The herbaceous perennial ginseng (Panax) is a member of the Araliaceae family. This genus includes 12 species. In nature, they can be found in North America and Asia (Tibet, Altai, Far East and China). This plant has known for a long time that it has medicinal properties and is most often used as a tonic and adaptogen. Ginseng root is used in Korea and China for culinary purposes.
Official Chinese medicine believes it has the power to prolong life and give strength to the animals.
Ginseng has a spindle-shaped tap root that is about 25 centimeters long and 0.7-2.5 centimeters wide. One root has 2-5 ramifications.
The neck with traces of annual shoots is placed in the upper part of the root, you can know the age of the bush by the number of them. The coloring of the surface and cut root is whitish-yellow or white. Its aroma is peculiar and its taste is sweet. The stem can vary in height from 0.3 to 0.
7 m with a whorl on top consisting of 2-5 palmately compound leaves with long petioles. During flowering, umbrellas consisting of greenish star-shaped florets grow. A flower arrow grows from the midpoint of the leaf whorl. The fruit is a red seedpod about 10 mm long. Inside the pod there are 2-3 yellow-gray seeds of wrinkled color.
About the most important things. What are the benefits and risks of ginseng
Ginseng should not be planted in areas where tomatoes, potatoes or cucumbers were growing because of the great possibility that it will be attacked by infections that have remained in the soil, against which these vegetable crops are not resistant. When choosing a place for planting it is also necessary to take into account the fact that this plant extremely negatively reacts even to short-term stagnation of moisture in the root system, in this regard, on the selected site the groundwater should lie very deep, the soil should be water permeable and well drained, and it itself should be located on a northeast or northwest slope, which is lit by sun only in the evening or in the morning. The shrub reacts negatively to both direct sunlight and shade, so you need to figure out how to shade it. Experts advise to choose for planting an area under the lace shade of trees, but it should be taken into account that they should let in 20 to 25 percent of the sun's rays.
Before planting ginseng, the soil on the site must be prepared, as it must meet the requirements of this culture. In composition, the soil should be similar to the taiga soil, namely: it should be neutral (5.7-7.0 pH), air- and moisture-permeable, loose, and it should also include a sufficient amount of organic matter and humus. Experts advise to prepare a suitable soil mixture yourself.
It may contain leaf humus, sod soil, biohumus, foliage litter, peat, decomposed sawdust, coarse sand, lake silt, ashes, soot, small rotten wood chaff or shredded eggshells.
Prepare a bed that should be 0.3-0.4 meters high and up to 1 meter wide, 3-4 months before planting day. The bed can be as long as you need, but you must remember that it should be placed from west to east.
The seed needs mandatory pre-sowing preparation, and it includes 2 periods of stratification, and the duration of each from 4 to 5 months. First the seeds are exposed to heat (18 to 20 degrees) and then to cold (1 to 2 degrees). If the seller, from whom you buy seeds, is responsible, then the pre-sowing preparation he does himself, such seeds should only be sown. The purchased seeds should be carefully examined, so if they have passed all the stages of stratification, the surface of the seeds will have cracks, but if they are not, it means that the seed was not prepared.
On the prepared bed you should make 50 mm deep furrows, and the distance between them should be about 100 mm.
When sowing, a distance of 20 to 30 mm should be kept between the seeds. When planting ginseng seedlings in the ground distance between bushes should be 10 to 15 centimeters, and the width between the rows - 20 centimeters, and the bud in the soil should be sunk no more than 50 mm. Each plant should be placed in the ground at an angle of 45 degrees with its head to the east. When the seedlings are planted or the seeds are sown, the bed should be well watered. You should not expect seedlings to show soon, sometimes it is several months later.
Garden ginseng care
If seedlings show in the springtime, they may be harmed by a return frost. To prevent this from happening, the plants should be protected by placing special metal arcs over the bed on which cover material is stretched. This construction will also be useful later, when the young bushes should be protected from direct sunlight. During the first year of growth a shrub will form only one leaf plate with 3 leaflets, a plant 4 years old may have 3 or 4 leaf plates with 4 or 5 leaves. But already from the age of five the number of leaves does not increase.
The average watering of a bed should be done once per 7 days, with 2 to 3 liters of water per square metre. Only water heated in the sun and well settled should be used for irrigation, and each time you should add manganese solution so that the liquid becomes pinkish. During the first year of bush life, loosen the soil surface and remove weeds from the bed by hand. Throughout the summer period you will need at least 10 loosening operations. In order to reduce the number of waterings the surface of the bed should be covered with a layer of mulch (sawdust, humus or pine needles).
In autumn and spring time bush nutrition is conducted, for this purpose 150-200 grams of wood ashes are put into the soil. Roots begin to gain mass only after the fruits are formed. Therefore, from August after the ripening of fruits, the bushes will need daily sunbathing, but the rays should always be oblique. In late autumn the surface of the plot should be covered with a 2 cm layer of biohumus, thanks to which the bushes will not only be well protected against frost, but will receive a nutrient feed.
Diseases and pests
Ginseng is not very resistant to harmful insects and diseases.
By regularly watering the bed with a weak solution of manganese potassium, it helps to protect the shrubs from fungal diseases. But experts advise, regularly at the beginning of the spring period and deep autumn to carry out the processing of the plot and row-spacing with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1-2%), and throughout the season plants should be sprayed on the leaves with a solution of manganese potassium of pinkish color (1 gram of substance per 100 liters of water), and it will be necessary to wash it off the leaf plates with clean water.
For this crop, pests such as: slugs, mice, bears, aphids, moles, wireworms, and also the larvae of May beetles are particularly dangerous. These pests should be dealt with by manual collection and then destroyed. Infusions made with marigold, tobacco, pine needles, garlic, wormwood, dandelions or wood ashes can help protect bushes from insects for a while.
It is recommended to pour a small amount of liquid soap into the infusion to make it sticky.
There is also SURGEON in the Ussuri taiga. Ginseng is wild. Planting ginseng seeds.
Ginseng harvesting and storage
Ginseng roots will reach marketable quality only by 5-6 years.
At this point, their weight may be 20-100g and in some cases more. When you are about half a month away from digging up the roots, you should stop watering altogether, which will make it easier to get the ginseng bushes out of the ground. The dug up roots should be well washed under running water with a brush, try to remove the remains of soil, then they should be dried. Fresh raw material can be put in a plastic bag and placed on the shelf of the refrigerator, there they can last for several weeks. However, only dried roots are suitable for long-term storage.
If the roots are small, they can be dried as a whole, but larger roots should be cut into slices, which can vary in thickness from 0.5 to 0.7 cm. In the room the roots can be placed on the radiators of central heating or put them in an electric dryer, where they are dried at a temperature of 50 to 60 degrees. In storage, finished raw materials are placed in jars of glass, which are tightly closed and stored in a dry and dark place.
It retains its useful properties for no longer than 5 years.
Collect the leaves in September. Only shrubs over three years old are suitable for this purpose. The raw material should be spread out in a thin layer in a shady place for drying. The dried leaves are placed in cardboard boxes or paper bags where they will be stored for up to one year.
Ginseng species and varieties with photos and names
One of the ginseng species has medicinal virtues as follows:
Ginseng (Panax ginseng)
A description of this species can be found at the beginning of this article. Its occurrence in the wild becomes rarer each year but in culture it is very common.
American ginseng or pearl ginseng. This species is native to North America and the Himalayas. It is also not widely distributed under natural conditions, but it is cultivated in France, China, and Wisconsin.
This species differs from the others in that it has a cooling effect.
The properties of ginseng: harm and benefit
Therapeutic properties of ginseng
There are many legends that ginseng has incredible healing powers. In these, it is said to restore youthfulness, to cure all diseases and even to be able to bring hopeless patients back to health. These legends have some truth, and this healing power of this plant is explained by its unusual composition. Thus, the root contains resins, alkaloids, sulfur, phosphorus, tannins, macro-and micronutrients and vitamin C.
Ginseng has tonic and analgesic effect, it also improves gas exchange and endocrine system, normalizes blood pressure, increases efficiency, removes waste bile, lowers blood sugar. It is used as a tool that relieves physical and mental stress, as well as stress, and it has a sedative effect in neuroses. This plant also improves vision and memory, strengthens the immune system, normalizes metabolic processes, and wounds heal much faster with its help. At the end of this course, sexual function will be fully restored, and sperm motility will noticeably improve.
This plant is used in the form of tinctures, powders, extracts, ointments and teas.
Specialists prescribe ginseng extracts for cases of sexual dysfunction or hypotension, as well as for fatigue and recovery from stress or serious illness. In alternative medicine, ginseng tincture is widely used for its metabolic, antiemetic, adaptogenic, biostimulating and energizing effects. Such a remedy contains peptides, saponin glucosides, minerals, vitamins, essential and fatty oils.
Ginseng root, ginseng root tincture: medicinal properties, what diseases does it treat?
This plant, as well as the means prepared on its basis, is prohibited for use by pregnant women, with bleeding, increased nervousness, and also various inflammations. It is considered a powerful stimulant, and therefore in some cases contributes to the development of headaches, nausea, vomiting, and also contributes to the deterioration of the well-being of hypertensive patients.
Specialists do not advise to take it for people who are less than 45 years old. And even if you do not have any contraindications, before you start taking ginseng, it is necessary to consult with a qualified specialist..