Feijoa: Growing At Home, Useful Properties

Feijoa (Acca sellowiana), also called acca feijoa or acca sellowova, is a species of the genus Acca of the Myrtle family, not very tall trees and evergreen shrubs. By some specialists, feijoa is identified as a separate genus. The species was named after the Portuguese naturalist João da Silva Feijo, who found the plant in Brazil in the late 19th century. The species epithet was given to the plant in honor of the German naturalist Friedrich Sellow, who researched the Brazilian flora. Under natural conditions, feijoa can be found in Colombia, Brazil, Uruguay and northern Argentina.

Feijoa is found in nature only in the subtropics, and grows very poorly in the tropics. Today, it is cultivated not only in South America but also in the Crimea, Abkhazia, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan, Russia's Krasnodar Region, Australia, New Zealand, Italy, France, Greece, Portugal, Spain, the U.S. Pacific coast and the Caucasus.

Brief description of growing

Feijoa: growing at home, useful properties

  1. Flowering.

    In spring or summer time, with a duration of about 20 days.

  2. Planting. Planting in a container in the last days of winter or in the first weeks of spring.
  3. Brightness. Light should be bright but diffused.

  4. Temperature. Normal room temperature.
  5. Pouring. Watering should be lower (through a tray) and systematic.
  6. Humidity.

    Humidity levels should be higher than normal room humidity. In winter, during the heating period, the bushes should be moistened with lukewarm water from a sprayer every day in the evening.

  7. Fertilizer. Fertilize systematically once every half month with organics (solution of poultry manure (1:15) or cowpea (1:10)). And mineral fertilizers can be used for this purpose only if absolutely necessary.

  8. Dormancy period. When growing under room conditions, this period is not pronounced.
  9. Potting. Before the bushes are 3 years old, they must be transplanted once a year. Mature specimens should be transplanted much less often, more precisely once every 5 years, but the top layer of soil in the container should be replaced every year.

  10. Trimming. In deep autumn or at the beginning of spring when the height of the bushes will be 25 to 30 centimeters, they will have to be shortened by 1/3. Crown-forming and sanitary pruning should be done at the same time as necessary.
  11. Procultivation. Cuttings and seed method.

  12. Pests. Spoonbills and red spider mites.
  13. Diseases. Gray rot.
  14. Properties.

    The fruit of such a plant contains substances that are very beneficial to the human body.

Feijoa features

Feijoa: growing at home, useful properties

Feijoa is a spreading and very large shrub or tree, about four meters high. The densely branched but compact root system is superficially arranged. The surface of the trunk is covered with brownish-green rough bark. The opposite opposite opposite opposite short-cellular leaf plates are pinnately veined and oval in shape, they are entire and leathery to the touch, often sagging.

The front surface of the leaves is smooth, dark green, while the underside is pubescent and grayish green. Axillary quadrifoliate flowers are either paired, solitary or sometimes form a small corymbiform inflorescence. They have a large number of stamens - 50-80, the white petals change color to pink as they approach the base. The duration of flowering is about 20 days. This plant requires insects for pollination.

The fruit is a fleshy, juicy dark green berry, which may be wide-angled, cuboid or oval-long. Fruits may reach 15 to 50 mm across and 20 to 70 mm in length. The seeds are located inside the berry and are surrounded by semi-transparent flesh. The smell and taste of such a berry is at the same time similar to pineapple, kiwi and strawberry. They have a lumpy rind, and their color varies from dark green to greenish-yellow.

In some cases, the rind has a purple-purple anthocyanin coating.

Feijoa - cultivation and care at home.

Growing Feijoa at home

Feijoa: growing at home, useful properties

Potting

Today flower growers are increasingly trying to decorate their homes with exotic plants, which include feijoa. If you wish, you can try to grow it from a seed with your own hands. After you buy a ripe feijoa, the skin which should have a pale yellow color, it should be placed in a place where it is always warm, to ripen.

After the berry becomes very soft, you need to cut it and take out the seeds along with the pulp. Take a thick cloth and smear the pulp on it, and then rinse off the mucus under running water. Dry the cloth with the seeds and then drop them into pots that have holes for drainage, at the bottom of which there is a layer of sand or claydite, and they should be filled with a soil mixture consisting of river sand and turf (1:1). To facilitate the seeding of seeds, experienced growers recommend combining them with a small amount of sand. When seeding is complete, the seeds should be slightly pressed into the soil mixture, with the top cover them is not necessary.

Then the seeds are moistened with a sprayer, using a pinkish solution of potassium permanganate. After that, the container from above should be covered with glass (film) and moved to a place where there is warmth and good light. Until the seedlings appear, moisten the substrate in the container with a sprayer as it dries up, making sure to remove all condensation from the cover.

Activity

Feijoa: growing at home, useful properties

Most often the first shoots appear after 4 weeks or a little earlier. As soon as the seedlings appear, you should not delay in pulling out any weakened ones.

To seedlings grow well, they need a lot of bright light, but it must be scattered. In this regard, seed this culture is best in the last winter or first spring weeks. If sowing will be made in the fall or in the first half of the winter period, the crops will need extra light, as at this time the daylight hours are too short. Set at a height of 25 centimeters above the container phytolamp or any other lamp. But remember that the plants should be well protected from direct sunlight.

Sprouting

When the seedlings are forming 2 to 4 pairs of true leaves, they should be potted in individual small pots. For this purpose, a soil mixture consisting of leaf humus, decomposed manure, sod soil and coarse-grained river sand (2:0,5:3:0,5) is used. Such transplanting helps accelerate the development of the root system of plants. The seedlings will grow quickly at first, but such bushes will not bear fruit for the first time until the 5th or 6th year of growth.

Pouring

Feijoa: growing at home, useful properties

This plant is very fond of moisture.

If the clump of soil in the pot dries out, it can cause the feijoa to shed its leaves, then the root system and branches begin to die off. In this regard, watering should be carried out systematically through the tray. Excess liquid from the tray does not need to be poured out, as after a while it can be absorbed into the soil mixture. During the cold season, when the air is too dry with heating appliances, moisten the shrub regularly with slightly warm water from a sprayer, every day in the evening.

Feeding

The shrub needs systematic feeding during active growth.

Feijoa is therefore fed once every half month throughout the year. In this case, experts recommend using organic fertilizer, not mineral complex fertilizer. The culture most prefers a solution of poultry manure (1:15) or cow manure (1:10). Of minerals, you can use a solution of superphosphate (1 tsp per liter of water), it must be boiled, and after the mixture becomes cold, it is diluted with water (1:2). Of all fertilizers containing potassium, feijoa responds best to the ash extract: per liter of water take 1 big spoonful of ash from burnt hardwood trees or grass, leave the mixture for 7 days to infuse.

Use potassium, phosphate and nitrogen fertilizer alternately. Fertilize the substrate only after watering.

Potting

Feijoa: growing at home, useful properties

This fast-growing plant is sure to be transplanted once a year before it turns 3 years old. A mixture of sand, peat, humus, sod and leaf soil (1:1:1:1:1) is used. An older bush is transplanted into a new container at least once every couple of years.

Older shrubs only need to be transplanted once every 5 years. When replanting the bush, you can leave the old soil mixture on the root system, but only if there are no pathogens and pests in it or if it has not gone sour. Repotting Feijoa trees should be done by transplanting and be very careful since its root system is very brittle.

Trimming

Feijoa: growing at home, useful properties

The plant can reach up to 6m or even higher when growing indoors and therefore must be pruned. Trimming it properly will not negatively affect the fruiting life of the tree but will add to its decorative beauty.

Pruning is carried out in early spring or in late autumn. To do this, use a very sharp pruner or knife, which should be disinfected in advance with rubbing alcohol or 30 minutes to boil it in plain water. Once the bush is 25 to 30 centimeters in height, shorten it by 1/3. Forming, as well as sanitary pruning is carried out only when necessary. To begin with, all growths that depart from the trunk at an angle of less than 60-70⁰ should be cut off, and also all competing branches and stems should be cut out.

Injured, weakened, withered and disease or pest damaged branches must also be removed.

In order to give the plant a tree shape, all branches and shoots must be constantly removed from the lower ¼ of the trunk. The fact is that they will not grow a rich harvest, but thanks to this trimming, the bush will become a beautiful tree. Further pruning consists only in the systematic removal of the root shoots. During the pruning of branches, experts advise, set the blade at the secateurs at an angle of 45 degrees, and all cuts should be made in the direction of the trunk, and only very short stumps should remain, soon they will dry up.

After pruning, the cut areas must be treated with a fungicide solution.

How to grow feijoa at home. Garden World Website

Pests and diseases of feijoa

Feijoa: growing at home, useful properties

Diseases

Feijoa is quite resistant to diseases. And if they are well cared for and given the right conditions, they might never get sick at all. But not watering it properly or not taking good care of it can increase the chance of it becoming infected with gray rot.

Leaf spotting rarely affects such a tree.

If a fungal disease affects the feijoa, it should be treated with a Bordeaux mixture. If gray rot has appeared on the bush, then the affected areas are carefully cut out, making sure to capture healthy tissue, then the plant is well sprayed with a solution of fungicidal drug. But note that if you do not start watering the bush properly, the gray rot will reappear.

Pests

Damage to such a tree can be false mites and red spider mites.

As a rule, mites most often injure young shoots and foliage. To destroy them, use a solution of Celtan (2 grams per liter of water). It is recommended to spray the plant in the evening, because if the sun's rays hit the wet leaves, burns can form on them. After treatment, the product retains its activity for about 40 days, so re-treatment is not necessary. As a preventive measure, the bush should be systematically showered because mites do not breed in a humid environment.

Mite mites prefer to settle along the middle vein on the front surface of leaf plates. Carbophos solution (5 to 6 grams per 1 liter of water) is highly effective against this pest. The resulting solution is thoroughly sprayed on both sides of the leaves. To get rid of such a pest, one treatment will not be enough, it will take 2 or 3, with a break between procedures of 5-7 days.

Raising Feijoa

Feijoa: growing at home, useful properties

Feijoa reproduction uses the method of cuttings as well as generative (seed).

Semi-ripe shoots with 3 internodes are used to make cuttings. The cuttings should be treated with a product that promotes the formation of roots. They are planted in a light soil mixture, vermiculite, well-washed river sand, coconut soil, perlite or flower soil, combining it with vermiculite or perlite (1:1). On top of each cuttings are covered with a jar of glass or cut plastic bottle, and the container with them necessarily transferred to a warm place (23 to 25 degrees). The rooting process may take several months, and there is a good chance that some cuttings will not have roots.

Feijoa species and varieties

Feijoa: growing at home, useful properties

Feijoa varieties of foreign or Crimean selection are popular in middle latitudes among florists. For example:

  1. Superba. This plant has very large, fragrant fruits that are almost round in shape.
  2. Coolidge. This cultivar, created by foreign breeders, has oval-elongated fruits.

  3. Light. This variety is among the most popular. It has an oval-elongate or oval-round shape, with a dark green, bumpy rind and blush. As the berries ripen, their rind becomes lighter in color. The flesh of such fruits is very tasty and somewhat reminiscent of strawberries.

  4. Nikita. Externally, such a plant is similar to the variety Feijoa Blighty. The taste of the flesh of the berries is sweet and sour and refreshing.
  5. Bumpy. Few seeds in rounded, knobby berries.

  6. Early aromatic. The berries are covered by a smooth rind and their flesh is fragrant and tender, having a sweet and sour taste. Inside them are very many seeds.
  7. Firstborn 120. This medium-late variety has not very big, variously shaped berries, which are covered with a greenish-yellow skin.

    Inside the berries there are very many seeds.

Also popular with flower growers are such varieties as: Feijoa Nikitskaya 42, Nikitskaya 3, Crimean Early, Yalta, Andre and Choiseash.

Feijoa properties: harm and benefits

Beneficial properties of feijoa

Feijoa: growing at home, useful properties

Feijoa berries are very tasty and incredibly beneficial for the human body. They contain iodine, zinc, manganese, copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, calcium, sodium, malic and folic acids, essential oils with strawberry and pineapple scents, vitamins C, PP, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 and also easily digestible fats and proteins. These berries contain a lot of iodine, even more than seafood.

The greatest quantity of this element is present in those fruits, which have been grown on trees near the sea: 100 grams of such berries contains 35 mg of iodine, while the daily rate for an adult is only 0.15 mg.

Specialists recommend including feijoa in your diet for avitaminosis, atherosclerosis, colds, sluggish intestinal peristalsis, digestive diseases, gout, Graves' disease, constipation and pyelonephritis. They help to increase hemoglobin and lower cholesterol levels in the blood, as well as improving memory and blood composition.

The berries are also used externally, for example in face masks that nourish and rejuvenate the skin as well as soothe inflamed areas.

A third of the berries should be well crushed and combined with 2 large spoonfuls of cottage cheese, an egg yolk and 1 large spoonful of olive oil. This mixture is applied evenly to the face and neck and washed off after 3 hours.

Feijoa - benefits, recipes, HOW TO EAT FEYHOA

Contraindications

People suffering from obesity and diabetics should not eat feijoa as it contains a lot of sugar. Also, such fruits should not be eaten if they are individually intolerant to the product. With great caution they should be eaten by people who have hyperfunction of the thyroid gland.

Even if you have no contraindications, you should not eat too much feijoa at once, because it can cause palpitations, fever, anxiety, and in some cases a nervous breakdown. However, in some people overeating this product leads to a depressed state and a significant decrease in performance.

Cow's milk and this berry is better not to eat together. Children should not eat too much feijoa. Berries that have been stored for more than 7 days should not be eaten.

Cow's milk should not be eaten together..

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