumn weeks it will be necessary to remove all root weeds (e.g.

couch grass) from the area set aside for planting gooseberries. Immediately before planting, the soil should be recultivated, while trying to remove all the rhizomes of weeds. After that, the surface of the plot is smoothed with a rake, making sure to break up all the large lumps. Preparation of the planting hole should be engaged in 15-20 days before planting, which will allow the soil to settle well. The length, depth and width of the hole should be half a meter each.

When digging the hole, the top nutrient layer of soil should be thrown to one side and the bottom unfruitful layer to the other. The top layer of soil should be mixed with 50 grams of potassium sulfate, with 10 kilograms of humus or decomposed manure and 50 grams of superphosphate. If you fertilize at planting, then fertilize gooseberries will not need for several years. If the soil is clayey, then 1 bucket of river sand should be poured into the planting hole. During planting, the distance between the seedlings should be 1-1.

5 m, and the width between the rows should be about 3 m.

For planting, one or two-year-old seedlings with a developed system of roots (the length of roots should be about 0.25-0.3 m), as well as several powerful shoots will be suitable. Before planting gooseberries, they should be immersed for 24 h in a solution of organic fertilizers (3-4 big spoons of sodium humate per half a bucket of water).

Place seedlings in the hole should be at a slight slope or straight, and after planting, its root neck should be buried in the soil for a few centimeters. The root system of the plant should be carefully straightened. The hole should be filled gradually, while constantly tamping the soil. The seedling should be watered with 10 liters of water. After the liquid is absorbed into the soil, its surface should be covered with a layer of mulch (humus or peat), and its thickness should be 20-30 mm.

If you mulch the area, it will significantly reduce the number of watering, weeding and loosening. The planted plant should be cut all shoots, the length of the remaining pieces should be about 50 mm, and each of them should have 5 or 6 buds.

Spring planting of gooseberry

Gooseberry: planting and care in the garden, diseases and pests, varieties with photos

To plant gooseberry seedlings in the open soil in spring time should be exactly the same as in autumn. However, experts still recommend preferring the fall planting, as plants planted in the spring take root less well and have slower stem growth. After planting, it will take the third or fourth year for the shrub to produce a full harvest.

Give it proper care and it will delight you with rich harvests of tasty berries for 10-15 years.

Gooseberry care

Gooseberry: planting and care in the garden, diseases and pests, varieties with photos

Planning and growing gooseberry is quite easy, especially if the gardener will follow all rules of agrotechnics of this crop. Early in spring, before the snow melts, spray the bushes with boiling water using a spray gun. This treatment is done to prevent a variety of diseases and pests.

Loosen the soil surface around the plants to a depth of 8 to 10 cm should be done in May.

To reduce the number of loosening in the future, the area should be covered with a layer of mulch. If there is such a need, the shrub should be fed at the same time with a solution of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers or manure infusion.

The gooseberry extremely negatively reacts to the lack of moisture in the soil, especially during flowering (spring) and during berry ripening (summer). Specialists recommend to use drip or in-soil irrigation, in this case water will get immediately to the root system of shrub (to a depth of 5-40 cm). During the whole vegetation period in this way the shrub will need to be watered 3-5 times.

Sprinkling watering is not suitable for gooseberries, especially with cold water. If in the spring time the soil around the bushes was covered with mulch, the number of weeding and loosening will be drastically reduced. However, if removing weeds or loosening the soil is still necessary, such procedures should be carried out regardless of the sharp prickles of the plant.

With bushes planted in rows, the hanging branches should be lifted with string ties or nets stretched between the rows at a height of 0.25-0.

3 m on both sides of the rows.

Gooseberry. Gooseberry care in summer.(10.07.

16)

Gooseberry care in fall

In fall, gooseberries will need to be prepared for wintering. For the shrub to establish next year's fruit buds it is necessary that it does not need nutrients, so it must be nourished. Pruning is also done in the fall because it is not recommended in the spring.

Fertilizer

Gooseberry: planting and care in the garden, diseases and pests, varieties with photos

This shrub gives rich yields for many years, and yet it needs nutrients that it takes from the soil. In this regard, it is recommended to feed gooseberries every year, using both organic and mineral fertilizers.

In spring, 50 grams of superphosphate, 25 grams of potassium sulfate, ½ bucket of compost and 25 grams of ammonium sulfate should be applied under 1 bush. If the bush is very large and gives high yields, the specified amount of fertilizer should be doubled. Fertilizer in the soil is made along the perimeter of the crown, since it is in this diameter that the root system of the bush is located. To get the fertilizer into the soil, it must be loosened. As soon as the plant blossoms, you need to feed it with a solution of cowpea (1:5), and per 1 bush takes from 5 to 10 liters of nutrient solution.

Fertilization with bromegrass should be repeated after 15-20 days.

Removal of gooseberry

Gooseberry: planting and care in the garden, diseases and pests, varieties with photos

Removal of gooseberry in spring

In early spring, before the buds swell, the gooseberry should be pruned. To do this, all weak, disease-affected, low-yielding, withered, injured and frost-affected stems must be cut out. All root shoots should also be cut out and weakened branch tips should be trimmed back a little to healthy tissue. Remember that spring pruning can only be carried out before the sap starts to move.

The fact is that the sap starts very early in the gooseberry, and with the pruning can be late. If you cut the plant during the sap run, it will lead to its weakening. For this reason, experienced gardeners advise pruning this crop only in the fall.

Trimming gooseberry in autumn

This shrub needs regular pruning, which should be done every year. Otherwise, already on the third year of gooseberry life, its thickening is observed, which negatively affects the quality of berries growing in the bush.

And if the shrub is thinned in time, it will be easier to spray it against pests or diseases. The most valuable branches are five to seven years old. At the same branching of the first three orders, other branches and branches are considered low productive. That is why you should cut back to the base those branches that are more than 8-10 years old, their color is almost black. As a result, the shrub will grow zero shoots, and after some time they can replace the aging ones.

If small fruits of low quality begin to grow on the upper parts of the shoots, they should be subjected to pruning. Also, far-growing stems should be cut out, as well as those that are too low. The cutting points, especially on thicker stems (diameter over 0.8 cm) should always be treated with a garden varnish, otherwise the sap will run out.

How to cut a gooseberry properly

Gooseberry diseases and their treatment

Gooseberry mildew

Gooseberry: planting and care in the garden, diseases and pests, varieties with photos

Mildew (Spherotecker) is the greatest danger to gooseberries.

This disease can leave a horticulturist without a harvest, and if the shrub is not treated, it will die in a few years. The most intensive development of spherotheca is observed in damp, warm weather. Affected shrub have white crumbly bloom on the surface of stems, leaf plates and berries in the last weeks of spring or first weeks of summer. After some time this plaque becomes brown crust. Curvature and drying of diseased stems, twisting and cessation of growth of infected leaflets, and brittleness are observed.

Affected fruits are unable to ripen, cracking appears on their surface, and they fall off. To cure the affected plant, it is necessary before it flowers, spray it with a solution of HOM preparation containing copper (40 grams of the substance per bucket of water). You can also treat the bush before it flowers and at the end of flowering Topaz (follow the instructions on the package). Most often this disease affects the following varieties: Golden Fire, Russian, Finik, Black Plum and Triumphant. There are also such varieties which have high resistance to this foreign disease (its homeland is the territory of America): Senator, Houghton, Grushenka, African, Finetz, etc.

However, most of these Spherotecker-resistant varieties were the result of breeders from America.

Other diseases

Gooseberry: planting and care in the garden, diseases and pests, varieties with photos

In some cases, such shrubs may be affected by anthracnose, mosaic, white spot or boccolored rust. If the shrub will be affected by mosaic, it should be dug up and destroyed as soon as possible, the fact is that this viral disease is incurable. To treat a shrub affected by blotchiness, anthracnose and rust, copper sulfate, Nitrafen or Bordeaux mixture is used. In this case, the plant is treated in two steps: the first spraying is carried out in early spring before the buds open, and the second - 1.

5 weeks after the end of the collection of fruits. For preventive purposes, in early spring the area where gooseberry trees grow should be free of fallen leaves because they can contain pathogens, and it is also necessary to remove weeds in time.

Diseases of gooseberry American powdery mildew, spherotheca

Pests of gooseberry and their control

Gooseberry: planting and care in the garden, diseases and pests, varieties with photos

In some cases, pests may settle on the bush, with the gooseberry firefly and runaway aphid being most often harmful to the plant. Before the gooseberry blossoms, a gooseberry pest moth emerges from the ground. It lays its eggs in the flowers of the plant.

When the flowering comes to an end, the eggs will produce caterpillars of rich green color, they gnaw the berries and eat the seeds. If aphids settle on the bush, the leaf plates will begin to curl, the stems will thin and become crooked, their growth will stop, and the crushing and falling off of unripe fruits is also observed. To get rid of these pests, the bush should be sprayed with Fufanon or Actellic. However, as you know, it is easier to prevent the defeat of the bush by pests than to get rid of them later. Therefore, the following preventive measures should be carried out regularly:

  1. After all the snow has melted, the ground surface under the plants should be covered with a very dense material (such as roofing felt), with its edges covered with soil.

    As a result, the pest moths will not be able to get out of the ground. When the bush has flowered, this covering should be removed.

  2. In autumn, the bush should be dipped to a ten-inch height.
  3. Systematic collection and destruction of fruit with caterpillars inside should be made.
  4. Flowered bushes should be treated with Lepidocide or Bicol.

Protect gooseberry caterpillars From Gooseberry Firefly. Garden World website

Gooseberry varieties with photos and descriptions

All gooseberry varieties are divided into American-European (hybrid) and European. Compared to hybrid varieties, European ones have a longer productivity period and larger berries. But European varieties are more susceptible to various diseases and pests. Also, all varieties are conventionally divided by size, color and shape of fruits, by maturity, by yield, as well as by the presence of thorns or their absence.

Лучшие сорта:

Gooseberry: planting and care in the garden, diseases and pests, varieties with photos

  1. Африканец. This winter-hardy variety does not have very many thorns. The medium sized berries are dark purple in color and have a waxy coating on the surface. The flesh is sweet and sour with a flavor of currant. These fruits are well suited for making jelly.

  2. Black Negus. The fruits are black and covered with a glossy skin. This frost-resistant medium-ripening variety, which is strongly stubby, was created by Michurin, but even today it is very popular among gardeners in the middle latitudes. Not very large fruits do not crack and have a sweet and sour taste. They are used to make jam, wine, jams and compotes.

  3. Ogni Krasnodar. This seedless variety is suitable for growing in any climatic conditions. The fruits are large red.
  4. Russian yellow. This variety has resistance to fungal diseases, it has a small number of thorns, which are mostly in the lower part of the stems.

    The fruits are large yellow oval-shaped and remain on the bush for a long time.

  5. White Triumph. This variety is noted for its rapid growth and yield. The greenish fruits take on a slight yellowish hue at maturity. They are sweet and remain on the bush for a long time.

  6. Finic. This variety is susceptible to spherotica (powdery mildew) disease. However, it is still one of the most popular varieties because it is high yielding and its fragrant fruits are highly palatable. The green fruits have a purple-purple blush.

Gooseberry: planting and care in the garden, diseases and pests, varieties with photos

There are also varieties:

  • sweet-fruited - Orlenok, Hinnomaki Gelb, Northern Captain, Rodnik, Afrikaner, Kolobok;
  • sweet-sour-fruited - Malakhit, Plum, Russian, Donetsk large-fruited;
  • with fragrant fruits - White Triumph, Defender, Flamingo, Hinnomaki Strain, African;
  • with no spikes - Orlenok, Tender, Serenade, Paks;
  • with many spikes - Defender, Jubilee, Malachite, Donetsk large-fruited;
  • with rare thorns - Chernomor, Kolobok, Captivator;
  • with thorns growing on the lower part of stems - Finik, Russian, Smena;
  • late and mid-late - Malakhit, Sadko, Smena, Serenada, Chernomor;
  • early-ripening - Orlenok, Yarovoy, Salut, Rodnik;
  • medium-early - Flamingo, Plum, Laskovy;
  • medium-ripening - Kolobok, Paks, Krasnoslavsky, Chernoslivovy.

Also increasingly popular among gardeners is the yosta hybrid, created by crossing blackcurrant and gooseberry.

Red and green gooseberry varieties, fruiting in 2015

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