The herbaceous annual plant dill (Anethum) is a member of the monotypic genus of the Umbrella family. This genus is represented by the species garden dill, or fragrant dill. Under natural conditions this plant can be found in southwestern or central Asia, in northern Africa and in the Himalayas. It is cultivated in all countries. As early as Ancient Egypt man was aware of the existence of fennel, however as a spice plant began to be used in European countries only in the 16th century.
Today, this unpretentious and hardy plant is very much in demand both medicinally and cookery-wise.
Brief description of growing
- Potting. Sow dill seeds in open soil in early spring, then it can be sown every 15 days. If dill is grown indoors, it can be sown at any time. Seeds of bush dill are sown for seedlings in March, and transplanted into open soil after 4 weeks and a little.
- Brightness. Shaded or sunny site.
- Ground. Well fertilized loose neutral soil.
Water frequently, twice a day on hot days, taking 2-3 buckets of water per square meter of plot.
- Fertilizer. If dill is grown in pre-fertilized soil, it does not need to be fertilized. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers should be applied to depleted soil, and fermented nettle infusion is used for this purpose.
The generative (seed) method.
- Infectious insects. Umbrella mites, Italian bugs (striped scutes), carrot leafminers and flies, melon, willow and carrot aphids.
- Diseases. Blackleg, powdery mildew, fusarium, fomosis, cercosporosis and rust.
Dill is an herbaceous plant with a powerful spicy flavor. The single straight stem varies in height from 0.4 to 1.5 m, its dark green surface is thinly bearded. Leaf blades are ovate, split into 3 or 4 parts, the lobules of the last order are linear and twisted or bristle-shaped.
Umbels reach 20-90 mm in cross-section and consist of yellow flowers, which are combined in umbrella-like inflorescences 15-20 cm in diameter. The fruit is an ovipositor. The seeds are ovoid or broadly elliptical in shape and up to 0.5 cm long and 0.35 cm thick.
Flowering begins in June or July and ripening takes place from July to September.
Sow UKROP outdoors
When to sow
The first time seeds should be sown in the open ground in early spring. In order to have fresh dill greens on the table in spring, summer and fall, gardeners often resort to the conveyor method of sowing, whereby the seeds should be sown once every 10-12 days from the beginning of spring until the last days of August.
If sowing dill is planned for spring, then the site preparation should be done already in the fall time. However, organic fertilizers (manure) are best applied under dill predecessors, not under this crop.
In this case, the best predecessors of dill are beets, beans, cabbage and cucumbers. Those areas, where previously grew members of the Umbrella family (parsley, fennel, carrots, caraway and parsnip), for the cultivation of dill are not suitable. It is not advisable to grow it next to parsley or carrots. Garlic and dill are best grown side by side. Dill also grows very well next to potatoes.
In early spring, before sowing the seeds, the soil should be loosened with a rake and 15-20 grams of potassium salt, the same amount of urea and 20-30 grams of superphosphate per one square meter should be added.
Sowing material needs pre-sowing preparation, so it should be covered with water for 3-4 hours, during this time it should be changed several times, this will remove substances from the seeds that help to retard their germination. Then the seeds are kept in a solution of strong manganese potassium for a couple of hours. After that it should be well washed and dried. Then the seeds are sown into furrows, the depth of which should be about 20 mm, and the distance between them should be 15 to 20 centimeters.
Distribute the seeds in the furrow so that the distance between them should be 10 to 20 mm, then the seeds should be embedded and the bed watered.
Seed germination is observed at a temperature of 5 degrees, so that the seedlings appear as soon as possible, the plot surface should be covered with agrospan. The first shoots should appear after 7-14 days.
Growing dill on a windowsill
What time should dill be sown indoors? In this case, you can sow dill at any time of the year. But if you want fragrant fresh herbs in winter as well, then you need to know which variety to sow.
For growing in room conditions, early bush varieties of dill such as Grenadier, Gribovsky and Richelieu are best suited.
Seeds need the same preliminary preparation as when sowing in open soil. Deepen the seeds into the substrate for 10-20 mm, and for sowing use large containers, on the bottom of which make a drainage layer, and from above it is covered with moistened soil mixture, which consists of coconut fiber and biohumus (2:1). Then the container should be covered with foil or glass, then it is removed to a dark place. Seedlings should be regularly aired, and the cover should be timely removed from the condensate.
The first seedlings should appear after 15 days. When this happens, remove the cover and put it in a well-lit place.
Rules of care in the room
Bulky seedlings should always be thinned out as this plant reacts very negatively to crowding. It is best to put 20 to 30 mm between the plants. The room should be cool, because in the heat the seedlings can stretch out.
After the seedlings show up, the temperature in the room should be reduced by 2 degrees for 7 days. To do this, the seedlings can be moved to an insulated balcony. When 7 days pass, the temperature should be raised to 15-18 degrees. This temperature is optimal for growing dill. At a time when the nights are longer than days to this plant, grown on a windowsill, you need to provide additional afterlight.
For this purpose, over a container with dill set fluorescent lamp power of 40-80 W at a distance of about 0.6 m. The plants should be re-illuminated in the early morning for 5-6 hours.
How to water
As this crop reacts very negatively to chlorine, water settled for 24 hours at room temperature or slightly warmer. But it is better to water the plants with water passed through a magnet or melted.
Note that the substrate in the container should be constantly loose and slightly moist. Do not allow water to stagnate in the soil mixture, because of this blackleg can develop. This indoor plant should be kept moist with a sprinkler, particularly if there is a container with dill next to a heater.
Fertilize the plants once every 2 weeks using a mild solution of complex mineral fertilizer (e.g.
Raduga or Ideal). Remember that if you add too much fertilizer to the substrate, the young dill will die. Before you start fertilizing, the plants are watered, and after it, it is recommended to spray them with clean water, this will avoid the appearance of burns on the leaf plates. You can also use foliar fertilizers to fertilize dill, but in this case, the concentration of the nutrient solution should be very, very weak.
How to grow dill at home - an easy way to plant dill on the windowsill
Growing dill in the open soil
How to sow dill seeds in the open soil is described in detail above.
In this section, we will talk about how to properly plant seedlings of this plant in a bed. Specialists recommend bush varieties of dill to grow exclusively through seedlings, also this method will allow you to get an early harvest.
Sowing seeds for seedlings is carried out in March, it should be raised on a window sill or in the greenhouse. Four to five weeks later, the plants are transplanted into open soil, and they should develop 3 to 5 true leaflets. Planting is carried out on a cloudy day or in the evening, as direct sunlight can harm the seedlings.
In order not to thin dill, when planting between bushes, you should keep a distance of 0.2 to 0.3 m, and the distance between the rows should be about the same. When the plants are planted, the soil should not be compacted too much, and the bed should be watered, after which its surface is mulched with dry soil. The planted seedlings should be protected from direct sunlight for a few days.
After the flower-bearing shoots begin to form, it is recommended to remove them, so that the growth of the side branches will increase.
Growing this crop in an open soil is very easy. It is enough to water, feed, weed and thin out the seedlings in time, and loosen the surface of the bed regularly. The soil on the plot should be loosened to a depth of five centimeters, and this should be done immediately after the seedlings are fully rooted. The next couple of loosening shall be done with an interval of 15 days, do it after rain or watering, and loosen the soil to a depth of 10 to 12 centimeters.
While the plants are young it is very important to remove weeds from the bed in time. Once the bushes have grown and become stronger, the weeds can no longer do them any real harm.
How to water
The watering of dill should be systematic and frequent as otherwise the bushes lose their taste and turn yellow and sometimes have no medicinal effect. On hot days, watering should be carried out 2 times a day. If you can, you should get an automatic watering system.
Water one square meter of the bed with 2-3 buckets of water.
Feed the dill with nitrogen fertilizer, but remember that it can accumulate nitrates, so it is best to use nettle infusion fermented for 5 days as fertilizer. This fertilizer will not only saturate the plant with nitrogen, but will also kill the aphids. It is not recommended to use insecticide preparations for dill processing, especially when there will be less than 15 days before harvesting.
If necessary, 10 to 15 grams of potassium-phosphorus fertilizer per square meter of area.
How and when to pick dill seeds
After the seeds dry, they become like flat discs of brown color and can be very easily separated from the umbrella. When this happens, they can be harvested. They will remain germinating for three or four years. When the seeds have been gathered, they should be laid out to dry out in a well-ventilated dry place so that they become perfectly dry.
What can be grown after dill
A bed in which dill was grown is suitable for growing such crops as: garlic, peas, tomatoes, onions, beans and potatoes.
Such a plot is not suitable for growing members of the Umbrella (Celery) family, as they have common pests and diseases. These plants can only be sown in this area after 4 or 5 years, just like dill.
Sowing dill My secrets for growing dill Fresh herbs from May to October
Pests and diseases of dill with pictures and names
Dill is very disease resistant but can suffer even more if not properly cared for or not following the proper growing techniques. Bush plants may get powdery mildew, fomosis, rust, blackleg, fusarium or cercosporosis.
Young plants suffering from blackleg tenderness have a damaged root neck so that it turns black, softens, becomes thin and rots.
Plants fall down and then wither. As a rule, they fall ill because of violations of the rules of care, such as excessive watering, stagnant air, sudden changes in temperature, lack of light or growing in a shady place. As soon as the first symptoms of the disease are noticed, the bushes should be sprayed with Fundazole.
Mildew affects the above-ground parts of the bushes and produces a whitish film. The disease is most active on hot days with high air humidity.
Affected plants will need a treatment with colloidal sulfur.
False powdery mildew (peronosporosis) causes chlorotic spots to appear on the above-ground parts of the bush, gradually turning brown with a distinctly dirty purple coating on its lower surface. At the first symptoms of the disease the bushes are sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%) or copper chloroxide (40 grams per 1 bucket of water).
Brown spots appear on shoots, leaves and inflorescences if affected by phomosis; the root system also suffers from it, with dark stripes on its surface which are arranged in rows. As a preventive measure before sowing, warm the seeds for 30 minutes in hot water, then immediately immerse them in cold water, after which they should be dried to a loose condition.
Sick bushes should be treated with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%). If necessary, dill can be sprayed with this mixture several times with a break of 10-12 days. However, the last time the bushes should be treated no later than half a month before harvesting. Before eating or processing such dill, the greens should be thoroughly washed in running water.
When a plant is sick with cercosporosis, brown-yellow dirty spots appear on the surface of inflorescences and shoots, reaching 0.
6 centimeters across, as the disease progresses their middle becomes pale, while the edge remains dark brown. To get rid of this disease, the same treatments must be used as for spraying against fomosis.
Fusarium wilt develops on bushes during the formation of the 3-4 true leaf plates. Chlorotic spots form on the surface of the plants, then they droop. The disease develops quickly if the soil gets too hot or waterlogged, or if the root system is injured during hoeing.
The bushes can be cured only at an early stage of disease development, and a solution of a fungicide is used for spraying. Severely affected bushes should be uprooted and destroyed. To prevent this, you should follow the rules of dill crop rotation and choose varieties that are resistant to Fusarium wilt.
If dill is affected by rust during the first summer weeks, brownish-yellow cushions form on the underside of leaves, petioles, and shoots. In order to prevent this, before sowing, the seeds should be heated in water heated to 50 degrees, then they should be immediately immersed in cold water, after which they are dried.
Sick bushes will need several treatments with a break of 10-12 days, for this use a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%). The last time the plants should be treated no later than 2 weeks before harvesting. The greens should be rinsed well under running water before processing or eating.
HOW TO PROTECT UKROP FROM FELT //Garden care
Pests of dill
Most commonly dill is infested by gutterbugs, Italian bedbugs or striped shields, carrot leafminer, carrot fly, melon fly, willow and carrot aphid.
The carrot fly injures the above-ground part of the bush, causing it to lag behind in development, with the leaves turning purple-red in the beginning, then turning yellow and withering.
Most often pests settle on those dill bushes that are near the bed with carrots, because such a pest is attracted by the aroma of carrot tops. To protect bushes from such flies, it is necessary to cover the soil surface along the rows with a layer of sand mixture, in which mustard powder, dry peat, hot ground pepper or wood ashes are added. If the carrot fly still appeared, plants should be treated with the following products: Arrivo, Vantex or Karate Zeon. Spray the bushes at least half a month before harvesting.
Umbrellflies are small bugs affecting all members of the Celery family, both wild and cultivated.
This pest feeds on the juice of the plant, which it sucks from leaves, umbrellas and stems, resulting in the death of greens. On those beds where blindflies are present, the yield of bushes is reduced by 30-40 percent. To get rid of such pests, the bushes should be sprayed with a solution of Fytoverm or Aktellik.
Italian Bugs behave exactly the same way as Umbrella Bugs and do the same damage. In a single season in a warm area, such pests can produce 2 generations.
But such a bug can strongly harm dill only if there are a large number of individuals on the bed. In such cases, the bushes should be sprayed with a solution of Actellic or Fytoverm.
Dill can be harmed by 3 types of aphids: Willow-marrot, carrot and melon aphids. All of them feed on sap that they suck from above-ground parts of bushes, as a result they suffer stunting, deformation, shriveling, yellowing and withering. It should be remembered that such a pest is the main carrier of viral and bacterial diseases, which today are considered incurable.
To begin with, the pests are removed from the bushes with a powerful stream of water, then conduct foliar feeding, using a solution of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer. 1 bucket of water should be combined with 3 kilograms of wood ash, when the mixture has infused for 24 hours, 1 large spoon of liquid soap should be dissolved in it, then it should be strained and used to spray the bushes. Wash the mixture off the surface of the plants after 7 days with clean water.
All dill varieties are distinguished by specialists according to the length, width and shape of the leaf plate segments, the shape of the rosette, and the degree of dissection and color of the leaves. Inexperienced gardeners are most often guided by the following trait - the beginning of stem formation, according to this varieties are divided into early-ripening, medium-ripening and late-ripening.
Dill, which variety to choose!?"
- Gribovsky. This productive variety is undemanding in its care. It can be grown in open soil and in room conditions. This fragrant variety has a very high resistance to disease. The bushes are about 25 centimeters tall.
- Farmer. This variety is characterized by high yield and resistance to lodging. This dill is grown for freezing, eating, it is dried and used for making brines and marinades. The formation of the rosette occurs 38-40 days after the seedlings appear. There is not much wax on the surface of the green leaf plates.
- Aurora. This yielding variety appeared relatively recently, it is resistant to pests and diseases, and ripens after 25 days. The powerful bush has a lush rosette and close internodes, and the rich green, fragrant foliage is very succulent.
- Grenadier. This bush variety ripens in 35-40 days from seedling emergence.
The bushes are most fragrant in the phase of development of 3 or 4 leaf plates.
- Umbrella. This variety also appeared not so long ago and has the same ripening time as the Gribov variety. Specialists recommend, this variety to be used for growing in the greenhouse.
The bush has thick branches and long leafy plates, such greens are eaten both fresh and used as a spice.
- Borea. This bush variety is fragrant and yielding. The semi-raised rosettes are about 36 centimeters tall and include large green leaf plates with a bluish tint. The bushes mature in 40-60 days from the time of sowing, and the seeds mature after 65-105 days.
- Richelieu. This variety is ornamental and resistant to disease. The large rosettes consist of fragrant beautiful lacy greenish-blue leaf plates that have long lobes. During flowering, the shoots have the greatest amount of foliage.
This variety has a high yield and resistance to powdery mildew. It can be cultivated both in the greenhouse and in open soil. The greens do not mature more than 45 days after seedlings appear, and the seeds ripen after 70 days. The greenish juicy and fragrant foliage is very tender.
The bush variety has leaf plates that are raised above the surface of the ground, this is very convenient during harvesting. Ripening of greens occurs on 42-45 days after seedlings appear, but cutting greens for food can be done earlier as well.
- Lesnogorodsky. This variety, characterized by its high yield and resistance to disease, has one peculiarity, so that on the bushes in the autumn time, when the maturation of seeds is observed, the foliage is still fragrant large and green, and it contains a large amount of provitamin A and vitamin C.
Late maturing varieties
This bush variety is characterized by its yield, the bushes reach about one and a half meters in height, and they ripen in 35-45 days. The thickly-foliated stem is very strong. The foliage is very fragrant, dark green with a bluish tint, it is large and delicate. This variety is valuable because the foliage grows very quickly after cutting and the umbrellas form slowly.
The variety is disease-resistant and is grown in open soil through seedlings. The succulent bushes do not become coarse for a long time, while there is a strong waxy patina on the surface of the fragrant leaves.
- Frost. The variety, notable for its yield, is used for canning and freezing, as well as for eating fresh. Strongly foliaged plants have large umbrellas and a raised rosette consisting of long green-blue heavily dissected leaf plates with a waxy patina on the surface.
- Mischief. A fragrant variety that is notable for its yield, it has green-blue foliage with a waxy patina on the surface. The greens are most often used for eating fresh, but can also be used as a spice to dishes.
- Kutuzovsky. This variety ripens 41-44 days after seedlings show.
The tender fragrant and large foliage is greenish in color, it reaches about 20 centimeters in length and is split into thread-shaped segments. The bushes are strongly pubescent. They are grown for drying, freezing, as a spice and for making brine and marinades.
Properties of Dill
Benefits of Dill
Dill can be eaten all year round. It contains substances the human body needs such as: nicotinic and ascorbic acids, carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, pectins, flavonoids, vitamins A, B2, B6, C, PP as well as potassium, iron, phosphorus and calcium.
The fruits contain a high concentration of fatty oil consisting of palmethic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid.
The essential oil, which has a characteristic aroma of dill, contains all parts of the plant. The leaves contain magnesium and iron salts in an easily assimilated form that enhances hematopoiesis. And included essential oil helps stimulate the formation of digestive enzymes and bile, and they also disinfect the organs of the digestive and urogenital systems. The medical industry makes a drug called Anethine from this plant, it helps stimulate the heart muscle and also dilates the blood vessels of the brain and heart, as a result their nutrition increases several times.
This plant is very useful for women breast-feeding because it helps stimulate lactation. Dill is also recommended for hypertension, respiratory problems and visual impairment. It also has diuretic, sedative and antispasmodic effects, and analgesic properties for stomach or duodenal ulcers. Dill seeds are used to make an infusion, which stimulates the appetite, improves digestion, and it also eliminates inflammation of the kidneys and helps to get rid of insomnia. Mix 2 tbsp.
just boiling water with 2 tsp. dill seeds, cover the container and wait 10 minutes. The infusion should be strained and drink 1 tbsp. a day. This remedy has a strong anti-allergenic and anti-hemorrhoidal effect, and it is also used as an external wound-healing.
Also very popular is the powder made from the seeds of this plant, which enhances lactation. It is eaten 3 times a day with 1 gram 30 minutes before a meal. Infusion of leaves eliminates bags under the eyes, for this soaked discs of absorbent cotton should be put on the eyes for 10 minutes. Dill oil is good for bronchitis and pneumonia, thanks to it there is a rapid separation of mucus from the bronchial walls. For the elimination of gas in infants, dill water is used to prepare it by combining water and dill oil in a ratio of 1000:1.
This remedy also helps to lower blood pressure, increase diuresis, slow down intestinal peristalsis and dilate blood vessels.
Dill. Health benefits and harms.
Eating dill is okay for everyone because it cannot harm anyone. However, remedies made from it that help lower blood pressure cause weakness, visual impairment, loss of strength, and sometimes fainting in hypotensive people.
It is also contraindicated for those who have an intolerance to dill. It is recommended to eat such greens as rarely as possible for pregnant women and women during menstruation, but it is not necessary to give them up completely..