The cyclamen is a member of the primrose family. This genus includes from 20 to 55 species. In nature, the flower is found in the Mediterranean and Central Europe, as well as in Asia Minor.
The representatives of this genus are herbaceous perennial plants. The thick root has a tuberous form.
The green leaflets growing from the root have long petioles, in some cases ornamented with a silvery pattern. Drooping flowers are formed on tall flower stalks. Flowering is observed in winter or spring, it depends on the species. Cyclamen at home cultivation is quite easy, and one bush will please you with its blossoms for many years. However, before you grow such a flower, you should consider that normally grow and flower it will only grow in coolness, if the room is hot, then his foliage will fall off, and flowering will stop.
Thanks to plant breeders, there are now many varieties of cyclamen, some of which are perfectly suited to indoor cultivation.
Cyclamen cultivation summary
- Flowering. Generally from the last days of October to March.
- Brightness. Light diffused but bright.
- Temperature. In summer, 20-25 degrees and in winter, 10-14 degrees.
- Watering. The lower method of watering is used. During the flowering period water abundantly, and the soil should be a little damp all the time.
When flowering is over, reduce the frequency and the abundance of watering gradually, and after the leaves are completely dried up, moisten the soil mixture only to keep it completely dry.
- Air humidity. It must be high. Before the buds appear, cyclamen should be moistened systematically with warm water from a sprayer. And after the buds are formed and during flowering, the plant together with the flower pot should be placed on a tray filled with damp pebbles.
- Fertilizer. From the time the leaves begin to appear until the buds form, the flower should be fertilized once every 4 weeks with a complex fertilizer for ornamental and deciduous plants. And after the formation of buds and up to the end of flowering, fertilizing is carried out the same way once a month, but for this use fertilizer for flowering house plants.
- Period of rest. Usually in May-June.
- Potting. The plant is transplanted every year just after the tuber has foliage.
- Mixed soil. Peat, humus and sand are taken one part each, and leaf soil 2 to 3 parts.
By tubers and by seed.
- Pests. Grape weevils and cyclamen mites.
- Diseases. Gray rot.
Also problems with the plant can arise if it is not properly cared for or not provided with optimal growth conditions.
- Properties. The tubers of such a plant contain poisonous sap and may cause diarrhea, vomiting and cramps.
Cyclamen care secrets - All will do
Home care for cyclamen
The proper lighting is required for cyclamen to grow and develop fully. A western or eastern window sill is best for this flower.
Direct sun rays can damage the plant, so if you have to put it on a southern window sill, place it away from the window or shade it. A northern window is not suitable for the flower, since there is very little light there.
In winter, normal development and lush flowering of the cyclamen are only possible if the air temperature is between 10-14 degrees. In the warm season, the optimal temperature for such a plant is 20-25 degrees.
Pouring the flower should be done with soft water, which is 2 degrees below room temperature.
It should be filled into a container 24 hours before watering and allowed to stand well. Throughout the flowering period, watering should be abundant. Do not allow the substrate in the pot to dry out, and make sure that it does not stagnate liquid. Lower watering (through a tray) is good for the cyclamen as this will prevent water from getting onto the tuber, core and buds of the bush. When the plant is watered, be sure to pour out the excess water from the tray after 2-3 hours.
When flowering is finished, watering should be reduced, and when the foliage has completely dried up and the tuber is bare, watering should be very sparing and sparse.
In order to increase the humidity, the bush is moistened with a sprinkler using rainwater or well-drained water. However, this procedure can be done only until the buds form and after that another way to increase the humidity is to put wet peat or pebbles in a tray and place a flower pot on top of it. Make sure that the bottom of the container does not come in contact with water.
Fertilize the flower from the moment when it only has leaves, using a full mineral or organic fertilizer.
As soon as the flowering starts, all feeding should be stopped. Remember that if there is too much nitrogen in the substrate, this can lead to rotting of the tuber.
If the foliage starts to wither and die off, this is when the dormancy period begins. Reduce the frequency as well as the amount of watering, and do this gradually. And when the plant is completely bare, water it sparingly and infrequently.
The room where the plant is systematically aired. If possible, move it to a balcony that is closed from the sun. In August or September, the shrub is moved to a well-lit area and watering is gradually increased. During the dormancy period the flower can be kept at home in another way: when the bush blossoms, reduce the watering, and when it has all the leaves withered, the pot should be turned 90 degrees and in this position it will be kept until the last summer or first autumn weeks.
Cyclamen grown at home can bloom lushly for up to fifteen consecutive years, with up to 70 showy flowers forming on it each year.
After the flowers have wilted, they, together with the pedicel, are gently plucked off near the tuber, it is highly undesirable to cut them off. Apply wood charcoal pulverized into powder where the rupture occurred.
Transplant every year in August or September and do it after the first foliage appears from the tuber. A container for transplanting should be wide and filled with loose substratum with pH 5.5-6.
Sample composition of the soil mixture: humus, sand and peat (one part each), and still leaf soil (2 or 3 parts). You can also use a substrate of the following composition: sand, humus and leaf soil (1:2:4). If the pH of the soil mixture is higher than 6.5, it is more likely that the plant will be affected by fungal diseases.
After the bush is removed from the pot, cut out all the rotten roots, taking care not to injure the healthy ones.
When planting the tuber, make sure that half or a third of it is above the potting soil so that the cyclamen will flower more abundantly. Do not forget to make a good drainage layer at the bottom of the pot to avoid water stagnation in the root system.
How to transplant a cyclamen at home [Leroy Merlin]
The sap of the Persian cyclamen bush as well as the tuber contains poisonous substances that may cause diarrhea, cramps and vomiting.
What is cyclamen good for?
An infusion made from cyclamen is used for colic, rheumatism, neuralgia, digestive disorders and flatulence.
Growing from seed
To collect seeds from the indoor cyclamen, artificial pollination will be required.
To do this, take a brush with soft bristles and transfer pollen from the flower of one shrub to the flower of another. If you have just one shrub, you transfer pollen from one flower to another in the same way. For this procedure to be most effective, it should be done on a sunny morning and you will need to repeat it more than once. Also positively affect the setting of fruits bush feeding nutrient solution (0.5 grams of potassium sulfate and 1 gram of superphosphate per liter of water).
Remember that drying the seeds after harvesting negatively affects their germination. The quality of the seeds on sale in the store depends directly on their lot.
Sowing and care
Sow the seeds in the last days of August. First they are immersed in a sugar solution (5%) and then any seeds that have floated up are discarded. You can sow only those seeds that were at the bottom of the cup with the solution.
Then the seed material is kept in Zircon solution for some time. Fill a container moistened mixture (sand and peat (1:1) or peat and vermiculite (1:1)), and then on its surface evenly place the seeds, they are covered with a layer of the same mixture, and its thickness should be about 10 mm. On top of the container is covered with polyethylene film, which should be opaque, do not forget to conduct systematic watering and airing. The air temperature where the crops are located can vary from 18 to 20 degrees.
First sprouts should show in 1-1.
5 months. Once this happens, the cover is removed to a cooler place (15 to 17 degrees), which should be well lit but protected from direct sunlight. When appear small nodules and 2 or 3 leaf plates, carry out picking seedlings in pots filled with a mixture of peat, sand and leaf soil (2:1:4). During transplanting, the tubers should be completely covered with the potting soil. 7 days after transplanting, it is recommended to feed the young bushes, for this use floral fertilizer, diluted twice.
In the last spring weeks, the seedlings are transplanted into individual containers, and their first flowering should occur around the fifteenth month of growth.
Cyclamen from seed to sprout!
- The cyclamen leaves turn yellow.If the cyclamen is watered with excessively hard water, then its leaves may begin to turn yellow, with the color of its petioles not changing.
- The appearance of rot. If the drainage is not good enough, liquid can stagnate systematically in the soil mixture and consequently rotting of the tubers can occur.
If the watering is too abundant then the leaf plate petioles as well as the pedicels will rot and this will kill the cyclamen. Yellowing and falling off of the leaves can occur if the room is very hot and the air is too dry.
- Gray rot rot. The bush is affected by gray rot when it is in a cool room that is not ventilated.
If the cyclamen mite has settled on the flower, then it is sure to be destroyed. The following symptoms are symptomatic of this pest: The leaves are smaller and their shape is altered, the flower stems are bent and the flowers are wilted, and the buds are bent.
Grape weevil can also infest the plant. It causes cyclamen shoots to break and die. Be sure to check the substrate for weevil larvae.
Cyclamen leaves turn yellow, what to do? Problems of growing Cyclamen.
Species of Cyclamen with photos and names
The Cyclamen of Persia (Cyclamen persicum)
This type of Cyclamen is widely distributed in parts of Africa, Asia and Western Europe (Ethiopia, Cyprus, Sudan, Italy and Iran). Such a flower normally grows in countries where the weather is moderately cool in winter, for example in northern Italy, and its blooming is observed in winter.
It is known that in ancient times healers used such a plant for rheumatism, maxillary sinusitis and CNS diseases. It also helped with snake bites.
The species blooms for a very long time, during most of the growing season. Some varieties may drop their leaves in summer. This species grows and develops actively for 3 to 4 months, and has a dormant period the rest of the time.
The heart-shaped leafplates are dark green, decorated with a marble-white pattern. The coloration of the flowers can be different, such as: white, pink, purple, and red.
In the tuber cyclamen accumulates a stock of various mineral and organic substances. And it spends these substances during the dormancy period. Under natural conditions, if the plant blooms in winter, then it simply needs organic substances.
There are a large number of Persian cyclamen hybrids that have been developed by Dutch breeders. The flowering period in hybrids is longer.
And also the flowers in hybrid cyclamen can be colored in different shades. For example, in the cyclamen Persian series "macro" allocated 18 different colors. And the bush of such a hybrid is larger and blooms longer than the species plant.
Cyclamen europeanus, or blushing
This species in nature is most often found in Central Europe (Slovenia, northern Italy and Macedonia). This herbaceous plant is an evergreen.
Its tuber has a flat-round shape (slightly flattened) and a single point of growth. Over time, the tuber deforms and develops thick sprouts that have their own growth points. The root leaf laminae are silvery green in color. They are heart-shaped with a pointed apex and a slightly serrated edge. The opposite surface of the leaves is greenish-purple in color.
Single five-petaled flowers are formed on tall flower stalks. The shape of the petals is oval, and they are slightly twisted into a spiral. The peculiarity of this species is that the fragrance of its flowers is strong but delicate.
This species blooms throughout the entire vegetation period (from spring to fall). The flowers can be pinkish, purplish-pink, pale purple or deep purple.
This species has a very popular variety purpurascens, which has spectacular flowers of a pinkish-purple or burgundy hue. The word "purpurascens" is Latin for "purple. Breeders also managed to breed other varieties different in color of flowers and duration of blossoming, for example:
- carmineolineatum - color of flowers white;
- lake garda - flowers are colored in pink;
- album - spectacular white flowers.
This species is very popular with florists. It is native to Algeria and Tunisia, and prefers to grow in thickets of shrubs.
This species is similar in appearance to the ivy-leaved cyclamen.
There are 2 forms of this cyclamen species: tetraploid and diploid. The diploid form has smaller leaf plates and the petioles can have different shapes as well as more fragrant flowers. As a rule, the diploid form of this cyclamen is grown in room conditions. The shape of its leaves are heart-shaped, and they are colored in a greenish-silver shade.
Leaf blades grow directly from the tuber, and they can reach about 15 centimeters in length. This is considered the main difference between this species and the ivy-leaf cyclamen. Flowering begins in the spring and ends in the fall, with the appearance of new foliage occurring only in September-November. The flowers can be colored in different shades from deep pink to pale pink.
When growing the African cyclamen keep in mind that it contains substances that are toxic to cats and dogs.
This species is not frost hardy so it needs to be covered over the winter. It can also be harmed by direct sunlight. This species differs from other representatives of the subfamily Mirsinovinae in its rapid growth and development. Once the shrub has shed its leaves, it is recommended to move it to a dry place with an air temperature of about 15 degrees.
Cyclamen alpina (Cyclamen alpinum)
Cyclamen alpina has a very confusing history.
It was discovered and listed as a plant in the subfamily Mirsinum in the late nineteenth century. But over the years, the alpine cyclamen was considered to have become extinct, a situation which continued until 1956. For a long time, the epithet "alpinum" was used for the cyclamen intaminatium. For a long time, the epithet "alpinum" was used for cyclamen intaminatium. This led to a confusion of terms, and specialists invented a new name for the alpine cyclamen, the trochotheraptum.
This term is still used today by a large proportion of specialists, despite the fact that Davis in the early sixties disproved the disappearance of the alpine cyclamen. Three expeditions were sent to investigate this cyclamen species in the early 2000s. As a result, it was confirmed that this species of cyclamen can still be found in the wild today.
This plant, unlike other species, has petals on the flower at a 90 degree angle, not 180 degrees as usual. They vary in color from pinkish to carmine pink, with a spot of purple at the base of each petal.
The flowers have a delicate, pleasant scent that is similar to that of fresh honey. The oval leaf plates are colored with a greenish-gray hue.
Cyclamen colchis, or Pontic
This species is native to the mountains of the Caucasus. The Colchis cyclamen is also called Caucasian, Pontic or Abkhazian. If grown indoors, it flowers from July to the last days of October, whereas under natural conditions it blooms from the first days of September to the second half of October.
Often the species can be found in the mountains at an altitude of 300 to 800 m among woody roots. The appearance of flowers and leaves of this plant occurs simultaneously. The elliptical, slightly curved petals are dark pink (darker along the edge) and vary in length from 1 to 1.6 cm. There are spines on the entire surface of the tuber.
This species prefers shaded areas with moist soil. It is slow-growing and its flowers have a strong but pleasant fragrance. The seed material matures within one year.
Because the Colchis cyclamen is used en masse for cutting bouquets as well as for collecting medicinal raw materials, it was inscribed in the Red Book not too long ago. Even today, quite a few specimens of this genus can still be found in the wild but, according to specialists, their number is falling considerably.
In nature, this species can be found on Cyprus, Rhodes and Crete as well as on the Greek mainland and the Turkish coast. It can be found up to 1.2 thousand meters above sea level. It prefers to grow in damp, shady places. Its leaves vary in shape from oval to heart-shaped.
Leaf color also varies from pale lime to dark green, its surface is decorated with peculiar spots of contrasting grayish or cream color. Flowers form before the leaves or they appear at the same time. Flowers can be painted in various hues from crimson-pink to pale pink. At the base of the flowers are specks of purple. In 1980, a very rare subspecies of the Greek cyclamen, coloured white, was found in the Peloponnese peninsula and is listed in the Red List.
The species Kos Cyclamen was named after the island of Cos, in the Aegean Sea. This species can be found in nature in coastal and mountainous areas of Georgia, Syria, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Lebanon, Turkey and Iran. Flowering begins in the last winter or first spring weeks. Leaf blossoms appear in the last weeks of fall or, in some cases, in winter. Leaf color depends on the cyclamen variety and may be either dark silver or green.
The flowers can also be colored in different colors such as red, pink, purple or white. The petals at the base are colored in a rich hue. The roots of this cyclamen species grow on tubers only from below. Cyclamen plants in Syria and southern Lebanon show a bud-shaped and pinkish flower pattern as well as cyclamen with deep pink flowers on the northern coast of Turkey. The farther east the plant grows, the larger the flowers and the narrower the leaves.
In the southern regions of Iran and Azerbaijan, cyclamen have large flowers and heart-shaped foliage.
Cyclamen of Cyprus
This species is one of three plants belonging to the subfamily Mirsinae that can be found on the island of Cyprus. It is found especially in the Troodos and Kyrenia Mountains at an altitude of between 100 and 1100 meters. This cyclamen prefers to grow on rocky ground under trees or shrubs. The height of such a perennial may vary from 8 to 16 centimeters.
Its flowers are white or pinkish and have a honeylike odor. At the base of each petal there are specks of purple or violet. The leaf blades are heart-shaped and can be painted various shades of olive to dark green. Flowering begins in the last days of September and ends in mid to late winter. This plant is a symbol of Cyprus.
As an ornamental plant, this cyclamen is cultivated in a large number of countries.
This species is the most common in the middle latitudes. Most florists refer to this species as "Neapolitan", with specialists calling it "ivy-leaved". It was given its first name, cyclamen hederifolium, in 1789 and its second name, cyclamen neapolitanum, in 1813. You have to be careful when buying these plants, as you might be sold a European cyclamen under the guise of a Neapolitan cyclamen, claiming to be a subspecies of cyclamen neapolitanum.
In order to unmask this fraud, you will need a precise description of the ivy cyclamen.
This species comes from the Mediterranean coast (from Turkey to France). This species differs from the others in its high frost tolerance. In the countries of the southern part of Europe this plant is used to decorate park areas. In mid-latitudes, however, this species is grown exclusively at home.
This cyclamen was called ivy-leafed because of the shape of its green leaf plates: rounded with small notches, very similar to the leaves of ivy. The flower shape is similar to that of the European cyclamen, but it has spectacular horns at the base. The root system of such a plant is superficial, and the flowers can only be colored pink. But thanks to breeders, many varieties of this type of cyclamen have been born. Some of the varieties are "dwarf", while other forms bloom from December to March, and some of them have flowers with a pleasant but pungent aroma and spectacular coloration.
Varieties of Cyclamen. Species and varieties with descriptions.