Flowers Viola: Planting And Care In The Open Field, Species And Varieties With Photos

The viola is directly related to the violet family. It is found mostly in temperate and mountainous areas of the Northern Hemisphere. According to different sources this genus includes 400-700 species. Some of them are endemic to the South American Andes and some are native to tropical South Africa, subtropical Brazil, Australia, New Zealand and the Sandwich Islands. Viola is popularly nicknamed pansies.

The violet violet became popular many centuries ago. So, about 2.5 thousand years ago, peoples living on European territory used these cute little flowers to decorate wreaths and garlands, as well as rooms during the holidays. The fragrant violet was the first to be bred, followed by the mountain violet. The fact that violets were being bred for hybrids was first mentioned as early as 1683.

Europeans learned of the existence of the species Violet Wittrock in the 19th century. This species was created by crossing the violet Altai, violet yellow, and violet tricolor. Today, the garden violet is among the most popular plants among gardeners. It has several hundred varieties and varieties.

Features of the violet

Flowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photos

The violet can be annuals, biennials and perennials.

This herbaceous plant reaches 15-30 centimeters in height. The root system is retiniferous, the main stem is erect. Leaf blades with leafstalks may be pinnately dissected or simple. They grow in succession or as part of a root rosette. Single axillary flowers, which reach 7 centimeters in diameter, are located on fairly long pedicels.

The petals on top of them have marigolds, while those on the bottom are larger and have a sac-like formation (spurge) located at the base. Flower shape and color can be very different, such as: bicolor or tricolor, solid color, striped, spotted, with 1 spot, with smooth or wavy edges of the petals, swept or plain, etc. Flowering in this plant is incredibly abundant. Depending on when the plant was planted, flowering can be observed from the second half of March to the end of the spring period or from August until the frosts. There are hybrids which flower during the whole summer or twice a season.

The fruit is a boll with seeds inside. They will keep their high germination rate for a couple of years.

It is a frost-resistant plant which feels well in the shade. However, in a shaded place, its flowering is less abundant and the flowers themselves become smaller. The best place for planting is a loamy, moist soil, saturated with nutrients.

If you plant such a flower on dry sandy soil, the florets will also become smaller as a result.

How to grow Pansies. Garden World Website"

Growing Viola from seed

Sowing seedlings

Flowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photos

Sowing seeds can be done directly into open soil. However, the most popular and reliable way to grow violets is through seedlings. If sown in the last days of February, it will flower in the current year.

For sowing, it is recommended to buy a special soil mixture for violets, and the seeds should be immersed for 24 hours in a solution of zircon or epin. Make furrows in the substrate and pour into them pre-dried seeds. They should be covered with soil, which is previously rubbed between the palms. Next, water it, and the container is covered with a film or glass. Then place the container in a quite cool place (about 15 degrees).


Flowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photos

The first seedlings will show up after 7-10 days. Once this happens, the cover should be removed and the container moved to an even cooler place (about 10 degrees). Lighting should be bright but scattered, and the flowers should be protected from direct sunlight. Seedlings should be timely watered and fertilized. Fertilization should be done once every two weeks with a solution of complex mineral fertilizer.


Flowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photos

When exactly should the plants be picked and how many times? Gardeners have two different opinions on this. One group of gardeners believes that these flowers should be picked a couple of times. In this case, the first picking is made after the appearance of 2 true leaves, and the second - after 15-20 days under the scheme of 6x6. And another part of not less experienced gardeners believe that the second picking of this plant is completely unnecessary. Remember that this plant on the plot can be planted already flowering, and it will take root just as quickly and easily.

A plant grown from seed will flower in late spring or early summer.

Viola (pansies). Sowing and picking violets. (01.02.


Transplanting in the open ground

Flowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photos

What time to plant the Viola

The time of planting seedlings in the open ground depends directly on the climate in a particular area. It can be planted in April or May. It is recommended to choose a well-lit site for violets. The best soil will consist of soil, not very finely ground charcoal and dry poultry manure or humus (5:1:1). A mixture of turfy earth, sand, humus and peat (2:1:2:2) is also suitable.

Do not plant in a low place where the ground water is very close to the surface.

How to plant

Transplanting violets is not difficult. The holes should be prepared first and a distance of 10 to 15 centimeters between the bushes should be maintained. Planted viola plants are covered with soil, which should be tamped down and then they are watered. Perennial violets should be replanted in a new place once every 3 years, with division of the bush.

If you do not do this, the flowers will greatly proliferate, and their florets will begin to become shallow. If you want to propagate a rare variety or one you like, it can be done by cuttings.

Care Tips

Flowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photos

The root system of this flower is superficial and located at a depth of 15 to 20 centimeters. Therefore, it is necessary to keep the soil slightly moist and loose at all times. Watering is done only when there is a prolonged dry and hot period.

If it rains regularly in summer, it is not necessary to water pansies. It is also necessary to pull out the weeds and remove the wilted flowers so that the flowering remains very lush. Fertilize them once every four weeks with either superphosphate or ammonium nitrate (25 to 30 grams of the stuff per 1m2).

Diseases and pests

Flowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photos

Care for Viola is quite simple and if you strictly follow the rules and do all necessary procedures in time (watering, weeding, loosening, fertilizing), your flowers will always look incredibly showy and they will not get sick or disturbed by pests. Often such a plant is affected by powdery mildew.

An infected specimen has a whitish or grayish coating on the surface of its leaves, buds and stems. Viola can get sick from the fact that she was always feeding nitrogen-containing fertilizers, and yet the disease can be provoked by abundant dew in the morning time in a relatively dry summer. Sick bushes should be treated with calcined soda, which should be added to the fundazole, soap or ground sulfur. If the bush does not recover, the treatment should be repeated after half a month.

Also pansies can fall ill with blackleg or grey rot.

Causes of these diseases are: inappropriate temperature conditions, poor ground or air humidity. Try to eliminate the cause of the disease, otherwise the other bushes will be infected. Do not forget to dig out and destroy infested plants and water the area where they were growing with a solution of Fundazole. In an infected bush, the leaf plates begin to shrivel and the flower itself becomes weaker. Be sure to dig up the infected bushes.

Experienced gardeners recommend burning them without fail, so that the disease can not spread further. The remaining healthy specimens should be subjected to preventive treatment. For this purpose, they should be sprayed 2 or 3 times with Bordeaux liquid, and the intervals between treatments should be 14 days.

The caterpillars of violet pearl moth and clover moth are particularly dangerous for this flower as they feed on the leaves of the plant. To get rid of the pests, the plants should be treated with tobacco or chlorophos infusion.

Yiola after flowering

Seed collection

Flowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photos

Seed collection should be done after flowering, which is about August or September. After the flower fades, it is replaced by a small seed pod containing seeds. Start collecting seeds will be possible only after the capsule unfolds to the top. Extracted seeds should be scattered on a sheet of newspaper and dried in the room. Then they are placed on the refrigerator shelf, where they will be stored.

If the boxes with seeds are left on the bush, self-sowing will occur. Sprouts, as a rule, are dense, and the first seedlings can appear in the fall or spring. If you do not want to grow violets through seedlings, simply thin out the seedlings in good time and they can also be seeded if necessary.


Modern varieties of violet, which are perennial plants, are highly frost-resistant. If you cover them with dry leaves or put lapniks over them, they can easily survive freezing temperatures as low as minus 30 degrees.

If you grow annuals, they must be discarded after they finish blooming.

Main types and varieties of Viola with photos and names

Viola wittrockiana

Flowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photos

The most popular type among gardeners is this one, which is also called pansies. This perennial is cultivated as a biennial. The bush can reach a height of 20 to 30 centimeters. It has alternately arranged oval leaf blades with blunt prongs on the edge.

The flowers are solitary and relatively large (4-10 centimeters in diameter). They may have different colors and shapes. Florists divide plants of this species into several categories: by term and quality of flowering, by the size of the florets, by their color, shape and level of frost resistance. If the size of flowers and their number on a bush during the flowering period is taken into account, plants are divided into 2 groups: multifloral (multiflora) and large-flowered (grandiflora) varieties. If the color of the plant is taken into account, then the varieties of such flowers are conditionally divided into: bicolor, monochromatic, and spotty.

It should be remembered, however, that the same variety may be referred to as both spotted and bicolored.

Single-colored varieties

Flowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photosFlowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photos

  1. Viola White. The spreading bush is 0.2 m tall and about 0.25 m in diameter.

    The leaf plates are green. The florets are white and have a slight yellowing and greenness. They are very fragrant and are arranged on long peduncles. Flowering of this variety is observed from the second half of April to the first days of August and from the last days of September to October. It survives the winter under cover very well.

  2. Blu Boy. The bush is about 0.25 m tall. Leaf plates are glaucous. The diameter of the corrugated bluish-lilac flowers is about 6 centimeters.

    The petals at the top are bent backward. And also at the base of all petals there are strokes of dark lilac coloration. A single bush can have up to 19 flowers at one time. Flowering is observed from April to August and from September to October. Under cover it endures wintering perfectly.

  3. Roi de Negri. The bushes are compact, reaching a height of 0.23 m. On the surface of the leaves there is a bluish patina. The flowers are five centimeters in diameter.

    Velvet petals have a rounded shape, at the edge they are wavy, slightly bent backwards. At the base of the petal, located at the bottom, there is an eyelet of deep yellow color. Up to 14 flowers can open at the same time on a bush. Flowering is observed in April-August as well as in September-October. If the Viola is covered, it will survive the winter well.

  4. Viola red. The upright shoots reach 0.2 m in height. The red flowers are about 7 centimeters in diameter with a very dark colored eye at the base of the petals.

Bicolor varieties

Flowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photos

  1. Jupiter.

    Compact bush, reaching 16 centimeters in height. The leaf plates are dark green. The flowers are about 5 centimeters in diameter. The purple-white flowers have a rounded shape. The velvety petals at the bottom are colored dark purple, while those at the top are bent back and white at the base.

    Up to 20 flowers can open at the same time. It is winter-hardy.

  2. Lord Beaconsfield. The bush is about 25 centimeters tall. The leaf plates are slightly bluish.

    The flowers are about 5.5 centimeters in diameter. The petals underneath are dark purple with an irregular border along the edge of the lilac coloration. The upper bluish-white petals have inky strokes at the base. About 30 flowers can open at the same time on a bush.

    The variety is hardy.

  3. St. Knud. The compact shrubs, which are about 0.2 m high, have green-colored leaf plates.

    The florets are about 5 centimeters in diameter. The lower petals, strongly protruding forward, are a deep orange color, while at the base they are red. The petals at the top have a pale orange-yellow coloration. Up to 19 flowers can open on a bush at the same time.

Spotted varieties

Flowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photos

  1. Shalom Purim.

    This is a several times improved form of the viola rococo variety. Its florets are just as floral, but the petals are very strongly corrugated. The florets are large (1/3 larger than the standard). Sold in specialty stores as a mixture of seeds in a variety of colors. It differs from its mother plant moreover by the fact that it will grow better in a slight penumbra rather than in a sunny place.

    In this case the petals will be the most corrugated.

  2. Hybrid F1 Eyes of the Tiger. This brand new hybrid has an amazing coloration. The flowers are small, only 3 centimeters in diameter and the yellow petals have many fine brown streaks on the surface. This plant is suitable for growing both in the open ground and in a pot.

    The great thing about this hybrid is that it blooms very early and abundantly and that its flowers have a lovely scent.

  3. Hybrid F1 "Cassis". The flowers, arranged on a compact bush, are colored purple and have a thin border around the edge of the white color. Blooms are very lush and winter-hardy.

Horny Viola (Viola cornuta), or ampelic viola

Flowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photos

Also quite popular with gardeners is the ampelic viola.

The height of this perennial varies from 15 to 25 centimeters. The branching rhizome is creeping, it sprawls and forms a carpet. The shoots are triangular in cross-section, the oblong leaf plates are coarsely serrated and reach about 6 centimeters in length. The leaflets are pinnate-incised. There are a huge number of flowers on the bush, and they are 3 to 5 centimeters across.

They are colored in various shades of purple and mauve, they have a small yellow eye, as well as horn-shaped spurs. Flowering is observed in May-September. It has a high frost resistance, but it is recommended to cover for wintering. It is necessary to grow violet ampelna in almost the same way as the garden violet. The new varieties of this species are worked on most of all by breeders from England:

  1. Arkwright Ruby.

    This variety is a large-flowered variety. The color of the petals is deep red, and there is an eyelet of yellow. At the base of the petals, located at the bottom, there are spots of dark color.

  2. Balmont Blue. The stems of the bush are pleated and the coloration of the flowers is blue.

    It is recommended to grow both in balcony containers and in hanging baskets.

  3. Perple Duet. The flowers have 2 petals at the top which are burgundy in color and the bottom 3 are dark pink and have very dark strokes at the base.

Viola odorata

Flowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photos

It is also quite common to grow in gardens. This perennial plant has a thick rhizome.

The leaf plates, which are almost circular in shape, are 9 centimeters long and 8 centimeters wide. They are arranged in a rosette. The large, fragrant flowers are colored in various shades of purple. Flowering is observed in May and lasts 20 days. There are repeated blooms in the fall.


Flowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photos

  1. Розина. The blossom is similar in appearance to a flying bird. The fragrant pink flowers are darker in color closer to the base. The petals at the top are bent back, while those at the side are slightly extended forward.
  2. Charlotte.

    The coloration of the large florets is dark purple.

  3. Charlotte. There are fragrant purple flowers.

Viola papilionacea, or clobber (Viola papilionacea, Viola cucullata)

Flowers Viola: planting and care in the open field, species and varieties with photos

The bush is 15 to 20 centimeters tall. Leaf blades have a serrated edge and are kidney or heart-shaped.

Large single flowers are colored purple. The petal on top is white with a band of purple coloring, their center is greenish-yellow almost white. Flowering is observed in April-June. Сорта:

  1. Фреклз. The white petals have many specks of purple coloration, if cool in spring, they become larger.

    Flowering is observed in spring and ends at the beginning of summer. It is unpretentious.

  2. Royal Rowb. A miniature variety. Flowers are fragrant, petals are bent backwards and there are strokes of black or yellow at the base.

    The color of the petals varies from purple to purple-blue.

  3. Red Giant. Large violet-red flowers, arranged on long flower stalks. Blossoms for a very long time.

Also suitable for cultivation in the garden are the wiolas: graceful, mountain, yellow, marsh, Altai, hairy, labrador, monoflower, mottled, sandy, somchetta, dogwood, sister, footed, amazing, hill and Selkirk viola.

At the moment they are used practically alone by breeders in their work.


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