Gladiolus: Planting And Care In The Open Ground, How To Store In Winter

The flowering plant gladiolus, also called the sword plant, has been cultivated by gardeners with great pleasure for a very long time. However, in ancient Greece, 300 years BC, this plant was considered a weed for wheat fields. But in ancient Rome, gladiolus began to be used to decorate the gardens of patricians. Today, such a plant is becoming more popular every year.

Brief description of cultivation

Gladiolus: planting and care in the open ground, how to store in winter

  1. Flowering.

    From the first summer weeks (early varieties) until early fall.

  2. Planting. In spring time.
  3. Bulb digging. Early to mid-autumn.

  4. Storage. In a cool place (5 to 10 degrees).
  5. Brightness. Needs bright sunlight.
  6. Ground.

    Loam, structural black earth or light loam. Soil must be slightly acidic (pH 6.5 to 6.8).

  7. Water.

    Water on average once every 7 days very abundantly (10 to 12 liters of water per square meter of soil). Liquid mineral fertilizers and organics are used. Foliage fertilization is applied at the beginning of the vegetation period and during the formation of the buds. Root fertilization: first fertilization during formation of 1 or 2 leaves, second fertilization during development of 5 or 6 leaves, third fertilization before buds begin to form. By seed and vegetative (corms and buds).

  8. Pests. Thrips, meadow mites, cabbage moths, wireworms, bearflies, slugs.
  9. Diseases. Fusarium, gray rot, sclerotinia, septoriosis, bacterial scab, canker, penicillosis, curvularia, bollworm, viral diseases.

General cultivation rules

Gladiolus: planting and care in the open ground, how to store in winter

Before you begin to cultivate gladiolus in your garden plot, you must learn the 11 most important rules that will help you grow healthy plants with beautiful flowers:

  1. You cannot plant such flowers in the same spot for more than 2 years.

    On the third year for their planting choose a different place.

  2. When transplanting gladiolus, you should try to choose such a site, the soil of which by composition will be different from the previous one. For example, if the flowers were grown in light chernozem, they can be planted in a loamy soil.
  3. Purchase the planting material that has been adapted to the climatic conditions of your region. This is because these flowers react extremely negatively if they go from a warm climate to a damp and cool one.

    When buying planting material from Holland, remember that such gladioluses will bloom lushly and very effectively, but only once.

  4. Big bulbs cannot be planted close to the offspring, because they will depress them. It is advisable to plant in order: from small bulbs to large ones. Experienced gardeners recommend choosing the largest bulbs and planting them separately.
  5. It is very important to plant the bulbs at the right depth.

    In heavy soils, plant the bulb to a depth that equals 3 of its diameter, and in light soils, four. If you bury the bulb in the soil very deeply, it can cause a lack of flowering. And if it is not buried deep enough, it may be necessary to garter the arrow.

  6. When the daughter bulbs are 3 to 5 days before planting in the open soil, the dense scales must be removed from them, otherwise the shoots may not show. When they are planted, water them once every 2 days.

  7. This is a light-loving plant. If the late variety is grown in a shady place, it may not bloom at all. However, the early varieties can be grown in a shady or semi-shady place if desired, but in this case the bushes will bloom much later.
  8. The growing area must be aired, otherwise fungal diseases might attack the bushes.
  9. If the flowers are grown in clayey sand, they should be regularly fertilised with foliar fertiliser.

  10. In summer the bushes should be watered about once every 7 days, but quite abundantly. During a long dry period, they should be watered daily in the evening, then the soil surface should be loosened, the bushes dipped, and the weeds pulled out.
  11. Harvest and store the corms correctly, and special attention should be paid to this.

Gladiolus in your flowerbed. Gladiolus: the basic rules of growing

Putting gladiolus bulbs in the open ground

Preparing the bulbs for planting

Gladiolus: planting and care in the open ground, how to store in winter

When you have 20-30 days before planting the gladiolus bulbs in the ground, you should do their preparation.

To do this, the dense covering scales are carefully removed from them, trying not to traumatize the delicate sprouts. But first of all, the planting material is sorted out by removing all partially diseased or disease-infected corms. If they are sick with scab or sclerotinia not severely, they can be left, but the affected place should be carefully cut out, and the cuts need to be treated with greenish. Prepared bulbs should be placed in a well-lit and warm place, for this they are placed in 1 layer with their shoots facing upward, because they will have to grow up well.

Before planting the bulbs in the bed, they are treated to prevent fungal diseases and thrips by using a solution of manganese solution (0.

3%), in which they are kept for 1 to 2 hours, instead they can be immersed in a solution of Fondazole (0.3%) for 1 hour. If gladioluses are to be planted immediately after treatment, they can be immersed for 30 minutes in a solution of manganese potassium (0.5 grams per liter of water), the removed bulbs are planted in wells (no need to rinse).

Gladiolus: planting and care in the open ground, how to store in winter

Details also need to be prepared before planting.

When you have 1.5-2 weeks left before planting, pick out the buds that are 0.7-0.8 cm across (smaller varieties may have smaller offspring), and make sure that the root hillocks in each one are clearly visible. They must be removed from the hard shell.

After that, the babies are placed in cardboard boxes in 1 layer, which are placed in a well-lit place, but the light should be diffused. After they have grown, they are placed for 9 h in a solution of manganese potassium (1 gram per liter of water).

Planting rules

Gladiolus: planting and care in the open ground, how to store in winter

The plot for growing this flower is chosen particularly carefully, while taking into account all its features. This culture is heat- and light-loving, so the chosen place for planting must necessarily meet these requirements. It is best to choose a sunny area with well-drained soil, which has reliable protection from drafts.

The cooler the climate in the region, the more light such flowers need, and if the site will be even slightly shaded, this will have an extremely negative effect on the flowering and growth of bushes. Plots in which the groundwater is very close to the soil surface are not suitable for the cultivation of gladiolus. When cultivating in more southern regions, slight shading of the site at midday is allowed. The soil surface can be perfectly flat or have a slight slope of 5 degrees south to allow excess liquid to drain away.

Particular attention to the acidity of the soil, as it is very important when cultivating this plant.

It grows best in slightly acidic soil (pH between 5.6 and 5.8). If the soil is more acidic, the tips of the leaf blades will turn dark and start to dry out, the flower opening will slow down, and fusarium can infect the shrub. In alkaline soil, the iron it contains is not dissolved, and therefore it is not assimilated by the gladiolus root system, which contributes to delaying the production of chlorophyll in the flower leaves, resulting in the beginning of its yellowing.

To correct acidic soil, during digging it should be made dolomite flour, chalk or eggshells at the rate of 150 to 200 grams per 1 square meter of land.

Very well such a culture grows on the soil having a structure such as structural chernozem, and it also develops well on sandy loam or light loam. In order to fix the heavy loam, it should be made sand under the digging, and in sandy soil, on the contrary, clay with decomposed manure and humus is made.

Well warmed up area is subjected to digging just before planting gladiolus. If prolonged droughts are frequent in the region, in order to retain more water in the soil, the main digging is done in the autumn, and in the spring, before planting gladioluses, the surface of the plot is slightly loosened.

The best predecessors of such flowers are legumes and vegetable crops, as well as perennial grasses. And a plot where asters and root vegetables were grown is the least suitable for planting such a flower.

Gladiolus: planting and care in the open ground, how to store in winter

The ridge should reach about 100-120 cm in width. If already in the autumn time you have decided on a plot on which next year gladioluses will grow, it is recommended to make dry potash (30 to 40 grams of potassium chloride per 1 square meter of plot) and phosphate (100 grams of superphosphate per 1 square meter of plot) fertilizers into the soil, then perform recultivation. Before the plot is turned over in the spring, it is recommended to add a chloride-free potassium fertiliser such as potassium magnesia or potassium sulphate to the soil.

In the spring time of digging is not as deep as in the autumn (about 10 centimetres less). Plant the bulbs outdoors from the last days of April to the second half of May, but remember to take into account the weather and climate.

The bulbs are planted at the following depths: small - from 8 to 10 cm and large - from 10 to 15 cm. The distance between small bulbs should be 7 to 8 centimeters, and between the large - about 15 centimeters. The width between the rows is 20 to 25 centimeters.

Prepared planting hole is poured with a solution of Fitosporin or clean water, then a layer of sphagnum or a layer of river sand about 20 mm thick is placed on the bottom. Only after that, the bulbs are placed in it, which are then buried. Sphagnum is able to prevent rot and retain water in the ground so it will not dry out even on hot days.

How to properly plant gladiolus

Gladiolus care

Gladiolus: planting and care in the open ground, how to store in winter

How gladiolus grows and flowers properly requires good care. After the sprouts which have appeared in the bed have reached a height of about 10 centimetres, cover the ground with a layer of mulch (humus) and it should be about 50 mm thick.

It is able to protect the soil from overheating and drying out, and during watering the bulbs will receive extra nourishment.

Watering

Watering on average once every 7 days in the early morning or in the evening, taking 10 to 12 liters of water per square meter of area. Before watering, it is recommended to make furrows between the rows to a depth of 30 to 50 mm, in which the water is poured, in this case the liquid droplets will not be able to reach the surface of the leaves. After watering, the soil around the bushes is loosened to a depth of 50 to 60 mm, which will prevent the appearance of crust on its surface. After that, the bushes must be dipped.

Loosen up the soil at least once a decade, no matter how many times it rains during this time. In a hot, dry period, the frequency of watering is increased to once every three or four days, if this is not done, the flower stalks will be sluggish, and the flowers in the upper part will wither even before opening.

Gartering

Gladiolus: planting and care in the open ground, how to store in winter

After the shoots have budded, they should be tied up to the spikes (if necessary); remember also to cut off the flowers that have started to fade in time; in this way the bush will not waste its energy in forming and producing seed.

Weeding

The plot on which gladioluses grow should be weeded in a timely manner. As a rule, the flowers are weeded 3 or 4 times in 1 season.

Pay particular attention to cleanliness during the emergence of sprouts, because if they are smothered by weeds, the bushes may not bloom later on. And also remember that a large number of weeds on the site is often the cause of pests or diseases of gladiolus.

Fertilizer

Gladiolus: planting and care in the open ground, how to store in winter

Fertilize such flowers at different stages of growth with different mineral fertilizers. During the formation of the first 2 or 3 true leaves fertilize with nitrogen fertilizer, namely, 25-35 grams of ammonium nitrate or 25 grams of ammonium sulfate or 25 grams of urea per 1 square meter of soil. If the bushes will feel a lack of nitrogen, it will lead to the fact that the color of the leaves will become faded.

However, if there is too much nitrogen in the soil, the greenery will grow very vigorously to the detriment of flowering, and the bushes will become more susceptible to fungal diseases. The second time to feed gladiolus should be potassium-nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer, it is done after the formation of 5 or 6 leaf plate, it should be made in the soil 10-20 grams of ammonium sulfate, 15-20 grams of superphosphate and 10-20 grams of potassium sulfate per 1 square meter area. The third time using phosphorus-potassium fertilizer, with fertilization carried out before the formation of buds, as soon as the flower buds show, for this purpose, 15-20 grams of potassium chloride and 30-40 grams of superphosphate per 1 square meter plot.

Even such flowers need organic matter, which should be introduced into the soil in liquid form, because in this case the nutrients will get directly to the root system of bushes. At the beginning of growth if desired shrubs can be fed with a tincture of bird droppings, its preparation by combining 40-50 liters of water with 30 liters of manure, the mixture should be insisted on for 10-12 days.

Ready-made infusion diluted with water (1:10) and poured them into the furrows, previously made between the rows, then the soil surface loosen, and bushes okukivayut.

Mineral fertilizer bushes should be fertilized every 15-20 days, but with the advent of the middle of August, all fertilization stops. Horse manure should not be used on this crop. However, it responds well to foliar feeding with a solution of minerals, so the bushes will flower earlier, and this will also have a positive effect on their decorativeness. A solution of copper sulfate (0.

2 grams per liter of water), boric acid (0.15 grams per liter of water) or manganese potassium (0.15%) is perfect for this purpose. During the season you can apply 2 or 3 foliar feedings, usually at the start of growth and during bud formation, mix the solution with a little soap before spraying and try to get the mixture on both surfaces of the leaf plates.

Cut flowers

Gladiolus: planting and care in the open ground, how to store in winter

Cutting flowers correctly is extremely important.

Cut them with a very sharp knife in the evening or early morning. When cut, the rest of the flower stalk should be deep between the remaining leaf plates, of which there should be at least 4 left on the bush, so that the bulb can continue to grow and develop normally.

Three rules for growing gladioluses #urozhainye_gryadki

Harvesting and storing the bulbs

When to dig out the bulbs

Gladiolus: planting and care in the open ground, how to store in winter

Digging gladiolus bulbs should take place in fall when 35 to 45 days have passed since the flowering. The bulbs ready to be dug up have covering root scales, with their offspring also covered by dense scales, and they themselves are effortlessly detached from the parent bulb. To dig up gladioluses, choose a day when the weather is dry.

The early varieties are dug first, and then the late varieties. The last to dig is the planting of the divots and small bulbs. If there are signs of brown or black spot on the bulbs, dig them up early so that they are not damaged by other diseases. Gladiolus can be mowed beforehand to make digging easier, but if you like, the stems and foliage can be removed with secateurs from the dug up bulbs. The roots are also cut off.

After that, the corms are carefully shaken off the remains of soil, and then the detachment of the offspring is carried out. After that, they are placed in special boxes, having a mesh or finely lattice bottom each variety separately, then they are thoroughly rinsed under running water. Then they must be disinfected by dipping them for 20-30 minutes in a solution of Fondazole (1%), then they get out and rinsed again in clean running water. Then they are treated with a solution of potassium manganese (3%) and laid out to dry for two or three days. The dried bulbs are placed in boxes, the bottom of which is lined with paper sheets, and stored in a warm place (25 to 30 degrees), and do not forget to turn them systematically.

After 1.5-2 weeks, they are removed to a cooler place (18 to 22 degrees). And after another 1-1.5 months the corms can be cleaned and sorted. The dirty uppermost scales are removed from them, and the detachment of the offspring is performed.

How to properly prepare the offspring for storage? First, they should be sorted according to size and variety. Large babies reach 8 mm or more in cross-section, and medium-sized ones reach 6 mm or more. They are then placed in paper bags and stored at a temperature of no more than 5-6 degrees. If they are stored in a warmer place, there is a high probability that they will not grow in the spring. If there is no other place, you can store them on a refrigerator shelf.

Gladiolus. Autumn Dug Out and Storage of Bulbs // How To Store Gladiolus For The Winter

Basic rules for storing bulbs

Gladiolus: planting and care in the open ground, how to store in winter

The natural dormancy period of gladioluses is about 35-40 days, at which time no shoots appear on the bulbs, no matter what conditions they have been in. However, when this period is over, the probability of the appearance of sprouts increases, but this should not be allowed, since it is still very far before planting in the ground. To preserve gladioluses until the onset of the warm season, they are stored in a cool room (not more than 5-10 degrees), and the humidity level there should be 60 to 70 percent. In order to preserve the bulbs better, in the box where they are placed, it is necessary to put several peeled garlic cloves, and at least once every 4 weeks the planting material is inspected, removing spoiled bulbs, and at the same time replace the garlic.

The best place to store such flowers is a ventilated cellar or a cold cellar, and it is recommended to put them in boxes with a mesh bottom, because in them the bulbs will be able to breathe normally. You can put the boxes on a rack, it is not only convenient, but also saves useful space. Also for storing planting material, you can use bags, for the manufacture of which you can take dimensionless tights.

If you have to store gladioluses in the refrigerator, then choose for this purpose the bottom shelf, designed for vegetables, and they should be placed in hermetically closed containers, which will prevent their dehydration during storage. However, each of the bulbs is wrapped in a paper sheet beforehand.

At the end of winter, the bulbs begin to breathe, releasing moisture, so at this time they are taken out and unwrapped, and when they are completely dry they are wrapped again in fresh paper sheets and placed in the refrigerator, but in a cooler place.

In regions with mild climates and warm winters, bulbs are stored in winter on an insulated balcony or loggia, and placed in boxes or crates that are placed on a wooden board stand. If cold weather is expected, cover the bulbs with an old fur coat or blanket. In extreme cases, gladioluses can also be stored indoors, laying them in 1 layer so that the bulbs do not touch each other. By spring they will shrivel up, so before planting it is recommended to keep them for some time in a solution of a drug that stimulates growth.

And if such bushes are well cared for, they will grow and bloom within normal limits.

How to dig up and store gladioluses. . Garden World website

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