Strawberry (Fragaria moschata or Fragaria elatior) is how scientists began to call the strawberry muskrat in the 18th century. This plant has many names, for example: garden strawberry, or European strawberry, or tall strawberry, or true strawberry, or Musca strawberry, or Spanka strawberry, or Muscat strawberry, or tall strawberry. Since the early twentieth century, the false berries of garden strawberries (either large-fruited or pineapple) have been erroneously referred to as strawberries. However, the pineapple strawberry is not derived from the garden strawberry, but from the strawberry of Virga and Chile. Strawberries (garden strawberries) appeared in European countries in 1739, it was a hybrid.
Unlike the garden strawberry, its berries are larger. The name "strawberry" has the Russian root "club", which means "globular, round". However, remember that the most important thing is not to name the plant correctly in your garden, but to take good care of it and follow the rules of farming.
Features of the garden strawberry
The closest relative of the garden strawberry is the strawberry. The strawberry is a herbaceous plant that is a perennial.
It has pubescence on the surface of its upright shoot, reaching a height of 15-40 centimeters. Branching tap root system goes deep into the ground for 0.3-0.4 meters. Root large leaf plates have short petioles, their shape is ternate-complex, they include ovate leaflets with a broadly serrated edge.
They are assembled in a rosette. There is pubescence on the front surface of the leaves, the reverse surface is densely hairy and has veins protruding on it. Such a plant has whiskers (elongated stalked shoots), flower stalks and horns (annual shortened stems). Strawberries can be judged by the number of horns and the number of flower stems on a horn. Shield-like inflorescences consist of 5-12 flowers in white.
This crop blooms for about 20 days. The berry is commonly referred to as a sprawling flower stalk. But in fact the fruits of such a plant are small brown nuts, which are located on the surface of the flower stalk. Such a crop is very popular with gardeners. For several hundred years, strawberries, along with gooseberries and currants, have been very popular horticultural crops.
How to properly care for strawberries in spring, summer and fall
Planting strawberries in the open field
When to plant
You can do this in both the fall and spring seasons. The autumn planting is recommended from the middle of August to the second half of September, in this case the crop will give a good harvest next season. If the seedlings have closed root system (growing in cassettes or containers), then planting it by transplanting from mid-July to the second half of August. Planting strawberries is best done on a cloudy day immediately after watering or rain. Spring planting should be done very early as soon as possible.
The quality of the seedlings determines the yield of strawberries. You can grow such seedlings yourself if you wish, but it is worth bearing in mind that this process will take up a lot of time and effort, and you will end up with plants with only one carob. Generally speaking, it will take you 1-3 years to grow a seedling. However, this method of propagation has a big advantage, the seedlings can be immediately transplanted to a permanent place as soon as the time comes, and it is taken with a clump of earth. This allows the seedlings to avoid stress, which in its long-term storage is sure to manifest itself, as well as its rooting rate is noticeably better.
However, many experienced gardeners prefer to buy planting material in proven seedbeds with a good reputation. It should be taken into account that you should not buy seedlings with bare roots, because its rooting process is much worse, and the full harvest from the grown bushes can be harvested only in a few years. Buying planting material in containers or cassettes, you can get a rich harvest from such plants in a relatively short time. However, you should note that such seedlings are more expensive.
Soil for strawberries
For planting this crop, you should choose a well-lit site with protection from wind gusts.
Suitable soil should be rich in organic matter. This berry grows best on light loam or sandy loam, and gray forest soil and chernozem are also suitable for its cultivation. It is not recommended to grow strawberries on clay soil. Very well, if the ground water is at a depth of 0.6-0.
8 m, with a soil pH of 5.7-6.2. The best predecessors are cereals, garlic, marigold, spicy herbs, onions and petunia. Without replanting, this culture grows 3 or 4 years.
After replanting in the old plot, it will be possible to plant strawberries again after 2-3 years.
SUMMER PLANTING OF STrawberries- VERY IMPORTANT MOMENTS!
Planting strawberries in spring
In springtime, strawberries are planted quite rarely. The site for planting should be prepared in advance. Thus it is ploughed in deep autumn, adding 100 grams of superphosphate, 5 kg of manure or 8-10 kg of humus and 50 grams of potassium salt per 1 square meter. Only well-developed seedlings are planted in the spring.
The seedlings should be placed in a cool place for three days, and then planted. If during the fall in the soil was not made organic fertilizer, then in each hole before planting should be thrown a handful of wood ash and 2 or 3 - humus. The distance between the bushes, as well as the width of the inter-row space should be equal to 0.3 m. The hole should be so deep that it was free to put the plant's roots, and vertically.
For seedlings to take root very quickly, experienced gardeners are advised to make a pruning of the longest root. Also with planted plants should be removed all the leaf plates, leaving 3 or 4 of the largest. After planting, the strawberry neck should be level with the ground. If desired, you can first fill the hole with water and then immerse the root system of the plant in it. Then the hole is carefully filled with soil, which should be well tamped.
The second way - plants are planted in dry holes, and then, when the soil around the bushes will be well tamped, they are very abundantly watered. Planting is recommended to be done in the evening or on a cloudy day. If there is a chance that frosts may return, it is best to cover the planting with foil.
Plotting strawberries in autumn
planting strawberries in autumn is better than in spring because you can get a good harvest from them next season. Plants planted in the spring will produce their first fruits one year later, but this is only if they are not killed by return frosts.
Prepare the area for autumn planting should be at the beginning of the spring period, to do this, it is recultivated, making the necessary fertilizers. To save space on this area, you can plant early vegetable crops that are good predecessors to strawberries, such as garlic, celery, onions or carrots. The root system of seedlings should be treated with fungicides. Sprouts should be planted in autumn in the same way as in spring.
In the first year of its growth, strawberries should grow a strong root system, so experts recommend cutting all whiskers and flower stems at this time so the plant will not waste energy on them.
Care for older bushes begins in early spring. When the vegetation period just begins, the site will need to be freed from the old mulch layer, also need to cut out all the dried, turned black and old leaf plates. The surface of the soil between the plants should be loosened. This crop should then be looked after in exactly the same way as any other crop growing in the garden, namely by systematic watering, weeding, loosening the soil, feeding and treatment against various pests and diseases.
Strawberry during flowering
This plant starts flowering in the middle of May.
If the strawberries are cared for properly during the blooming period, it will have a positive effect on the quality and quantity of the crop. When it begins to bloom, a fertilizer containing potassium should be added to the soil, as well as wood ash and humus. To make the harvest more abundant, the bushes should be treated with a solution of boric acid (1 small spoon per bucket of water), thanks to this, the ovaries will become significantly more. At this time, it is necessary to make timely weeding, as well as loosening the soil surface, as the crust that has appeared on its surface will not allow the roots to breathe fully. Before the first berries ripen, the soil surface near the plants should be covered with a layer of mulch.
At this time, you should remove excess whiskers and leaves with secateurs to maximize the harvest.
How to water
For the berries to be large, strawberries need abundant watering. But you should take into account that you should water it so that there is no stagnant water in the roots. Remember that insufficient watering affects the surface root system of bushes, or rather, it dries out. If there is too much water, the root system will develop root rot or gray rot.
The beginning of watering strawberries is in the last days of April. For 1m2 should go on average from 10 to 12 liters of water. It should not be cold. If the weather is moderately hot, it will be enough to water the strawberries once every 10-12 days. In the summer heat such a culture should be watered more often - 3 or 4 times in 7 days.
From August to October (inclusive) in a dry season plants need watering a couple of times in 7 days. This procedure is recommended in the morning, and the water should be poured very carefully, as its droplets should not be on the surface of the inflorescences or leaf plates. Until the flower stalks grow, sprinkling is the best way to water the strawberries, and drip irrigation is excellent when the bushes are in bloom.
Fertilize adult bushes at least three times per season. At the beginning of the spring period, when the plot will be cleaned and the shrubs will have their leaves removed, Nitroammophoska solution (1 tablespoon per bucket of water) should be applied to the soil; if desired, it can be replaced with chicken manure infusion (1:12) or cowpea (1:10).
On 1 bush should take 500 ml of nutrient solution. To improve the yield and growth of strawberries, it is necessary to arrange her foliar feeding, for this use the following fertilizers: molybdenum ammonium, boric acid and potassium permanganate (1 bucket of water should take 2 grams of each substance). During the formation of buds and fruits strawberries need potassium, in this regard, the soil should be made infusion of chicken manure, wood ash or potassium nitrate. And also do not forget that the leaves at this time can be treated with a solution of boric acid. When the berries will be harvested and the leaves will be cut, it will be necessary to apply a solution of Nitroammophoska (a couple of large spoons of the substance per 1 bucket of water) to the soil.
To stimulate the laying of flower buds of the next season, it is necessary in August to make feeding of bushes with urea (30 grams per 1 bucket of water). After such feeding, strawberries need watering. Also note that in a specialized store you can buy a special complex fertilizer for strawberries, which includes all the elements that this culture needs. Such a nutrient mixture helps to increase the yield by 30 percent.
Care, feeding during flowering and fruiting
The strawberry stops growing in its fourth year, causing its yield to decrease. This is due to the fact that in 4 years of bush growth in the same place, the soil is severely depleted. In this regard, experts advise replanting strawberries in a new place every 3 or 4 years. For transplanting, it is necessary to choose strong and absolutely healthy bushes, and it should be taken into account that they should not be more than three years old. The fact is that bushes older than three years old and after the transplanting procedure will not please with abundant fruiting, so they are simply dug up and thrown away.
Transplanting bushes can be in the spring or in the last weeks of the summer period, and you should choose a cloudy day. Prepare the area for planting as described above. Remove the shrubs from the ground and remove the soil from their root system. Prune their roots to ¼ of their length, then immerse them in a clay-mud bolt and plant them in a new place. The transplanted plants need a good watering, then the soil surface should be covered with a layer of sawdust or peat.
As you have probably already understood, growing strawberries is not difficult, the main thing is to know how to do it correctly and how to take care of them.
CARE FOR STRAWBERRIES AFTER HARVESTING!!!
Propagating strawberries with whiskers
When strawberries will bear fruit, you are recommended to choose the most suitable and developed bushes that should be 1 or 2 years old for propagation, and note that their fruits should be relatively large. Pick the biggest whiskers, which should come off your selected shrubs, plant them in a propagation pot and then pin them down. Only the largest rosettes should be selected for propagation, and the second and third order whiskers, as well as the remaining stalked shoots that connect the whiskers to the bush, should be trimmed. In July, the selected whiskers should grow from 4 to 6 leaf plates, when this happens, the rosettes are separated from the parent plant and transplanted to a permanent place together with a clump of soil.
The transplanted bushes should be watered.
Propagation by bush division
This method of propagation is only suitable for remontant strawberries because they have hardly any rosettes. It can also be useful if there are not enough seedlings. For division, choose two- or three-year-old bushes that have a developed system of roots. In the spring or autumn time bush with a good yield should be extracted from the soil and divided into several parts, and it should be noted that each horn should have a leaf rosette and roots.
The resulting divisions are planted in a new location.
Seed propagation of small-fruited remontant strawberries
In July-August, the largest and ripest fruits should be selected. With a sharp knife, the layer with seeds is cut off from them, then it is rubbed on a cloth, which is put in a sunny place to dry. When the mass dries, it is again rubbed, trying to collect all the small seeds. They are poured into a bag of paper and placed in storage.
In February, take out the seeds and soak them by immersing them in water. Make sure that the water is melted or rained on, and it needs to be changed twice a day. If the seeds were purchased in the store, they should be immersed in a growth-accelerating solution for a few hours.
A good drainage layer of broken bricks should be made at the bottom of the container. Then it is filled with a soil mixture consisting of river sand, leaf humus and garden soil, they should be taken in a ratio of 1:2:1.
In moistened soil mixture should make grooves, with the distance between them should be about 50 millimeters. Deepen the seeds should be only 5 millimeters, then they are not strongly embedded, and the container top will need to be covered with glass. The seeds are placed in a place where the air temperature should be between 20 and 25 degrees, they should stay there for about 15 days. Seeds will need daily ventilation and watering the container in the tray. Water the crops can be and another way, for this purpose, lay a snow layer on the surface of the substrate, the thickness of which should be 8 to 10 centimeters.
When the first sprouts appear, the containers are transferred to a well-lit place. Half a month later, the seedlings should grow the first true leaf plate. When this happens, the plants should be subjected to picking. To do this, each seedling is carefully dug out, its roots are pinched, and then planted in a pot. Keep a distance of 20-30 mm between the seedlings.
When the plants start to develop 4 or 5 true leaves, they should be pickled again and the scheme of 5x5 centimeters should be followed. Before transplanting in the open ground you need to harden them.
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When to prune
Today there is an ongoing debate among gardeners as to whether or not to prune faded strawberry leaves. Whose side is the truth, it is impossible to tell, but it can be argued that if the old leaves are removed, the shrub will not be harmed. Once they begin to turn yellow and dry out and spots form on the surface, you can cut them off, choosing to do so in the morning or evening, and it should be dry and cloudy.
Rules for pruning
Cut the leaves with very sharp scissors or secateurs. However, it is not necessary to cut the leaf plate "by the root", it is necessary that the shoots and cuttings, which should be up to 10 centimeters long, remain on the bush. Only the leaves and unnecessary rosettes should be cut off. It is also necessary to make a digging of young growing whiskers, so that they quickly build up a system of roots. In case you do not intend to propagate strawberries by mustaches, then they should be all removed, which will avoid overgrowth of the bed.
When pruning is finished, it is necessary to perform loosening of the surface of the plot, and then it should be watered with a solution of manganese potassium. Next, the strawberries are fertilized. Until the young leaf plates grow, the plants will need systematic watering, make sure that the soil is always a little damp. If the strawberries grow young leaves, they will be able to survive any winter, even the most frosty. In deep autumn, it is advisable to cover the bushes with pine needles, which will protect them from severe frosts.
Trimming strawberries after harvesting
Strawberry pests and diseases
Care of strawberries is complicated by the fact that they can become ill with a variety of diseases, and pests also often settle on them. Often gardeners cannot understand why seemingly healthy bushes begin to wither or rot, in all cases this is due to various pests and diseases. Most often this culture is affected by fruit, root and gray rot, powdery mildew, brown, brown and white spots (septoriosis), jaundice, fusarium, phytophthora and verticillosis wilt. Most of these diseases are fungal. To keep strawberries healthy, it is sufficient to follow all the rules of agricultural technique and pay special attention to the choice of appropriate predecessors (crop rotation).
Also important is the spraying of bushes in order to prevent, which is carried out in the spring and at the end of the growing season. If the plant does become diseased, it will need to be sprayed with one of the fungicidal agents.
Often strawberries are damaged by strawberry nematodes, mites, leafminers, dark snappers and the strawberry weevil. Snails, slugs and red ants also settle on bushes. In order to protect strawberry beds from these pests you need only to take good care of the plants and to timely spray the bushes and soil under them with insecticide means for the purpose of prevention.
People and gardeners agree that it is easier to prevent the disease than to deal with it later. The same applies to pests, the more so as some of them are carriers of very dangerous and sometimes incurable diseases. This is why systematic treatments are provided, the purpose of which is the prevention of diseases and pests. The first time of the season prophylactic spraying is carried out at the very beginning of the growing season in spring time. And the second and last such treatment of the season is done at the very end of the growing season in the autumn, when all fruits will already be harvested, excess rosettes and leaves will be removed, and the strawberry itself will be preparing for the coming winter.
The crop is sprayed against pests and diseases by various means. In the spring, before the buds swell, experienced gardeners advise cutting off all the leaves from the bushes and removing the top layer of soil on the site, which contains pathogens and pest larvae that have settled there for the winter. If you do not want to remove the top layer of soil, loosen it to a depth of 6 to 8 centimeters. Then the surface of the area must be thoroughly treated with a solution of copper sulfate (2-3%) or bordeaux mixture (3-4%). Re-treatment with the same agents should be carried out in September or October.
However, before re-treatment approximately in the second decade of September you must prepare the following mixture: 1 bucket of warm (about 30 degrees) water must be taken 2 large spoons of liquid soap, wood ash and vinegar and 3 large spoons of burnt vegetable oil. This solution is thoroughly mixed and strained. It should be sprayed on the plants themselves and on the surface of the plot.
Strawberry pest and disease control
Strawberry varieties with photos and description
There are incredibly many strawberry varieties, so only those that are most popular will be described below. All varieties are divided into late-ripening, medium-ripening and early-ripening.
The following early-ripening varieties are the most popular:
- Alba. This variety has resistance to pests and diseases. The bushes are medium-growing, sparsely pubescent. The rich red color glossy fruits are very large and conical in shape. This variety is used for cultivation on an industrial scale.
- Rozanna. This variety was created by Ukrainian breeders and is resistant to disease. There are many flower stalks on the bushes, but the number of flowers is relatively small. The large, bright red fruits have a drop-shaped or wide-conical form. The fragrant red flesh is sweet and sour.
This variety is widespread in Florida and Spain. The berries are sweet, dense, and quite large.
- Evangeline. This variety of Scottish selection is very early maturing and susceptible to verticillosis and root rot. The large berries are oblong conical in shape and pale red in color.
The flesh has a pleasant taste.
The most popular medium ripening varieties:
- Vegera. Strongly sprawling bushes produce rounded-conical large, dark red fruits. The flesh is fragrant sweet with a strawberry aftertaste.
This variety is resistant to disease and drought. The bushes are sprawling, tall and strongly pubescent. The dark red sweet fruits are large in size.
- Webenil. This English medium-late variety is characterized by abundant fruiting.
The bushes are tall. The rich red spindle-shaped fruits are very attractive and taste very good. This medium-late variety is resistant to verticillosis, grey rot and frost. The bushes are strongly pubescent, the leaf plates are stiff. The rich red large conical shaped fruits have excellent taste.
Popular late varieties:
- Pensioner Chelsea. This variety is considered a true masterpiece of breeding. The bushes are not very tall, foliated and wide. The dark red fruits are very tasty and juicy.
This large-fruited variety reacts negatively to drought. The bushes are not very tall, sturdy, the foliage is stiff, and the rosettes are thick. The sweet juicy fruits are very large.
- Profusion. The dessert French variety is resistant to disease, but mites often settle on the bushes.
Forms a small number of rosettes. Fruiting lasts from the last days until the end of October. The rich red fragrant fruits have an elongated-conical shape and excellent taste.
Popular remontant varieties, or neutral day varieties:
- Ada. The first fruiting occurs at the same time as the medium-ripening varieties, and the second from August until frost.
The rich red fruits have an elongated shape.
- Queen Elizabeth. This variety with large berries is among the sweetest. It is frost and disease resistant and has high yields. Rosettes grow relatively infrequently.
1.Strawberries. Which strawberry varieties will never fail?