Corn: Planting And Care In The Open Field, Growing From Seed

The corn (Zea) plant belongs to the cereal genus, which includes 6 species. However, only one species is cultivated, the annual sugar corn (Zea mays), which was the first cereal to be cultivated by man. It was first cultivated 7-12 thousand years ago in what is now Mexico. The spread of the crop throughout Mesoamerica began in the 15th century B.C.

, at the same time people began to ask for new varieties of corn and this pushed them to carry out breeding experiments. Thanks to this in 12-11 B.C. a large number of varieties of such a plant came into existence. The modern scientists are sure that thanks to the corn the ancient civilizations on the territory of America (Maya, Olmec and Aztecs) were formed.

The fact is that the cultivation of corn was the beginning of the highly developed agriculture, and without it an advanced society could not be formed. Even before Europeans conquered America, corn had spread to North and South America, where it was cultivated by the Iroquois from the 10th to the 16th centuries A.D. The crop was introduced into Europe in the 15th century, after which it spread all over the world.

Brief description of cultivation

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

  1. Potting.

    Sow corn seedlings in the first days of May, and transplant the plants into the open field in mid-June. Seeds are sown in the open soil only after it has warmed up to 10-12 degrees.

  2. Lightness. Need large amounts of bright sunlight.
  3. Primary soilMildly acidic or neutral loamy, sandy loam or peaty soil is suitable.

  4. Primary watering. The soil humidity in the bed should be kept at 70% to 80%; one to two liters of water per plant should be used with drip irrigation. After planting and before the plants form 7 leaf plates, watering should be moderate, and then watering becomes more abundant and frequent. Once the filaments on the cobs begin to darken, a gradual reduction in watering to moderate is required.
  5. Fertilizer.

    This crop will need nitrogen throughout the growing season until the seeds are fully mature. But most of it will have to be applied during the formation of inflorescences. Potassium is necessary for the plant from the beginning to the middle of the growing season, and then its amount should be gradually reduced. Corn needs phosphorus all the time, but in relatively small amounts. It also needs zinc, copper, manganese and boron, the solution of these substances should be sprayed on the leaves of bushes.

  6. Production. By seeds.
  7. Pests. Wireworms, false wireworms, moths, meadow moths, corn moths, and oat Swedish flies.
  8. Diseases.

    Affected by fusariosis of cobs and seedlings, helminthosporiosis, stem rot and pythiosis root rot, red cob rot, rust, dusty and vesicular head.

Sweet corn features

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Sweet corn is a herbaceous, strongly growing plant that can reach three meters or even more in height. The bush's taproot system is very well developed, and it goes into the ground to a depth of 100 to 150 cm. Supporting aerial roots are sometimes formed at the lower nodes of the stems, they give the bush great stability, and also feed it with water and necessary elements and substances. The short, erect stem reaches up to 70 mm in cross-section.

The large, linear-lanceolate leaflets are about 10 centimeters wide and up to 100 centimeters long. A single bush can grow from 8 to 42 leaf plates. The flowers are unisexual. Melk-like inflorescences consisting of male flowers grow at the top of the stems, with female flowers in the cob, densely surrounded by leaf-like wrappers, they grow in the leaf axils. The weight of the cob can vary from 0.

03 to 0.5 kg and its length can vary from 0.04 to 0.5 m, reaching a cross section of 200 to 100 mm. It is extremely rare for a single bush to grow more than two cobs, with pistillate columns in a tuft-like bundle of hairs peeking out from the wrappings at the top.

The pollen from the male flowers is blown by the wind onto these columns, resulting in fertilization and the formation of large grains, which are the fruit of this plant. On the cob stem, the corms are placed in vertical rows, and they are very tightly pressed together. The shape of the cob can be either cubic or rounded. About 1,000 seeds can form on one cob, which may be pale red, purple, yellow, blue, or virtually black. / How to grow corn

Growing corn from seed

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Sowing corn

Corn is grown exclusively from seed, with two methods: seedless and through seedlings.

Sprouts can be sown in peat pots, which reach 12 centimeters in cross-section, or in cassettes, where the volume of cells must be 45 cm2. To fill the containers use a substrate consisting of well-structured turf soil, which is combined with milled humus (1:1). To increase the moisture capacity of the soil mixture, it can be poured into a little hydrogel, but it must be taken into account that it can absorb up to 500 volumes of water. Thanks to hydrogel, you will need to water the seedlings 3-5 times less often, because the crystals that have absorbed the liquid, release water gradually, while giving it to the substrate. Sowing the seeds is carried out in the first days of May, but they need mandatory pre-sowing preparation.

To do this, they should be placed for 5-7 days in a moistened filter paper or cloth and left at room temperature for germination. A couple of seeds should be sown in each cell, and 3 or 4 in a pot. Plant them in the substratum at a depth of 30-40 mm, then water the seeds with a lukewarm solution of Fundazole (4 grams per 1 bucket of water), and put them on a well-lit windowsill in a southeast or east orientation.

Growing corn seedlings

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Seedlings are very slow growing. However, experts suggest additional lighting with a fluorescent lamp or a phytolamp as soon as seedlings begin to emerge.

During growth, the seedlings will need 1-2 feedings, and you can use Terrafleks, Kemira-hydra, Polyfid or Master. Once the plants have formed 3 or 4 leaf plates, seedlings should be thinned, to do this, in each pot leave a couple of the strongest seedlings, and in the cells - one, and all unnecessary plants should be cut with sharp scissors directly above the surface of the substrate. Once they have formed 4 or 5 leaf plates, they will start to grow faster. When the plants are about 7 days old and ready to be transplanted into open soil, they will be hardened. To do this, the bushes are transferred to fresh air every day, and a shady place should be chosen.

The duration of these procedures should be increased gradually, after one week they should already be outside 24 hours a day.

Sweet corn sprouts.March!

Picking

Picking corn sprouts is not done as seedlings react very negatively to this procedure.

Potting corn seedlings outdoors

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

What time to plant

Potting corn seedlings outdoors should be done in the first half of June, with the threat of a return frost behind you. It should also be remembered that if the air temperature drops to 3 degrees, it will cause the seedlings' growth to slow down or it may stop altogether.

If it's even colder outside, it will kill the seedlings. This plant is heat-loving, so choose a well-lit site that is well protected from wind gusts.

Suitable soil

This crop grows best in loose, nutritious, air- and moisture-permeable chernozem, and its best predecessors are: potatoes, zucchinis, cucumbers, cabbage, beets, tomatoes and patissons. Preparation of the site should be engaged in the fall, for this purpose, remove all weeds from it, conduct a deep recultivation, and at the same time make the soil with decomposed manure. If the soil is too heavy, it should be loosened in the spring by adding sawdust or straw cut into pieces, then the surface should be leveled.

Rules for planting in the open air

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

When the area is prepared, planting holes should be made on it, with a distance of about 0.5 m between them. The seedlings are then well watered and carefully transferred into the wells with the clump of soil. Try not to damage the clump of soil during planting, as this may cause the bush to take root badly.

The planting scheme should be used such that the peculiarities of corn development should be taken into account.

The width between the rows should be 150 cm, and gourds can be planted in them later. In order to improve photosynthesis, bushes in adjacent rows should be planted in staggered order. In addition, this planting scheme is very convenient for the use of drip irrigation.

Sugar corn - Series 7. Planting sugar corn seedlings.

What to grow after corn?

If all necessary nutrients have been applied to this crop during the growing season, this area is perfect for growing dill, zucchini, basil, sage or beets.

Corn care

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Inexperienced gardeners think corn is undemanding, so they only water it and occasionally remove weeds from the plot. But if it is not cared for properly, it can cause poor yields, as well as depletion of the soil on the site. The planted seedlings should be well cared for until they get stronger, they will need systematic weeding, watering. Also it should be dipped on a mandatory basis, in this case the bushes will grow strong adventitious roots at the bottom of the stem, so they become more stable, as well as improve their growth and development.

Moreover, during vegetation it is necessary to loosen the surface of the ground between the rows several times. At the same time corn should be timely fed and protected against harmful insects and diseases, which are very numerous in this crop.

How to water

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

This crop is a humid crop. One shrub can absorb 2 to 4 liters of water in a day, but you should avoid standing liquid in the ground because if you do, the root system will not have enough air, causing it to die off, the shrub will stop growing, and its leaves will have a purple tint. In this case, the harvest will be at risk.

The optimal humidity of the soil, which is recommended to maintain constantly - from 70 to 80 percent, which means that when watering per 1 bush should be spent from 1 to 2 liters of liquid. If there is no possibility to water corn systematically, then experts advise to conduct frequent loosening of the soil surface near the bushes, in this case, the water will remain in the soil for a longer time. Probably that's why many gardeners call loosening "dry watering". When the seedlings will be transplanted to the bed, it should be watered moderately. However, when the plants will form 7 leaf plates, you will need to gradually increase the abundance and frequency of watering, stopping when the period of mass growth of the panicles begins.

Once the filaments on the cobs begin to darken, it will be necessary to reduce watering to moderate, and do the same gradually. Experienced gardeners recommend to maintain optimum moisture in the soil on the bed with corn to use a drip irrigation system, in which case the liquid, and those useful substances that are dissolved in it, will get directly to the root system of bushes. This way you can save not only water and fertilizer, but also time and effort.

Fertilizer

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

When preparing the plot for planting it is recommended to put all necessary mineral fertilizers as well as organics into the soil. But even if you do this, you will still need to fertilize the bushes throughout the growing season.

This is due to the fact that in this plant the increase in green mass is observed during the entire growing season, in this regard, it is necessary to fertilize it from spring to the fall period. In addition, you should take into account that corn needs certain nutrients during every growth period. If, during the preparation of the site, all the substances that the plant will need during the vegetation period are added to the soil, the bushes can suffer a lot because of their excessive amount.

Nitrogen fertilization is carried out up to the ripening of the seeds. However, the bushes need this element most from the time they are planted in the open soil until the inflorescences form.

From the beginning to the middle of the growing season, the plant actively absorbs potassium from the soil, while in its second half, this element passes from the bushes back into the ground. Such a crop needs a small amount of phosphorus, but throughout the growing season. Phosphorus in the ground begin to make already at the stage of site preparation, while after the ripening of the grains, it is stopped doing so. In addition to the elements described above, this plant also needs trace elements, namely, zinc, manganese and a small amount of copper and boron. It should be borne in mind that in acidic soil, very little calcium, and in alkaline soil, there is a lack of copper and boron.

If the bushes lack microelements, they should be fed with a nutrient solution on the leaves.

First time bushes, as a rule, are fed during the formation of 3-4 leaf plate, and a solution of poultry manure or slurry should be used. The second time they are fed with potassium salt (15 to 20 grammes per square metre), ammonium nitrate (15 to 20 grammes per square metre) and superphosphate (30 to 50 grammes per square metre). If there is a shortage of any particular nutrients, the foliage of bushes should be sprayed with their solution. If there is a delay in fertilization, it means that the corn needs boron, and if white-colored streaks form on the surface of its leaf plates, it indicates a lack of zinc.

June 13 corn feeding

Diseases and pests of corn

Diseases of corn with pictures and names

Corn is affected by so many diseases, and various pests can also settle on it. Fusariosis of cobs and shoots, helminthosporiosis, stem rot, pythiosis root rot, red cob rot, rust, dusty and vesicular head rot are the most common diseases of this plant.

Fusarium on the cob

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Fusarium on the cob is very common in agriculture, and if the weather is wet or rainy for a long time, an epidemic of this disease may occur. The first symptoms of this disease can be found only in the stage of milky maturity of the cob, a pale pink crust is formed on its surface, the grains, which are very seriously affected, become dark, their gloss is gone, they become loose and their destruction occurs. Those grains which are not affected by the disease may still be infected, so they are highly undesirable to use as seeds.

To prevent this, seed should be dressed before sowing.

Sprouting fusariosis

Corn is also quite often affected by seedling fusariosis. Sick seeds have a pink or white bloom on their surface, and if seedlings emerge from them, they turn brown and die. However, some plants may not die, in which case they will lag behind the healthy specimens in development and growth, their root system will be weakened, the stem will be very brittle, and the leaf plates will dry up. If such a bush does not die in the process of growth, it will still not give a crop.

Such a disease cannot be cured, so it is so important not to neglect preventive measures: before sowing, the seeds should be treated with a fungicide solution, and the sowing itself should be done in time after the soil has warmed up well.

Helminthosporiosis

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

The cobs and leaves may be infected by helminthosporiosis resulting in gray or brown spindle-shaped spots with dark borders. In some cases, a sooty plaque is formed in the middle of such spots. Spots, increasing in size, gradually merge into one another, forming a shapeless nidus, resulting in the death of leaves, and on the surface of the sick cobs appears a plaque of gray, the grains become wrinkled, on their surface appears dark mycelium, and they begin to rot. The pathogens can remain for a long time on plant debris of infected bushes, as well as on grains.

To prevent the appearance of this disease, it is also necessary to follow some preventive measures: remember the rules of crop rotation, soil and seeds must be treated with a solution of fungicide before sowing, hybrids resistant to this disease must be used for growing, when the harvest is cleaned, the area must be cleared of plant residues and weeds.

Stem rot

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Stem rot is common in regions with frequent heavy rainfall, but very rare in drier climates. When the disease first begins to develop, dark-colored spots appear on the internodes or the underside of the stem. Over time, the stem becomes soft, it becomes rotten, and eventually it dies, with its core colored pink, and a large number of small perithecia that do not exceed 1 mm in cross-section are formed on the surface of diseased tissues. In order to avoid infecting corn with this disease, the same preventive measures should be followed as those discussed in detail above.

Corn rust

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

The corn rust pathogen is most active in the second half of the summer period, and it continues to actively infect corn until the very end of the growing season. Affected bushes have yellowish spots on the underside surface of leaf plates, which gradually become darker, and then pustules appear on their surface, inside which spores about 1 mm in size mature. Under the pustules, the leaf-plate tissue gradually dries out and tears, with the spores flying in different directions and affecting other parts of the shrub as well as new plants. Only preventive measures and seed treatment with a fungicide solution will be effective against this disease.

Dust bunt

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

The infectious disease of dust bunt affects all grain crops and is particularly common in the southern regions.

Corn cobs and inflorescences are affected by this disease. Interestingly, the causative agent of the disease may accumulate in soil for many years, but it does not manifest itself in any way, however, upon appearance of favorable conditions it becomes the reason of epidemic, which may kill up to 40% of the whole corn yield. Affected inflorescences turn into a shapeless loose mass, and the cobs become a dark lump. The bush affected at an early stage of development exhibits stunted growth, excessively bushy and noticeably different from healthy specimens. In some cases, the course of the disease is not so pronounced, but it still has a negative impact on the growth and development of the bush.

To avoid this disease, it is advisable to choose resistant hybrids and to follow crop rotation to avoid accumulation of pathogens in the soil. A large number of vesicular formations appear on the leaves and cobs of the affected plant. The panicles can also be affected, resulting in rough swellings on the flowers that are shaped like pouches. However, the largest galls form on the cobs as well as the shoots. At harvest, large galls fall off and, entering the soil, remain there for the winter, but affect corn again in the spring.

The disease develops most actively in drought and also if plantings are overgrown. During the epidemic, up to half of the whole crop may die because of the disease. To avoid being affected by smut, hybrids that are resistant to this disease should be chosen for cultivation, and it is also recommended to use the scheme for planting such a culture, which was developed by experts. Before planting, the seeds should be treated with a fungicide solution, and after harvesting, the area should be free of weeds and plant debris.

Pityosis root rot

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Most oftenityosis root rot affects bushes that grow in heavy soil and too much moisture.

The causative agent of this disease affects shrubs during the emergence of seedlings, and the root system is the first to suffer, so that the roots become overstretched and root hairs are not formed at all. As a result, the roots rot and dry up, starting from the tips, eventually the entire bush dies. If the disease occurs in a mild form, there is a change in the color of the leaf plates, and the growth of the plant slows down. Diseased corn is treated with phosphonates or fungicides, and these can also be used as preventive measures.

Red cob rot

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Red cob rot is particularly dangerous because it is known to reduce the yield of such plants and it can infect both beasts and humans, with nerve cell damage.

The first symptoms of this disease appear during the milk-wax maturity, so, on the upper cobs can be found a reddish-white plaque, which spreads rapidly, while affecting the seeds and the stem. In a diseased plant, there is destruction of the seeds, the wrapper becomes brown, and then it withers, tightly covering the affected cob. The disease spreads most actively in wet weather at low temperatures during seed ripening. To prevent corn damage, it is necessary to follow the following preventive measures: remember about crop rotation rules; grow hybrids resistant to this disease; seed must be prepared before sowing; control the amount of nitrogen added to soil; the site must be deeply recultivated; after harvesting, clean the area from weeds and plant debris. Sick bushes can be cured by treatment with fungicides.

Most frequent corn diseases

Corn pests with photos and names

The greatest threats to this crop are wireworms, false worms, moths, meadow and corn moths and the Swedish oat fly.

Wormflies

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Corn is fond of being eaten by the larvae of darnel moths (false wireworms) and larvae of lizard beetles (wireworms); they may also harm other vegetable crops (potatoes, carrots, beets, etc.). Such insects damage the underground part of the plant. If there are 90 or more pests per 1 square meter of a plot, they kill one fourth of the plants, and in some cases may kill all of them.

Pests are most active during the long rains at low temperatures, or in irrigated fields. In order to prevent pests from multiplying it is necessary to plow the plot in autumn, stick to crop rotation rules, treat the seeds with insecticide solution before sowing, and use pheromone traps against pests during the vegetation period.

Leaf-Eating Moths

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

More harmful to corn can be leaf-eating moths. They are found everywhere and damage all above-ground parts of the bush. Cotton, winter and meadow moths are considered the most dangerous for this crop, because they can give 2-4 generations during one season.

The first as well as the second generation, as a rule, harms the leaf plates of the plant, while the third and fourth generations strongly harm the cobs, seriously injuring the reproduction organs, resulting in a significant decrease in the quality and quantity of the crop. Agrotechnical methods show high efficiency in the fight against moths and their larvae, for this purpose it is necessary to remove weeds in time, adhere to the rules of crop rotation, and after harvesting be sure to plow the area. To get rid of the larvae, it is recommended to use pheromone traps.

Swede oat fly

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

A pest such as the Swedish oat fly lives in moderately humid climates: in the area of irrigated fields, and even closer to the forest-steppe zone. During one season, 2 to 3 generations are born, which can harm the crop in the same way.

To avoid infestation of bushes by such a pest, it is necessary to adhere to the following preventive measures: in autumn time, the plot is subjected to deep digging or plowing with obligatory subsequent compaction of soil, seeds and seedlings should be sown in time, and also weed grass should be systematically removed. If such a pest appears on a plot, the bushes should be sprayed with an insecticide solution.

The Meadow Moth

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

The Meadow Moth is most commonly found in the forest-steppe, steppe and taiga areas. Four generations of the pest appear in a season, with the first, rapidly multiplying caterpillars, being the most damaging to shrubs. It should be remembered that the number of this pest appears in cycles, usually once every 10 to 12 years there is an invasion of moths, with so many of them that they can exterminate 60 to 100 percent of the entire crop.

The caterpillars exterminate the shoots and leaf blades of not only corn, but also legumes, sunflowers, potatoes, hemp, beets and parts of crops. To prevent the appearance of such an insect on the plot, it is necessary to adhere to the same agrotechnical rules described above. In order to eradicate moths and caterpillars, biopreparations should be used.

Stem moth

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

The stem moth can also harm corn, it also damages soybean, sorghum, hops, pepper and millet. Development of this pest occurs in three generations, and it makes ovipositions on shoots and leaf plates of plants, and eggs can not harm even the strongest frosts.

If there are moths on the shrubs, the leaf plates and their middle veins begin to turn yellow. As the disease progresses, the vein breaks, the plate itself kinks and dies. The threshold of harmfulness of stem moth is 6 per square meter. To protect corn from this pest, it is necessary to adhere to the rules of agrotechnics of this culture. If the pest appears, the bushes are treated with an insecticide solution.

Corn harvesting and storage

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Harvesting of sugar corn begins selectively, after the cobs have reached milky maturity. How do you know when the cob is ready to be harvested? Signs are indicated by:

  • drying of outer layer of coat, turning pale green;
  • blackish and slightly withered threads peeping from cob;
  • pressing the cob shows white juice;
  • cobs are smooth, without dents or wrinkles, yellow in color, very tightly packed together.

If harvested later than necessary, the overripe cobs will have greatly reduced nutritional and taste qualities, the cobs will become shriveled and much less digestible. To prepare the crop for long-term storage, the cobs are first cleaned, then dried and cleaned of trash and grain impurities. Only perfectly whole cobs are suitable for drying.

From them you need to remove all the leaves, while leaving the wrapping, remove the corn stigmas, which are thin threads that entangle the cob. Then, on the prepared cobs, the leaves should be braided together, then they should be hung from the ceiling in a dry room with good ventilation, where they should dry completely. To know how well the cob is dried, it should be shaken just a little, and kernels should start to fall out.

For long term storage the hulled cobs should be placed in glass or plastic jars, or they can be placed in cloth or cardboard boxes. Kernels that are intended for making popcorn should be placed in a plastic bag for storage and then placed in the freezer, if necessary frozen kernels should be poured into the pan.

Milk corn, which is going to be cooked later, for storage is removed to the shelf of the refrigerator, where it will be able to retain its properties at an air temperature of 0 degrees for about 20 days. If it is stored in a warm place, the cob loses 1.5 percent or more of its sugar in 24 hours (the warmer the higher the loss). To be able to store dairy corn for a long time, it is recommended to freeze or preserve it, because in this case it will be able to preserve its nutritional quality. If you have a lot of freezer space you can freeze the whole cobs.

To prepare them for laying, take a pair of large containers, and in one of them pour just boiling water, and in the second - cold with pieces of ice. First, the corn is removed from the wrappers and stigmas, after which it is immersed in just boiling water for 2 minutes, and then transferred to the ice and kept for the same amount of time. Next, the cobs are laid out on a cloth to dry, and after each one is wrapped in food film, they are put away in the freezer. There they can be stored for about a year and a half without losing their quality.

Aspects of corn storage

Corn types and varieties with photos and names

All cultivated corn varieties are divided into 6 groups: toothy, waxy, silty, sugar, bursting and starchy.

Corn (Zea mays indentata)

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Corn varieties in this group have elongated and large kernels, with a depression on the top surface as they mature, making the kernels look like teeth. The plants of these varieties have strong stems, and they do not bush, and most of them have high yields, but are late maturing. This forage crop is widely cultivated in the United States, and is used as cattle feed and also processed into alcohol, flour and grits.

Corn starchy (Zea mays amylacea)

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

This variety of corn is one of the oldest, with wide cultivation in American countries. Of all the varieties, most are late maturing, the bushes are medium-grown and can be strongly to medium bushy.

The tops of the grains are convex, their surface smooth and matte, and their insides are floury and loose. These varieties are generally used for making starch and alcohol.

Silica corn (Zea mays indurata)

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Such varieties are most widely cultivated. The glossy, smooth kernel has a convex apex, and its color can be yellow or white. These varieties are used to make corn sticks and flakes as well as groats.

Most popular are the early maturing varieties which are known for their high yield and are the result of crossing between Tooth Corn and Flint Corn.

Corn bursting (Zea mays everta)

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

This variety is also one of the earliest varieties. The varieties belonging to this group have one characteristic: their grains break when heated. The seeds of these varieties are smooth and glossy and are used to produce popcorn. All varieties are divided into 2 subgroups, namely, pearl and rice, they differ from each other in shape and taste of grains.

On lushly foliated bushes grow a lot of relatively small cobs, which are densely packed with grains. Such varieties are cultivated in almost all countries.

Waxy corn (Zea mays ceratina)

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

This group includes the modified American varieties. The matte and smooth grains are covered on the outside with a layer that is similar to hard wax. The inside of the grains has a floury and sticky texture.

The most widely cultivated varieties of this group, of which there are relatively few, are in China.

Sugar corn (Zea mays saccharata)

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

In agriculture as well as in amateur vegetable farming, varieties of this group are most popular. The main feature of these varieties is that the ripening grains accumulate a large amount of water-soluble sugars with little starch content. These varieties are used for canning. The bushes of this variety are relatively low and bushy, with several cobs growing on them.

The color of the grains may be different, and it depends on the variety. Among them there are red, golden and black corn. There is also an unpopular hybrid that is not of high value - nasal, or sharp-grained corn. There is also Caragua corn, which is cultivated in North America and used for making silage.

The hybrids and varieties that are the best will be described in more detail below:

  1. Lacomka 121.

    This variety is characterized by high yield and disease resistance, with a vegetation period of 70 to 75 days. It is about 150 cm tall and produces cylindrical cobs about 20 cm long. The elongated and wide grains are very juicy and sweet. This corn is used for freezing and also for boiling.

  2. Dobrynya.

    This early maturing hybrid with large cobs is about 1.7 m tall and has very sweet kernels. Any soil is excellent for growing this corn, and it is also resistant to mosaic and rust.

  3. Pioneer. This hybrid is among the best, related to the flint corn.

    It is characterized by its resistance to frost and very high yields, which are observed under all weather conditions. But it is not particularly popular with gardeners, as the grains are not very tasty and not too sweet. Such corn is fed to livestock, and it is also used for processing.

  4. Spirit. This hybrid is characterized by its resistance to pests and diseases, as well as its productivity.

    This plant tolerates very well chemical treatments. The seeds taste sweet.

  5. Singenta. This Austrian hybrid is notable for its yield, and it also grows well in mid-latitude conditions. The tooth-shaped grains contain a lot of nutrients.

    It is used to feed livestock and to make cereals."

  6. Early Golden 401. This medium-ripening variety has low-growing bushes. The cobs are about 19 centimeters long and contain tasty kernels. This corn is used for canning.

  7. Erlikon. This variety belongs to the bursting corn group. Under the influence of high temperatures, the kernels enlarge very much, resulting in a large resilient popcorn with high taste qualities. The kernels contain a great deal of sugar, which distinguishes it from other bursting varieties.

Hybrids and varieties of corn.

Field Day Ust-Labinsk District, Krasnodar Region

Corn properties: benefits and harms

Beneficial properties of corn

Corn: planting and care in the open field, growing from seed

Human has known for ages that corn has medicinal properties. Besides starch it contains phosphorus, nickel, potassium, copper and magnesium, vitamins D, C, K, PP and group B. And corn stigmas contain fatty oil, essential oil, saponins, gum-like and bitter glycoside-like substances, steroids stigmasterol and sitosterol. The leaflets contain esters of phenolcarboxylic acids (such as caffeic and ferulic acids), quercitin, flavonoids, rutin and some glycosides.

Specialists believe that if corn kernels are included in the daily diet, it will improve metabolic processes in the body and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke and diabetes.

Nutritionists believe that corn is good to eat daily for people of age, as it helps to preserve and improve eyesight, because the yellow grains contain carotenoids. Only dairy tender kernels are recommended for eating, and overripe corn is much less digestible to the body.

If one large spoonful of corn oil is consumed in the morning and evening with meals, it will be an excellent prevention of migraines, asthma and skin diseases, and it also helps to strengthen the contraction of gall bladder walls and increase its tone. This oil is valued because it contains unsaturated fatty acids (linolenic, linoleic, arachidonic), they are involved in metabolic processes and the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. If people suffering from coronary sclerosis regularly consume such oil, it will significantly reduce the tendency to thrombosis.

The oil contains a large amount of biologically active phosphatides, which have a positive effect on brain tissue, regulating the amount of cholesterol in the body, and they also help to build up protein in the body. If the body has too little phosphatides, it leads to an increased accumulation of fat, as well as the deposition of cholesterol in the tissues. Such oil is still used in the treatment of atherosclerosis as well as for its prevention.

Corn. Health benefits and harms.

Contraindications

Hygenically modified corn, which is resistant to pests, has pollen that contains dangerous poisonous substances that can kill any insect. In this regard, it is not recommended to eat such grains until experts understand whether they pose a danger to humans. It should be remembered that if you eat such "food mutants", the risk of obesity, allergies, and other consequences of metabolic disorders will increase many times.

As corn promotes bloating of the intestines, you should refrain from consuming it in case of acute gastric and duodenal ulcer disease. It is not recommended to include in your diet this plant in case of high blood clotting and thrombophlebitis, as well as in case of low body weight, because corn reduces the appetite.

Corn oil should not be eaten by people with obesity and also if they have an individual intolerance to the product.

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