Delphinium: Planting And Care In The Open Field, Growing From Seed, Species And Varieties Of Photos And Names

This herbaceous plant, Delphinium, is directly related to the buttercup family. It is also called spurge or larkspur. This genus is represented by annuals and perennials and includes about 450 different species. Annual plants, of which there are about 40 species, are sometimes allocated in a related genus and called in this case sokirkami (Consolida). In China you can find about 150 species of delphiniums in the wild.

They also occur throughout Southeast Asia, in the Southern and Northern Hemisphere, in the mountains of tropical Africa. A large number of people tend to believe that while the flowers are in the unopened state, the inflorescence itself resembles the head of a dolphin, hence the name of the flower. But there is also an opinion that the delphinium was named after the ancient Greek city of Delphi, because there were so many of them growing there. This plant has gained great popularity among gardeners.

Peculiarities of delphinium

Delphinium: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed, species and varieties of photos and names

Growing this beautiful flower is quite difficult and you will need some knowledge for this.

Regarding the choice of site for planting, it should definitely be exposed to sunlight before lunch, and not exposed to strong gusts of wind. Also, it should be placed in a place where there is no stagnant water, as the plant can become rotten because of this. When the plant is planted, make sure to cover the soil with a layer of mulch (humus or peat). These flowers in the same place can be cultivated no longer than 5-6 years, and the Pacific species - no more than 3-4 years. After that, the bushes should be dug up, divided and transplanted.

Their hollow shoots need to be tied up several times a season, because they can be injured by gusts of wind. This plant can get powdery mildew, and pests can settle on it. If the delphinium is cared for properly, its spectacular and quite abundant flowering can be admired in June. The plant will flower for the second time in August or September, but this time the flowering period will not last long.

How to grow delphinium from seeds.

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Main species and varieties with photos and names

Differentiate between delphinium annuals and perennials. The most popular annuals are the Ajax delphinium and the field delphinium.

Field delphinium (Delphinium consolida)

Delphinium: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed, species and varieties of photos and names

This flower differs in that it can reach up to 2 meters in height. The inflorescences consist of either mahogany or simple flowers, which can be colored white, blue, pink, and lilac. It has been cultivated since 1572.

The most beautiful varieties are Frosted Sky - its blue flowers have white central part, Qis Rose - light pink flowers as well as Qis Dark Blue with dark blue flowers. Flowering begins in the first days of summer and continues until fall.

Delphinium: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed, species and varieties of photos and names

Delphinium Ajaxa

Delphinium: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed, species and varieties of photos and names

This hybrid plant was created by crossing Oriental Delphinium and Doubtful Delphinium, and it got their best qualities from them. The shoots vary in height from 40 to 100 centimeters. The strongly dissected leaf plates are almost sessile.

The spike-shaped inflorescences are up to 30 centimeters long and can be colored in a variety of colors: red, pink, white, purple, blue, and blue. There are varieties with thickly flushed flowers. There are dwarf varieties, for example, Dwarf Hyacinth-flowered - the bush reaches 30 centimeters in height and has a macerated pink, white, purple and crimson flowers. Flowering of this variety begins in July and lasts until frost.

Delphinium: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed, species and varieties of photos and names

Cultivation of delphinium perennials began in the 19th century.

Breeders, crossing the first perennials Delphinium tallum (Delphinium elatum) and Delphinium grandiflora (Delphinium grandiflora), obtained several of the first hybrid plants, namely Delphinium Barlowii (Delphinium Barlowii), Delphinium beautiful (Delphinium formosum) and Delphinium belladonna (Delphinium belladonna). Later, the French breeder V. Lemoine developed perennial varieties with blue, purple and lavender flowers, and they were called "hybrid" (Delphinium hybridum) or beautiful (Delphinium ornatum), and some time later they were called "cultural" (Delphinium cultorum). Today the flowers of delphinium perennial can be painted in a variety of colors, of which there are about 800. There are low-, high- and medium-growing varieties, whose flowers can be superflowered, macro, simple and semi-flowered and their diameter can be 2-9 centimeters.

Delphinium: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed, species and varieties of photos and names

The perennial hybrid plants are divided into groups according to their place of origin. The most popular are New Zealand Delphiniums (New Millennium Delphiniums, or New Zealand Hybrids), Scottish (F1 hybrids) and Mafino hybrids, named after Mafino State Farm. Each of the groups has its own distinctive features and positive aspects. For example, the Marfinsky ones have a very beautiful appearance, and are also distinguished by excellent frost resistance, and they also have quite large semi-major flowers with eyes painted in a rich contrasting color (varieties: "Morpheus", "Pink Sunset", "Blue Lace", "Spring Snow"). However, seeds are not suitable for the cultivation of Marfa delphinium, because in this case the varietal traits are not preserved.

Delphinium: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed, species and varieties of photos and names

The New Zealand group has recently been formed. The plants belonging to it are quite tall and can reach a height of about 220 centimeters. They are quite large (about 7-9 centimeters in diameter), either tumbled or semi-tumbled. There are species with corrugated petals. These hybrid plants are frost-resistant and disease-free, and they are also long-lived and ideal for cutting.

Because of this, these delphiniums are most popular with gardeners at this time. If you're in the fresh-flower trade, New Zealand delphiniums can be a big money maker. The varieties most popular are Sunny Skies, Green Twist, Pagan Purples, Blue Lace, Sweethearts.

Delphinium: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed, species and varieties of photos and names

T. Coakley was the creator of hybrid Scottish perennial delphiniums.

These hybrid plants have terry and superflowers with strongly dense inflorescences. In some cases there are up to 58 petals per flower. The shrub is about 110-150 centimeters high with an inflorescence length of 80 centimeters. The flowers can be colored in a variety of color shades. They are long-lived, unpretentious in care and, when grown from seed, retain the features of the parent plant.

The most popular varieties are Morning Sunrise, Blueberry Pie, Moon Light, Sweet Sensation, Crystal Delight and Depest Pink.

Delphinium: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed, species and varieties of photos and names

The best varieties of perennial Delphinium in the garden

Growing delphinium from seed

Sowing

Delphinium: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed, species and varieties of photos and names

Growing delphinium from seed is much cheaper and easier than buying ready-made planting material. In addition to seeds, this plant can be propagated by budding, dividing the bush and by cuttings.

Sowing the seeds should be done in the last days of February. Note that if the seeds have been stored in warm temperatures and low humidity, their germination may be quite low.

It is advisable to place fresh seeds in a refrigerator shelf for storage or to sow them immediately after harvesting.

Before sowing, the seeds should be disinfected.They are poured into a bag made of gauze and placed for one-third hour in a solution of potassium manganese, which should be dark pink in color. Also for this purpose, a fungicidal agent will do, and the solution is prepared according to the instructions enclosed with it. Without taking the seeds out of the bag, you need to rinse them thoroughly in cold running water, and then for 24 hours immerse them in a solution of epin (2 drops of the product per half glass of water).

Then the seeds should be dried.

To prepare a suitable soil mixture, combine garden soil, peat, compost (humus) and washed sand in the proportion 2:2:2:1. Sift well. For the substrate to be more friable and moisture-absorbing, it is recommended to pour a little perlite into it, namely, for 5 liters of soil take ½ of a glass of the substance. Then the earth mixture for 60 minutes heated in a water bath for sterilization.

Pour the prepared soil into the container to be sown and tamp it down gently.

Sow the seeds by distributing them over the surface of the soil. To avoid confusion, affix the label with the name and the sowing date to the container. Sprinkle a 3 mm layer of substrate over the seeds and gently tamp it down. Water very gently (you can use a sprayer) with cold, boiled water.

Cover the top of the container with a lid, which must be transparent, and on top of it put a black film (covering material). The fact is that in the dark, the sprouts will appear much faster. Place the container on the window sill next to the glass. The seeds germinate best at 10-15 degrees. To significantly increase the germination of seeds, the container 3-4 days after sowing is recommended to put on a glazed balcony or on a refrigerator shelf (frosts to minus 5 degrees are not dangerous to them).

After half a month, the container is again transferred to the window. Wait 7-14 days, and you will see the first shoots, and then you must necessarily remove the cover from the container. Water regularly and do not allow the soil to dry out completely. Ventilate the planting without condensation. Sow Delphinium in Jar.

Seeding

Delphinium: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed, species and varieties of photos and names

If the sprouts are healthy, they are dark green in color, powerful, and the seedlings have distinctive sharpening. After the formation of 2-3 true leaf plates, the picking is done in containers, which should be 200-300 milligrams in volume. After that, they should be grown at a temperature of no more than 20 degrees. The soil needs loose and well permeable air. Watering should be careful and extremely moderate, the fact is that overwatering can promote the appearance of such a disease as blackleg.

From the first days of May must begin to accustom the seedlings to the outdoor air, for this purpose, when you open the window to air, the container with the plants from the window sill is not removed. You should also accustom delphiniums and sunlight. To do this, they need to put them in a sunlit place for a while. Seedlings should be fertilized 1 or 2 times at intervals of half a month, for this use "Solvent" or "Agricola," and make sure that the fertilizer did not get on the surface of the leaves. When the seedlings grow up, they should be transplanted into open soil.

When the ball of earth is completely covered with roots it will be very easy to take it out of the pot.

Putting in the open soil

Delphinium: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed, species and varieties of photos and names

After the frost has stopped, you can plant the delphiniums in the garden. Do not forget that a suitable area for planting should always be sunny in the morning and there should not be any stagnant water in the soil. Between bushes should be kept at a distance of 60 to 70 centimeters, and you need to prepare a hole that is half a meter deep and about 40 centimeters in diameter. In each hole should be poured ½ of a bucket of compost (humus), a couple of big spoons of complex fertilizer, as well as a full glass of wood ash.

Then everything should be mixed with the soil so that the fertilizer is not on the root system of the plant, as they can leave a burn. After that, it is necessary to transplant the delphinium seedling into the hollow prepared in advance, cover it with soil and tamp it down. Water the plant. For the first time, it is recommended to cover the plant with a cut plastic bottle or glass jar for better rooting. Once it starts to grow actively, you have to take it away.

Care for delphinium

Delphinium: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed, species and varieties of photos and names

After the stems have reached 10-15 cm, you should fertilize the plant with a solution of cow manure (mix 100 liters of water for 5 adult bushes with 1 bucket of fertilizer). After weeding and loosening the soil, sprinkle its surface with a layer of mulch (peat or humus), which should be about 3 cm. After the shoots have grown to 20-30 centimeters it is necessary to thin out the bushes. So, you need to select 3 to 5 strong stems, and remove the rest, with the inflorescences will become much larger and more effective. It is necessary to remove the less strong stems, and they should be broken or cut at the surface of the ground.

Also this procedure helps to protect the bush and better ventilation. Cuttings can be planted for rooting, but only those that are cut with a heel and are not hollow. It is necessary to make a treatment of the cut with a mixture consisting of crushed tablet heteroauxin and charcoal. Plant the cuttings in sand mixed with peat, and cover them with cling film. Rooting of the cuttings will occur after 3-6 weeks and after half a month it can be planted in open soil.

After the bush has grown to 40-50 centimetres, three laths (support bars) should be carefully dug around it, which should be 1.8 m high. Tie the shoots of the plant to them, using strips or strips of cloth, so they will not cut into the stem during strong gusts of wind. When the shoots will be 1-1.2 m tall, they should be tied up a second time.

Delphinium: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed, species and varieties of photos and names

At a time of intensive growth, each bush needs about 6 buckets of water. If the summer is dry, 20-30 liters of water should be poured under each bush once every 7 days. After the soil dries out, its top layer should be loosened to a depth of 3 to 5 centimeters. When the inflorescences are formed, the plants should be provided with good watering. If there is a lot of heat at this time, gaps (areas with no flowers) may appear on the inflorescences.

To prevent this, you need to abundantly water the delphinium, and also feed it with phosphorus-potassium fertilizer (20 grams of substance per 10 liters of water). Take 1 liter of nutrient solution per bush.

Delphinium: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed, species and varieties of photos and names

From the middle of summer, delphinium can become ill with powdery mildew (a whitish scum appears on the leaves, turning brown with time). If delayed, the entire part of the flower above the ground may shrivel up. If you suspect the plant is infested, treat with a solution of Fundazole or Topaz (2 times at intervals).

Black spots may appear on the leaves, which spread from the bottom of the bush to the top. Thus, the black spot appears. It can be treated only at the very beginning of its development. To do this, you need to make a double treatment of the plant with a solution of tetracycline (1 tablet per 1 liter of water). When ring spotting occurs, the leaf plates are covered with yellow spots.

Such a viral disease is incurable, the flower should be destroyed as soon as possible. The carrier of such a virus is aphids, and therefore, for preventive purposes, it is recommended to treat flowers with a solution of Actellic or carbophos. Such an insect as a delphinium fly, produces a clutch of eggs in the flowers of the plant, and still the flower can damage the slugs. The flies can be repelled by insecticide and slugs can be repelled by placing jars of bleach between the bushes.

When flowering ends, cut off the inflorescences and collect seeds if necessary.

Then young stems emerge and in autumn a second flowering is observed. Between the 1st and 2nd flowering, the bush can be divided (in the last days of summer or the first days of autumn). The shrub should be more than 3-4 years old. It should be dug out and either carefully cut open with a sharp knife or split up. Make sure that the buds are not damaged.

Treat the cuttings with wood ash and plant the dividers.

Delphinium after flowering

Delphinium: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed, species and varieties of photos and names

When the leaves have dried, the shoots should be cut back to a height of 30-40 centimeters from the surface of the ground. At the same time, it is recommended to coat the top of the hollow shoot with clay, which will prevent liquid from getting into it and rotting the root system. Almost all species of delphinium are frost-resistant (both young and adult specimens). If the winter period with little snow and frosty, then the delphinium should be covered with straw or lapnuts.

Delphinium can die just from the frequent and abrupt changes in temperature, because there are high humidity, and it rots. To prevent water stagnation in the soil, ½ part of a bucket of sand should be poured into the bottom of the planting hole during planting.

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