Garlic: Planting And Care In The Open Field, Growing From Seed

The herbaceous perennial garlic (Allium sativum) is a member of the genus Onion, subfamily Onion, family Amaryllis. This plant is very popular among vegetable growers, it has a pungent taste and specific aroma due to the thioethers it contains. Originally from Central Asia, garlic was cultivated in Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Northern Iran, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Pakistan. According to scientists, such a crop is believed to have originated from the onion with long-stemmed, garlic grows in the gorges of the mountains of Turkmenistan, in the Tien Shan and Pamir-Alai. Since ancient times, this plant has been considered very valuable because it stimulates appetite, strengthens the immune system and improves digestion.

It was widely used as an antidote to poisoning, and as a means of preventing dangerous diseases. A clay bulb of garlic was found in the tomb of Tutankhamen, references to this crop were found in inscriptions on the ancient Egyptian pyramids, and Pythagoras called this vegetable "the king of spices. Humanity has known about garlic for over three thousand years, and it is still quite popular. For example, in India, Italy, China and Korea, garlic is eaten 8-12 slices per day per capita.

Cultivation Summary

Garlic: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

  1. Planting.

    The garlic should be planted in the open field no later than the first half of April, with the plot being prepared in the fall. Garlic can also be planted under the winter from the middle of September to the second half of October. The site should be sunny or shaded.

  2. Ground. A moderately moist and nutritious loam, which should be neutral, is best for growing this crop.

  3. Pouring. During a dry period, water garlic abundantly (10 to 12 liters of water per square meter of bed). The bed is stopped watering in August.
  4. Fertilizer. When the seedlings appear, they should be fertilized with urea or cowpea, repeated fertilization is carried out at intervals of 15 days.

    During one season the bushes should be fed only 4 times.

  5. Raising. Vegetative - by means of cogs.
  6. Pests. Caterpillars of vegetable, winter, cabbage and gamma owls, longhorn beetles, onion moths and flies, honeybees, stem nematodes, stealthy spiderworms, tobacco thrips.

  7. Diseases. Gray, white and cervical rot, false powdery mildew, jaundice, fusariosis, helminthosporiosis, bunt, rust, viral mosaic, tracheomycosis.

Features of garlic

Garlic: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Garlic has a reed-like root system. The complex bulb is rounded and slightly flattened; it forms 2-50 sprouts called cotyledons or lobules in the scale axils; they have pale yellow, dark purple, white or violet-pink scales on their surface. Lanceolate, narrow leaf blades are all-edged, erect or descending grooved, keeled on the underside.

Leaves reach a width of 10 mm and vary in length from 0.3 to 1 m. The leaf laminae grow from one to the other, forming a false stem similar to that of turnip onions, but it is more robust. The flower stalk varies in height from 0.6 to 1.

5 m; at its tip there is an umbrella-shaped inflorescence, it is hidden by a membranous membrane which tears when the sterile flowers open; they have long pedicels, consist of 6 stamens and petals which are white or pale lilac, but reach 0.3 cm in length. The fruit is a capsule. Winter and spring garlic are available.

Growing winter garlic.

(HOW TO PLANT, HOW TO USE, WHEN TO REMOVE, HOW TO STORAGE)

Planning Garlic in the open field

Garlic: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

What time to plant

January 1st to plant garlic in the open field, However, frozen soil is quite difficult to dig over, so you should prepare the area for spring garlic in the fall. Garlic should be planted in autumn from mid-September to the second half of October, the planted cloves before frosts should have time to form a strong system of roots, which should penetrate 10 centimeters deep. However, the bushes should not touch the growth.

Suitable soil

This crop requires neutral and nutritious soil, but loam is best. The soil should not be too dry, but you should not plant garlic in low-lying areas where there is an accumulation of rainwater or meltwater.

Prepare the site carried out in the autumn, for this make it a deep recultivation, with 20 grams of potassium salt, 30 grams of superphosphate and 1 bucket of humus per square meter of soil. In the spring time, the surface of the bed should only be smoothed out with a rake. Then you can start planting garlic. Such plants as zucchinis, beans, green beans, any cabbage, pumpkins and peas are good precursors of this crop. In those plots where cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, carrots and garlic were growing, it is not recommended to grow this culture.

If you plant garlic next to strawberries, potatoes, black currants, strawberries, raspberries or gooseberries, it can protect these crops from many pests. Garlic should also be planted near gladioluses, roses, and tulips because it can repel caterpillars, slugs, and borers, and moles never dig their holes near this crop.

Rules for planting in the open field

Garlic: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

It is quite common to hear the phrase "garlic seeds" or "growing garlic from seed", but this crop is not capable of forming seeds. Garlic is propagated vegetatively, namely by cloves. And for propagation of winter varieties, air bulb bulbs are also used.

however it is not necessary sprout planting. after soil has warmed up degrees deal plot this purpose make furrows on depth mm width inter-row centimeters. plant bottom end down placing them vertically distance between bushes mm. buried twice their height furrow slices edge pointing south so that feathers lot sunlight more productive easier care for. if moistened melted snow bed garlic.

dry watered very abundantly. sprouts appear already afraid frost but surface covered layer mulch>

Planning garlic for winter

Garlic: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

The rules for planting garlic in autumn are described above, and it must be done exactly as in spring, but site preparation should be done 15 days before planting garlic. The bottom of the furrow should be covered with a layer of wood ash or coarse sand, which should be 15-30 mm thick, this will protect the slices from contact with the ground and rotting.

Frequently spring garlic is smaller than winter garlic. When planting, the distance between the biggest cloves should be 12 to 15 centimeters, but between the smallest cloves you should keep a distance of 8 to 10 centimeters.

When planting for the winter, the garlic should be buried in the soil by 15-20 centimeters. Bulb sowing is carried out at the same time, and they are sunk into the soil by 30 mm, sticking to the scheme 2x10 centimeters. The following year, the bulbous bulbs will grow one-toothed bulbs. If you plant them again, the next year you will have full-grown garlic bulbs.

The surface of the bed for the winter must be necessarily covered with a layer of mulch (sawdust mixed with soil or dry peat).

This layer of mulch will protect the garlic from freezing and should be at least 20 mm thick. If the snow has not fallen yet, and severe frosts have already hit, the bed should be covered with roofing felt or film from above. After the snow begins to fall, the cover should be removed from the plot. Under a layer of snow, garlic can withstand temperatures as low as minus 20 degrees.

Growing winter garlic

Care of garlic

Garlic: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

To grow garlic in your plot, it must be watered, fertilized, weeded and loosen the soil surface regularly.

In order to have a good harvest, it is necessary to remove the shoots as soon as they appear and to treat them for diseases and pests.

How to water

Water as needed, as soon as the top layer of soil dries up and should be plenty (10 to 12 liters of water per square metre of bed). However, if it rains systematically, the garlic can be not watered at all. In August, when the bulbs begin to gain volume and weight, the watering should be stopped.

Fertilization

After the first seedlings appear in the spring time, you should fertilize them with nitrogen-containing fertilizers (cowpea, Fertaka or urea), half a month later, a second fertilization is done.

During the season you feed the garlic only 4 times.

With this feeding the garlic will grow GREAT AND HEALTHY!

Pests and Diseases of Garlic

Garlic: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Possible problems

Jarrows and onions are attacked by almost the same kinds of diseases and harmful insects. Of the diseases, white rot, cervical rot, gray rot, helminthosporiosis, fusarium, bunt, jaundice, false powdery mildew (or peronosporosis), mosaic, rust, and tracheomycosis most often strike the bushes. As for pests, the most troublesome ones for garlic are such pests as onion hidden moth, tobacco thrips, stem nematode, caterpillars of winter, cabbage, vegetable and gamma moths, sprout and onion flies, common moth, onion moth and longhorn beetle.

Treatment of garlic

Garlic: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

There are many different chemical preparations that can kill almost all pests and cure a variety of diseases, but before proceeding with treatment, you should think about the fact that the harmful substances contained in these products can accumulate in the garlic bulb.

You should therefore avoid a situation where you have to choose between saving the crop or risking your own health.

To obtain a good garlic harvest, it is essential to follow the crop rotation and farming techniques:

  • garlic can be grown in the same plot where it grew only after 4 or 5 years;
  • storage will need mandatory treatment, which is carried out 8 weeks before the harvest, for this use a solution of chlorine lime (400 grams of substance per 1 bucket of water);
  • before sowing the teeth and bulbs must be treated.

Before sowing, the cloves can be treated differently by heating them at 40 to 42°C for 10 hours.

Growing garlic. Where to begin?"

Harvesting and storing garlic

Garlic: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Harvesting spring garlic is done from the second half of August until the second decade of September.

And winter garlic is harvested in the last days of July or the first days of August. There are several signs that indicate it is time to harvest the garlic:

  • new feathers stop forming;
  • older feathers are droopy and yellow;
  • heads are fully formed and have the color and size typical for this variety.

If you do not harvest in time, the plants will grow again, the heads will fall apart and cannot be stored for a long time. The heads should be pulled or dug out of the ground using a pitchfork, and stacked on the edge of the furrow to dry. They should then be shaken off the soil and placed outdoors, where they should be dried at a temperature of about 25 degrees for a week and a half, or the garlic should be dried in a well-ventilated room at a temperature of 30 to 35 degrees for seven days, then the leaves and roots should be cut off and the remaining neck should be about 50 mm long for non-shooting varieties and about 20 mm long for shooting varieties.

Garlic: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Winter garlic is best stored at 2 to 4 degrees, with spring garlic at 16 to 20 degrees. Winter garlic stores much worse than spring garlic, rotting most often and withering quickly. In this case, the storage should not be too humid or too dry. The best way to store such a vegetable is at a humidity of 60 to 80 percent. The heads that have three covering scales and have their bottoms cauterized by fire are the best preserved.

One very popular method for storing garlic is by weaving it into wreaths or plaits. The false stem should not be removed at the head, and the leaves should always be cut off, then it is woven into a braid and started at the bottom, with new heads being added gradually, so that the braid is more solid, twine should be woven into it. To keep it hanging, a loop should be made at the end. It is easiest to tie the heads in a bundle by the false shoots. For storage, both bundles and braids are hung under the ceiling or under the roof of an attic or dry shed.

Also popular with gardeners is the way to store garlic in nets or capron stockings, and they need to be suspended. Save garlic can be put it in a wicker basket, which is stored in a living room, but not heated in the winter time room, such as on the porch or attic. Still such a vegetable for storage is stored in jars made of glass, which must be sterilized in advance, if you want it can be interspersed with salt. If the garlic heads overpoured with salt, then for storage they should be placed in small boxes made of wood. Garlic heads can be rinsed in brine, and after they have dried, they should be stored in small cloth bags that are hung from the ceiling.

The stored garlic heads should be systematically searched in order to remove rotten and withered garlic heads in time.

Grades and varieties of garlicGarlic: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

The garlic heads for open field are divided into three groups:

  • positive non-shooting;
  • positive shooter;
  • spring non-shooting.

Winter garlic ripens very early and has high yields and relatively large heads and cloves, but the shelf life of these varieties is poor, so they are recommended for cooking various dishes or as a condiment for vegetable marinades and preserves.

Winter garlic varieties for the 2017-2018 season

Best winter garlic varieties

  1. Boguslavsky. The shape of the heads of this frost-resistant variety is spherical, they weigh about 45 grams, and have no more than 6 cloves, the shells are colored gray-purple.

  2. Komsomolets. A medium ripening, frost-resistant variety. The dense, large head is covered with a pale pink husk with 6-13 raisins of a sharp taste. This medium maturing, high-yielding, shooter variety is disease resistant, its large heads are covered with a matte mauve husk consisting of 10-12 pieces of very sharp flavor.
  3. Gribovsky 60.

    An early-ripening variety with an excellent weather tolerance. Its head has a sharp taste and consists of 7-11 slices. This shootable, high-yielding variety has excellent shelf-life and is resistant to disease. The flesh of the cloves is dense and its taste is sharp. This medium maturing, frost-resistant, high-yielding variety has flat-round bulbs tapered at the top.

    The heads weigh about 80 grams and consist of 4-5 spicy-tasting slices. It stores for about six months.

  4. Jubilee 07. It is a medium ripening variety with a good yield. The flat-round heads weigh about 80 grams and have 5-8 slices of semi-spicy flavor.

    This garlic can be stored for up to six months.

  5. Gulliver. This medium-late variety is a shooter. Its flat round heads are covered with dark graydish covering scales, and the flesh of the cloves is white and tangy. The head weighs 90-120 grams and contains 3-5 slices, such garlic is stored for about 8 months.

  6. Flight. Not very large cold-resistant bulbs include no more than 8 slices.

Some varieties are popular as well, such as: Parus, Prometheus, Sofievsky, Spas, Kharkov purple, Lyubasha, Donetsk purple, Promin, Leader, Saksky, etc.

Winter garlic stores much better than winter garlic, but it must be stored under certain conditions, otherwise the heads can rot. The duration of the growing season of such varieties is about 12 weeks.

Popular varieties of spring garlic

Garlic: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

  1. Gafurian. A fast-ripening variety of spicy and multi-fruited. There are about 10 lobules in a large head.
  2. Ukrainian white. Flattened large head consists of about 20 slices.

  3. Degtyarsky. A medium-ripening, non-sharp variety with a semi-spicy taste. Its heads consist of 16 to 18 clusters.
  4. Yelenovsky. This variety does not shoot, and has excellent shelf life and a medium spicy taste.

    The inner scales are pale pink and the upper scales are white.

  5. Yershovsky. A medium-ripening, unstemmed variety with a semi-acrid taste. The weight of the flat-round heads is about 35 grams, they keep for about 7 months. One head contains 16-25 slices.

Popular varieties of foreign selection

  1. French Lotrec pink garlic varieties.
  2. The Czech variety Red Duke is a cold tolerant. The heads include 8 large, purple-colored cloves, but the outer scales are white.
  3. The elephant garlic has a delicate flavor. Garlic heads reach up to 15 centimeters across and weigh about 1 kg, but sometimes they can weigh about 2.

    5 kg. One head may contain about 20 cloves, which weigh up to 50 grams. This non-stemming variety is a yielding variety that is resistant to rust. The outer scales are snow-white with a silvery tint, and the head contains 18-20 cloves.

Carrot varieties, what do they look like?

.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *