Escholzia, also called California poppy, is a member of the poppy family. There are about 10 species in this genus. In the wild, this plant is found in western North America. There is an old legend that in the 16th century gold prospectors from Spain sailed ashore in hopes of finding gold mines. Before they had swum 35 miles to shore, they saw a golden glow and rushed to the coast of California, hoping it was glittering gold.
But disappointment awaited them, for it was the golden fields of escholtia. Since then, the plant has had a new jocular name given to it by the Spaniards, "Copa de Ora," which translates to "golden bowl." This flower was named after the Russian zoologist, botanist, naturalist and physician Johann Friedrich von Eschholz, thanks to whom it ended up in Russia. Herscholzia is incredibly beautiful and also differs in its unpretentiousness, that's why more and more gardeners grow it every year. Its flowering is very lush and long, it begins in the first days of summer, and ends practically at the beginning of winter.
Even though the opened flower fades after only 3-4 days, it is immediately replaced by several buds and florets.
Peculiarities of Esholtia
Esholtia is a herbaceous bushy perennial plant that can reach up to 0.4 m high. It is cultivated as an annual flower. The root is rod-shaped.
There is a large number of thin stems. The delicate leaf plates are deeply dissected, they are colored green-blue and have long petioles. The single cup-shaped flowers are up to 8 centimeters in diameter. Flowers may be tassels or simple, but they have a similar appearance to poppies. Their color can be yellow, red, white, orange and various shades of these colors.
These flowers have one peculiarity: on a cloudy, rainy, windy or cold day, as well as at night they are closed. The fruit is a box, the size of which varies from 3 to 9 centimeters.
Esholzia - the sun poppy . Features . Growing .
Growing escholtia from seed
Often seeds are sown immediately in open soil. Experienced gardeners recommend sowing escholtia under the winter. The fact is that in the winter months the seeds will be able to undergo natural stratification, and already in the spring powerful seedlings will appear, they will only need to be thinned. It should also be borne in mind that the plants sown in autumn, flowering begins earlier than those whose seeding was carried out in the spring. If you decide to sow in spring, in autumn the seeds should always be placed on the lowest shelf of the refrigerator, where they will stay until April.
This way they will undergo stratification and will preserve perfectly.
For sowing you should choose a well-lit area with sandy dry soil. Then not very deep furrows should be made in it, in which the small seeds, previously combined with sand, are sown. They should be shallowly embedded, and then the surface of the plot is covered with a layer of peat, this will help to avoid the appearance of a crust on the soil surface, which will be a serious obstacle to tender sprouts. If sowing is done in the fall, the site should be mulched with fallen leaves, and the layer should be thick enough.
Esholtia Sowing, Growing
Scientific gardeners recommend resorting to growing escholtia through seedlings. With this method of growing this plant, remember that it has a rod-like long root system that is extremely easy to injure during picking, so peat tablets are recommended for seeding. To do this, the tablets should be placed in a container of plastic in which water is poured. After the tablets have swollen, it is necessary to pour out the remaining liquid from the container. You should sow just 1 seed into 1 tablet, using a wet toothpick.
A thin layer of seedling soil is put on top of the seeds. The tablets need only a little moisture from a sprayer. The container should be covered with a transparent film or glass. The first seedlings can be seen after half a month, after which the cover is removed, and the container itself is placed in a well-lit and cool (no more than 20 degrees) place. Taking care of seedlings at this time is very simple: they need to be timely watered and make fertilizer liquid mineral fertilizer for seedlings in half a month after the plants will emerge.
Hardening seedlings should begin 20 days before transplanting into open soil, for this purpose once a day she was transferred into a cool room, where she must stay for several hours. If the Echscholzia is hardened, after planting in the garden it will be able to endure the temperature decrease to minus 5 degrees.
Planting Echscholzia in the open air
What time to plant
For planting Echscholzia, choose a site with sandy dry soil that is well drained, which should be slightly acidic or neutral. In case the soil is acidic, this can be corrected by digging it to the depth of the bayonet shovel, introducing 2 tbsp of wood ashes or 0,2 kg of dolomite flour per 1 m. Planting should be done after the threat of frost has passed completely, depending on the region from April to mid-May.
Performities for planting>
First of all, prepare not very large planting holes on the plot, and the distance between them should be about 0.3 m, as the Esholtia shrubs are rather spread out. Plants should be immersed in a hole together with a peat tablet, then it is filled with soil, which is well tamped. Planted plants should be watered. The flowering of such Esholtzia is already observed 30-40 days after its sowing in seedlings.
What to sow in May. Sowing Eshsholtia immediately in the ground
After planting Esholtia in the open soil, it will need systematic loosening of the soil surface, and you should also make fertilizers in time. Watering should be done only when there is a prolonged dry period. If it rains regularly in summer, they will not need watering. If you want the Aescholzia flowered very long and lush, then before the flowering period it should be fertilized with a full mineral fertilizer, which must include phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen and trace elements or you can use the infusion of ashes in the ratio of 1:10.
Do not feed these flowers fresh organic, because this can lead to their death. Remember that echscholzia is excellent self-sowing, if this is not part of your plans, you just need to promptly remove the flowers that have begun to fade. When the bush has completely finished flowering, all the old stems will be cut off and after a short time, the young ones will appear in their place and will bloom in just 15 to 20 days.
Diseases and pests
Remember that you have no problem growing this plant, you have to take good care of it and also provide the right conditions for its growth. For example, if you violate the rules of cultivation and care, bean aphids can settle on the bushes.
To get rid of it, it is necessary to treat the affected copies with Comandor. If the summer period is very hot and dry, then spider mites can settle on the escholtia. To get rid of these pests, use the insecticide Aktellik. If you water the plant very abundantly, then the roots and ground parts of the plant can become rotten. In this case, watering should be drastically reduced and all affected areas should be cut out.
If the flower is very badly affected by rot, the entire shrub will have to be dug up and destroyed. If the plant becomes infested with powdery mildew, it should be treated with sulfur.
Performities of Esholtia
From long ago, the above-ground parts of such a plant were used by the American Indians as an anesthetic for toothaches, with the pollen collected from its flowers being an excellent cosmetic. A decoction was made from the flowers of Esholtia, which was excellent for treatment of pediculosis. Today in the USA, preparations of this plant are used in pediatrics as a sedative and analgesic, while in France it is grown on an industrial scale and used as a raw material for the pharmaceutical industry.
One tangible advantage of such medications is the absence of unwanted side effects, which is very rare for benzodiazepine-type drugs.
Esholtia after flowering
If you decide to gather the seeds of Esholtia to sow them in the fall or spring, you do not have to, since these flowers propagate themselves very well. All you will need to do is to thin the seedlings in the spring and wait for a lush flowering. The seeds are needed if you are just starting to breed such a beautiful plant or decided to give them to someone. So that the seeds will not spill out on the ground, you should put bags made of gauze on a few wilting flowers.
Then you need to wait for about 4 weeks, as the seeds need to mature well. Then the capsules are cut off and the seeds are removed on a piece of newspaper at home. They should be well dried and placed in a bag made of paper, which is placed on the bottom shelf of the fridge, where the seeds will be stored until the spring. If done correctly, the seeds will remain germinating for three years.
Preparing for winter
Although there are perennial species of Esholtzia, in the middle latitudes these flowers are cultivated only as an annual or biennial.
In this regard, in the fall time you will need to cut down the remains of plants and make a dig over the site. In the spring of the plot will certainly appear strong seedlings. Thin them out and give them additional nutrients and you will enjoy another splendid and lush bloom after just 4 weeks.
Esholzia species and varieties with photos and names
Gardeners of middle latitudes usually cultivate only the sod, Californian and quite rarely the escholzia lobbi.
The bush reaches no more than 15 centimeters in height.
The pale yellow flowers are up to 20 mm in diameter.
Escholzia caespitosa (Eschscholzia caespitosa)
This species also does not exceed 15 centimeters in height. The leaf rosette is made up of triply dissected thin leaf laminae, with a waxy coating on their surface and a greenish-blue color. Above the rosette there is a dense inflorescence of cup-shaped, rich yellow flowers, about 30 mm in diameter. Flowering begins in June and ends before winter.
Escholzia californica (Eschscholzia californica)
This species is similar in appearance to the wild poppy, which is why it is called the "California poppy." This creeping, branched herbaceous shrub is a perennial, not exceeding 0.4 m in height. It has a large number of thin greenish-blue ribbed shoots that are placed on the stem. They are flanked by light bluish triply dissected leaf plates.
The solitary, cup-shaped flowers are about 9 centimeters in diameter and can be white, orange, yellow, cream or carmine colored. Flowering is very lush and occurs from June until the first frost. The most popular varieties:
- Strawberry Fields. Flowers are colored a deep red at the edges, which changes to yellow toward the middle.
- Peach Sorbet.
The mahre delicate flowers have a cream coloration.
- Simple flowers have a dark carmine coloration.
- Peach Sorbet. Fairly large, thickly-branched flowers have a coloration similar to apple blossom.
This is a seed mix of plants in a variety of colors and sizes and is recommended for decorating borders or lawns. Bushes can vary in height from 0.35 to 0.4m. The terry flowers have corrugated edges.
They may be colored in deep pink, red, yellow or white, combining several colors in one flower. Flowering begins in May and ends with the onset of frost.
- Balerina Mix. This mix consists of simple and terry varieties. The color of the flowers can be yellow, orange or pink.
Their diameter is 5-8 centimeters. The height of the bushes varies from 0.25 to 0.4 m. On the surface of the triply dissected leaf laminae, there is a patina of wax.
- Micado. The bush varies in height from 0.3 to 0.4 m. Simple flowers are 6-7 centimeters in diameter.
Their coloration is deep yellow, with a large orange spot in the middle.
The beautiful escholtia is the poppy of California.