A bulbous plant such as Crinum (Crinum) belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family. In nature, it can be found in subtropical and tropical areas. But this flower prefers to grow on the coast of the sea, on the shores of rivers and lakes, as well as in areas that are periodically flooded. Several species can be found in the arid Cape province of South Africa.
From the Latin "crinis" is translated as "hair".
The name of such a plant is related to the appearance of the foliage. Very long, sword-shaped or linear, dangling, it really looks like hairs. With a long neck, the large bulbs reach 60 to 90 centimeters in length and about 25 centimeters in diameter. The leaves are also very long and grow up to 150 centimeters. The young leaves are not flat like most other amaryllis species, but curled up into a tube.
This is their distinctive feature. The flower stalk bears an umbrella-shaped inflorescence with large pink or white flowers. The fruit is a capsule containing large, fleshy seeds. They have enough liquid in their shells to germinate and produce a new flower bulb, without requiring water from outside.
This plant has found its use in decorating cool rooms, halls, cinemas, terraces, lobbies, as well as concert halls.
It can also be grown in a spacious apartment and will grow well in a cold winter garden. There are also species that grow in aquariums.
Care for Crinum at home
Needs bright light, no need for shade. Growth is accelerated with more intense light. At the end of the winter period, the flower is accustomed to bright light gradually, since burns may appear.
It is recommended to place it on the window of southern orientation, and the leaves should not touch the window glass, as this may cause burns.
Summer, if possible, take the plant outside, the place should be protected from heavy rains. If growing in a room during the summer, frequent ventilation will be required. In autumn and winter, you need good light and regular ventilation. If there is little light, the leaves underneath will wither rapidly, but the young ones will still grow.
One can grow under artificial light with a 16-hour daylight period.
Such plants are divided into 2 groups:
- South African, native to the arid Cape province (South Africa). Cultivated in cold greenhouses. Can be kept outdoors in summer, and in subtropical areas can remain outside for the winter, but light shelter will be required. In spring and summer they need a temperature of 22 to 27 degrees.
In winter they are fine at 2 to 6 degrees.
- Native to tropical areas. Grown in a warm greenhouse. Can be moved outdoors in summer, but place should be protected from wind gusts. In spring and summer it needs a temperature of 22-27 degrees.
During the winter there is a dormancy period. During this time a coolness of 16 to 18 degrees (not less than 14 degrees) is needed.
Humidity of air is suitable for any. For hygienic purposes, the leaves should be wiped regularly with a moistened sponge.
How to water
When actively growing, water abundantly and use warm water.
Water as soon as the top layer of soil dries out. When flowering is over, water less, but the soil should always be moderately moist. In winter, during the dormancy period, watering should be rare, and the flower itself should be moved to a cool room. Do not allow the soil to dry out, as the bulbs have a rather fleshy root system that performs its function regardless of the time of year.
If you want the flowering to come in the winter time, the resting period should be moved to the end of the summer and beginning of the fall period, reducing the watering at the same time.
When the flower arrow begins to grow, you should resume normal watering. To stimulate flowering, do not water the flower for 7-14 days.
Feeding is done twice a month. Use liquid fertilizer for flowering houseplants, using the dosage recommended on the package. Start feeding when young leaves appear and stop when all the flowers have wilted.
The dormancy period begins after flowering. The old foliage gradually withers during this period and is replaced by new foliage. The Crinum needs a deep rest, but without it, flowering will not occur next year. In springtime, flowering can sometimes occur again and is relatively easy to achieve in the Moore's Crinum species.
Mixed earth, put together leaf and clay-bottom earth, peat, humus and sand in a 1:2:1:1:1 ratio.
It is recommended that a small amount of charcoal be added to the mixture.
Potting is done before the beginning of the intensive growth period. Mature specimens are transplanted once every 2-4 years. When planting, the bulb should be one-third of its height above the soil surface. Plant in large and deep containers, because this plant has a powerful system of roots.
Carefully remove the old soil along with the damaged roots. Make a good drainage layer of expanded clay at the bottom.
You can propagate with bulbs or seeds.
You should not rush to separate the young bulbs, because they will make flowering more abundant. The flowering of the detached offspring comes after 2-4 years (depends on its size).
For planting, use a container with a diameter of 9 to 12 centimeters. After 12 months it is necessary to transplant into larger pots, and after another same amount of time - into containers with a diameter of 15 to 17 centimeters. During growth, young specimens need more frequent feeding and watering. In large containers (19-24-28 centimeters) such a plant is from 3 to 4 years, at the same time it has many bulb-details, and abundant flowering is observed on the 3rd-4th year.
Pests and diseases
The leaf axils can be settled by powdery worm.
A spider mite can also cause damage to the crinum. If overwatered during dormancy, root rot appears.
Crinum abyssinicum (Crinum abyssinicum)
With a short neck, the bulb is round-elongated and 7 centimeters thick. The 6 leaflets are linear in shape and gradually tapering toward the apex. These rough-edged leaves can reach a length of 30 to 45 centimeters and a width of 1.
5 centimeters. The flower stalk is 30-40 centimeters long and bears an umbrella-shaped inflorescence with 4-6 flowers. The white sessile flowers have short pedicels. The slender perianth tube is about 5 centimeters long. The elongated petals are 2 centimeters wide and 7 centimeters long.
It is native to the mountains in Ethiopia.
Crinum asiaticum (Crinum asiaticum)
The bulb is 10-15 centimeters wide and its neck can vary from 15 to 35 centimeters long. There are 20 to 30 slender, full-edged, strap-shaped leaves that are 90 to 125 centimeters long and 7 to 10 centimeters wide. The umbrella-shaped inflorescence bears from 20 to 50 non-aromatous florets, which are perched on three-centimeter-long stems. The straight perianth tube is 10 centimeters long and has a light green color pattern on the surface.
The linear white petals are 5-10 centimeters long, with reddish stamens that diverge in different directions. Flowering is long from March to October. It is native to standing bodies of water in West Tropical Africa.
Crinum big (Crinum giganteum)
Having a short neck, the bulb is quite large. Thus, it is 10-15 centimeters wide.
On the surface of the wavy green leaves, the veins are clearly protruding. The length of the leaf is 60-90 centimeters, and its width is 10 centimeters. The rather sturdy flower stalk is 50 to 100 centimeters long. It bears an umbrella-like inflorescence, usually consisting of 4-6 flowers, but there are also those bearing 3-12 flowers. The fragrant sessile flowers are 20 centimeters long.
The curved, elongated, light green perianth tube is 10 to 15 centimeters long, with a bell-shaped and 7 to 10 centimeters long. The white petals are 3 centimeters wide and 5 to 7 centimeters long, with stamens of the same color somewhat shorter. As a rule, flowering is observed in summer.
Crinum majestic (Crinum augustum)
The bulb is 15 centimeters wide and its neck is 35 centimeters long. There are many dense strap-shaped leaves, which are 60 to 90 centimeters long and 7 to 10 centimeters wide.
The upper part of the flattened flower stalk is colored dark red. The inflorescence is umbrella-shaped and usually bears more than 20 pleasantly scented flowers, which sit on short pedicels. The reddish stout perianth tube is slightly curved or straight and reaches 7-10 centimeters in length. The outer surface of the erect lanceolate petals is deep red. They are 10 to 15 centimetres long and 1.
5 to 2 centimetres wide. The extended stamens are colored red. Flowering is observed in the spring and summer. Native to the rocky mountain slopes of the Seychelles and the island of Mauritius. Cultivated in warm greenhouses.
Crinum virgineum, or virginicum (Crinum virgineum, or virginicum)
Has a brownish large bulb. The slender, strap-shaped leaves taper both to the apex and to the base, with transverse veins distinctly protruding on their surface. The leaves are 7-10 centimeters wide and 60 to 90 centimeters long. The flower stalk bears an umbrella-shaped inflorescence of 6 flowers, which may be sessile or have short pedicels. The bent, light green perianth tube is 7 to 10 centimeters long.
The white petals are the same length. Typically, flowering is observed in the fall. Native to southern Brazil. Cultivated in warm greenhouses.
Crinum bell-shaped (Crinum campanulatum)
The small bulb is oval in shape.
The grooved, linear leaves with a sharp edge reach 90-120 centimeters in length. The narrow green flower stalk bears an umbrella-like inflorescence consisting of 4-8 flowers on short pedicels about 2 centimeters long. The oblong, twisting, cylindrical perianth tube is 4-6 cm long and has a bell-shaped pharynx. It has greenish stripes on its red surface. The petals are very close to each other.
They are white with reddish stripes at the base and then the coloring becomes pink-green-red. Flowering is observed during the summer months. Native to the Cape in South Africa, where it prefers to grow in ponds.
Crinum amiable (Crinum amabile)
Not very large bulb has a 20 to 35 centimeter long neck. The 25 to 30 whole-edged strap-shaped leaflets are 100 to 150 centimeters long and 7 to 10 centimeters wide.
The umbrella-shaped inflorescence consists of 20-30 flowers, which sit on pedicels 2-3 centimeters long. Fragrant rich red flowers have a whitish or purplish hue. The dark purple, straight perianth tube is 8 to 10 centimeters long. Linear petals have white inside with a length of 10-15 centimeters and a width of 1-1.5 centimeters.
The broad stamens are purple in color. Flowering is observed in the wintertime, but most of all in March. There may be repeated flowering. Can be found in topiary forests as well as in the mountainous regions of Sumatra Island.
Crinum erubescens Aiton)
Oval-shaped bulb is up to 10 centimeters wide.
The many strap-shaped leaves reach 60 to 90 centimeters in length and 5 to 8 centimeters in width. The edges of the underside of the leaves are slightly rough. The flower stems are very long (60 to 90 centimeters). It bears 4-6 fragrant flowers of large size, which can be either sessile or have short pedicels. The outside of the flower is red and the inside is white.
The erect light red perianth tube reaches 10-15 centimeters in length. The petals are lanceolate in shape and are reversed. Flowering is observed during the summer months. Native to tropical America.
Crinum meadow (Crinum pratense)
The egg-shaped bulb has a short neck and reaches 10 to 15 centimeters in diameter.
There are usually 6 to 8 linear-shaped leaflets, which reach a length of 45 to 65 centimeters. The flower stalk is 30 centimeters long and 1.5 centimeters wide. The umbrella-like inflorescence contains 6 to 12 white flowerlets, which are sessile or attached to short pedicels and reach 7 to 10 centimeters in length. The lanceolate petals are 1.
5 centimeters wide and as long as the tube. The red stamens have an expanded shape. Flowering is observed during the summer months. It is native to eastern India.
Crinum bulbispermum or Crinum capense
The bulb is bottle-shaped with a narrow and long neck.
The greenish-gray, narrow-linear, grooved leaves reach 60-90 centimeters in length. They are upward pointing and their edges are rough. The practically round flower stalk can reach more than 40 centimeters in length, and it bears from 4 to 12 flowers. The large, fragrant florets are white (sometimes with a purplish cast). They are located on pedicels that are 3 to 5 centimeters long.
The slightly curved cylindrical perianth tubes are 7 to 10 centimeters long and have a whitish, funnel-shaped edge. The outer surface of the 3 outer petals is pinkish-purple in color (sometimes white). They are 7-10 centimeters long. Blooms occur in July and August. Native to South Africa, where it prefers to grow in shady places with sandy soil.
Grows in cold greenhouses.
Crinum macowanii (Crinum macowanii)
Big round bulb reaches 25 centimeters in diameter, its neck also 25 centimeters long. The leaves are 10 centimeters wide and 60 to 90 centimeters long. The height of the flower stalk is 60-90 centimeters. It bears an umbrella-shaped inflorescence consisting of 10-15 florets.
The greenish curved perianth tube is 8-10 centimeters long. The pink petals are 8 to 10 centimeters long. Flowering occurs in late fall. Native to the rocky mountain slopes of Natal, South Africa. Cultivated in cold greenhouses.
Crinum moorei (Crinum moorei)
The large bulb is about 20 centimeters in diameter and its neck can reach 45 centimeters in length. Numerous offspring can form. There are 12 to 15 wavy, strap-shaped leaflets that are 60 to 90 centimeters long and 6 to 10 centimeters wide. They have embossed veins on their surface and their edges are pale white smooth. The powerful greenish flower stalk is 45 to 60 centimeters long.
It bears an umbrella-shaped inflorescence of 6-10 flowers. The pink flowers have eight centimeters long pedicels. The bent perianth tube is 7 to 12 centimeters long and has a funnel-shaped yawn. The petals are 4 centimeters wide and 7 to 12 centimeters long. The light pink stamens are not as long as the petals.
A pistil protrudes above the petals. Flowering is observed in the summertime. Most popular with florists. Found in nature on rocky mountain slopes in Natal, South Africa. It is grown in cold greenhouses.
Powell's Crinum (Crinum x powellii)
This hybrid is obtained by crossing Moore's Crinum and onion-seeded Crinum. The globular bulb has a diameter of 15 centimeters. The strap-shaped leaflets are up to 100 centimeters long. The leafless peduncle is one meter tall and bears an umbrella-shaped inflorescence consisting of fragrant flowers 15 centimeters in diameter. The perianth color is deep pink.
Crinum pedunculatum (Crinum pedunculatum)
The bulb is 10 centimeters thick and its neck is 15 centimeters long. There are 20 to 30 leaflets, which are 90 to 120 centimeters long. The flowers are in umbrella-shaped inflorescences with 20-30 flowers each. Fragrant whitish-green flowers have pedicels 2.5-4 centimeters long.
The corolla tube is longer than the petals, and there are reddish dilated stamens. Flowering is observed during the summer months. Native to eastern Australia. Cultivated in cold greenhouses.
Crinum zeylanicum (Crinum zeylanicum)
The round bulb is 12 to 15 centimeters in diameter and has a short neck.
There are 6 to 12 strap-shaped slender leaves that reach 7 to 10 centimeters wide and 60 to 90 centimeters long. Their edges are slightly roughened. The powerful reddish peduncle is 90 centimeters long and bears an umbrella-like inflorescence with 10-20 short pedicels. The drooping green or red perianth tube varies in length from 7 to 15 centimeters and has a pharynx that is arranged horizontally. The lanceolate-oblong petals are 3 centimetres wide and their upper part is horizontally spread out.
They are dark purplish in color, with a whitish edge and stripes on the outer part. The stamens are shorter than the pistil. Flowering is observed in spring. Native to tropical Asia. Grows in warm greenhouses.
Crinum scabrum (Crinum scabrum)
The round bulb is 10-15 centimeters in diameter and the neck is short. The dense, wavy, grooved, glossy leaves are strap-shaped and green in color. They have a sharp edge and are 60-90 centimeters long and 5 centimeters wide. The powerful flower stalk bears an umbrella-like inflorescence with 4-8 fragrant flowers, which may be sessile or have short pedicels. The bent pale green perianth tube is 8 to 15 centimeters long.
The diameter of the pharynx is 6 to 8 centimeters. The width of the petals varies from 2.5 to 3.5 centimeters. The upper part is white, while the middle of the petals has a broad band of bright red.
Flowering occurs in May and June. Native to tropical Africa. Cultivated in warm greenhouses.
Crinum broadleaf (Crinum latifolium)
The round bulb is 15 to 20 centimeters wide and has a short neck. A multitude of slender strap-shaped leaves are colored green.
They are 60-100 centimeters long and 7-10 centimeters wide. The umbrella-shaped inflorescence has 10-20 flowers on short pedicels. The green curved tube of the perianth is 7-10 centimeters long. The pharynx is arranged horizontally and is of equal length to the tube. The lower surface of the thirty-centimetre-long, lanceolate petals is light red.
Blooms in August and September. Native to East India. Cultivated in cold greenhouses.