The herb Centaurium is a member of the Gentian family. This genus includes about 20 species. In natural conditions, representatives of this genus can be found in areas with subtropical and temperate climate of Eurasia, Australia, as well as North and South America. On the territory of Russia, the plant is commonly referred to as marshmallow, thousand-headed reed, goldenrod, marshmallow grass and sardwood. St.
John's wort contains medicinal substances, making it a medicinal plant.
Peculiarities of St. John's wort
Marshmallow is an annual or perennial herbaceous plant, its stems may be branched or simple. The stem leaves are pinnatipartite and supronate, overarching or sessile. The biconvex, corymbiform inflorescence consists of yellow, pink or white flowers.
Flowering begins in June or August. The fruit is a bivalve with one or two receptacles in which many seeds mature.
Therapeutic properties of this plant were known as far back as the 13th century. Today, preparations of this herbaceous plant form part of pharmacological groups of appetite regulators as well as anthelmintics and laxatives under the trade name of "marshmallow herb.
Handsome Centáurium pulchéllum
How to cultivate the herb in the garden
The most commonly cultivated species by gardeners as a medicinal plant is the common hellebore.
For its cultivation, experts recommend choosing an open and well-lit area, but also such a herb can be grown under trees in the penumbra. The best way Goldenseal grows on sandy loam or loamy soil, and groundwater should be at a depth of at least 200-300 cm.
Sowing material, which should be collected in natural conditions, combined with sand in a ratio of 1:5. The seeds are sown in the spring time into the soil, which has been turned over, rolled and moistened, to a depth of 0.5 to 1 centimeter.
Row spacing can vary from 0,45 to 0,6 m. For a few days the surface of the plot should be covered with agrofoil or film, which will allow the seedlings to emerge much faster than usual. Once the first seedlings have emerged, the cover should be removed. After they have grown a little, they should definitely be thinned.
Many gardeners grow this crop through seedlings and then planted in the open ground.
Seeds are sown in seedlings during the last days of February or the first days of March. Planting the seedlings in the open ground should be done in the last days of May and the distance between the bushes should be 5-10 cm.
Hedderwort needs the same care as many other garden crops. If there is a long period of drought, these bushes must be watered, and they must be weeded and loosened between the rows. And if necessary, yarrow is protected from pests and diseases.
This grass is characterized by slow growth, so weeding is carried out more often than usual, otherwise the seedlings can be smothered by weeds. In the first year of growth, the bushes will form only a small leaf rosette. Collection of medicinal raw materials begin to be carried out from the second year of growth, and experienced gardeners recommend sowing this herb 2 years in a row, but for this use different sites. In the first year it will be necessary to collect medicinal raw materials from the first bed, and in the second year - from the second plot, the next year - again from the first and so on.
Diseases and pests
Holostrum has very high resistance to diseases and harmful insects.
However, in some cases, pests from crops growing nearby may move in on it. If it rains too often in summer, the plant will rot.
If the shrubs do become ill, they must be treated using only folk remedies, and chemical preparations containing harmful substances are not recommended because they can accumulate in the grass.
Gathering and storing Goldenseal
The herb Goldenseal has medicinal properties. The raw material is collected at the beginning of flowering, it should be done before the root rosette begins to turn yellow.
The shoots should be cut at a height of 10 to 15 centimeters from the soil surface. The grass is tied in bundles, which should be dried by tying under the roof of the attic or other room, which should be cool, shady and well ventilated. Drying the herbs should not be done in direct sunlight, as it causes the herbs to burn, and along with the marketable appearance, they lose some of their medicinal properties. For drying the bunches should be fairly small, since great drying takes a very long time. Stored dried herbs in cardboard boxes, paper bags or cloth bags, then stored in a cool, dark and dry place, where they can be stored for 1.
Stypes and varieties of St. John's wort
Mild St. John's wort (Centaurium erythraea)
Orrganic St. John's wort, or centuria, or centauria, or semisilver.
This species is the most popular with gardeners. The height of the tetrahedral upright stem can vary from 0.1 to 0.5 m. In the upper part it is branched.
In the first year of growth, the bush forms a root rosette consisting of lanceolate leaf plates with short petioles. The opposite opposite opposite sessile leaf laminae can have oblong-ovate or lanceolate shape and longitudinal veins. Shield-like inflorescences are composed of rich pink flowers. They consist of tubular calyxes, 5 sepals and a corolla with an almost flat bend. Flowering is observed in June-September, with the fruits beginning to ripen in August, which are bolls that reach 10 millimeters in length.
The fruits contain brown, small round-shaped seeds.
The beautiful stonecrop (Centaurium pulchellum)
This species is much rarer in natural conditions. This annual plant is about 15 centimeters tall. Compared to other species, bushes do not form a root rosette. The stem leaf plates are supropositively arranged.
The five-parted flowers are pink and 0.8 centimeters long, opening only in sunny weather. Flowering is observed in July-September. The fruit is a capsule which reaches 1.9 cm in length and contains very small, dark brown seeds.
This species has been included in the Red Book of Latvia, as well as several regions of Russia and Ukraine. The above-ground part of the shrub (leaves, shoots and flowers) is used as medicinal raw material.
Properties of the goldenrod: Harm and benefits
Therapeutic properties of the goldenrod
The medicinal raw material of the goldenrod includes alkaloids, essential oils, flavone glycosides, phytosterols, vitamin C, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, chrome, selenium, manganese, iron, resins, slime, ascorbic acid and organic acids. Due to this composition, this plant has anticancer, antispasmodic, hepatoprotective, antiviral, tonic, antiarrhythmic and laxative effects. This herb is recommended for non-healing wounds, inflammatory diseases, brittle vascular walls, chronic maxillary sinusitis, and also for painful menstruation, toxicosis of the first half of pregnancy, uterine bleeding and for uterine recovery after childbirth.
The herbal infusion of Goldenseal is used for heartburn, to improve digestion, for flatulence and other digestive problems. To prepare it, 10 grams of dried herb must be combined with 1 tbsp. just boiling water. When the mixture is infused, it should be strained. The remedy is drunk three times a day before meals, 1 tbsp.
The decoction will help get rid of worms. To prepare it, 1 gram of wormwood should be combined with the same amount of wormwood herb and 1 tbsp. just boiled water. The mixture is heated in a water bath. Strain the cooled decoction and drink in the morning on an empty stomach.
It should be treated for at least 7 days.
Alcoholic tincture of this herb is taken for weak digestion, diabetes, heartburn and constipation. To prepare it, you need to take 1 tbsp. of dry grass, which should be ground to a powdery state. Then the herb is combined with 30 milligrams of medical alcohol.
The container should be corked tightly and put in a dark and cool place for 1.5 weeks. The strained tincture should be drunk 30 minutes before a meal, 20-30 drops mixed with water.
This medicinal herb is contraindicated for those who have an individual intolerance. It still cannot be used by people suffering from gastritis with greatly increased acidity, diarrhea, duodenal and gastric ulcers.
If the drug is taken too long or in overdose can develop poisoning and digestive disorders. St. John's wort is not recommended for people prone to obesity as this herb stimulates appetite.
Mulberry Medicinal Properties