The herbaceous annual plant coriander (Coriandrum sativum), also called vegetable coriander, is a member of the Coriander genus of the Umbrella family. It is commonly used as a spice in cooking and as a flavoring agent in soap making, perfumery and cosmetics. This species is a melliferous plant. Coriander gets its name from a Greek word, and some scholars think it's derived from the word for "bug". The immature plant produces an odor similar to that of a bedbug when it is crushed.
Other experts believe that the derivative word has a homonym that means "St. John's Wort. Because of this, it is not known exactly why coriander was named as such. Another thing to know is that coriander and cilantro are the same plant. To date, exactly where this crop came from is unknown, according to one version from the Mediterranean.
The plant came to Great Britain, Central and Western Europe from Rome, and was later introduced from Europe to New Zealand, America and Australia. Today, cilantro is widely cultivated in the Caucasus, Central Asia, Ukraine and Crimea.
Brief description of cultivation
- Potting. For indoor cultivation, seeds are sown from early to mid-March and sown in open soil in May-March.
Shaded or well-lit site.
- Ground. Loamy or sandy loam soil, which should be slightly alkaline or neutral.
- Pouring. The seedlings should be watered abundantly and systematically.
When the seedlings appear, watering should be reduced, and the soil on the plot should be slightly moist all the time. After the bushes will begin to actively grow green mass, they need to start watering abundantly again, otherwise they will go into bloom. During fruit ripening, water cilantro sparingly again.
- Fertilizer. If the necessary fertilizer has been applied to the soil before sowing, then the bushes need not be fertilized.
- Propagation. By seeds.
- Pests. Seed-eaters, umbrella and striped bugs, winter moths and its caterpillars.
Rasmulariasis, rust and powdery mildew.
- Properties. The greens of this plant are noted for their anti-cinnamon, analgesic, diuretic, anthelmintic and expectorant effects. The fruit of coriander is a popular spice.
Peculiarities of coriander
Cilantro is an herbaceous annual plant.
The root shape is spindle-shaped, the bare upright stem varies in height from 0.4 to 0.7 m, which branched at the top. Radical leaf laminae are long-cellular, coarsely dissected with broad lobes, with an incised-serrate edge. Lower stem leaves are short-cellular, twice pinnatipartite, with the upper and middle ones sheath-like, pinnatipartite, linearly dissected into lobules.
On the tops of the peduncles are umbrella-like inflorescences, with 3-5 rays consisting of white or pink small flowers. Fruits are ribbed, hard ovoid or globular-shaped lobules. Flowering occurs in June-July, fruit ripening time depends on climate and occurs in July-September. The seeds remain germinate for 2 years. The fragrant herbs are called coriander and are used dried or fresh with the seeds used as a spice called coriander.
CINS AND CORIANDR, IS THAT ONE AND ONE?
Growing coriander on your windowsill
You can grow coriander on your windowsill if you want, in which case you will have fresh herbs on your table all the time. These greens contain a lot of vitamins and other substances that are very useful and necessary for the human body. Seeds are sown in seedlings from the beginning to the middle of March. The seeds should be evenly distributed on the surface of the moistened soil mixture, keeping between them a distance of about 70 mm, and they are sunk into the substrate about 10-15 mm. Seeds should top cover with clear plastic or glass, and then the container is placed in a warm and well-lit place.
If the daylight hours are still too short over the crops need to install a phytolamp or daylight lamp at a height of 20 to 25 centimeters.
Taking care of the seedlings is very easy. Water only when necessary, ventilate them systematically, and be sure to remove any condensation from the cover. After the seedlings have formed cotyledon leaf plates, the glass should be removed. The first greens can be cut after 20 days.
❤🏡Sowing coriander (cilantro). A vegetable garden on the windowsill!!! /balcony
Sowing coriander in the open ground
To grow coriander in the open ground, choose a plot where cucumbers, zucchini and patissons and their relatives have grown before. The site should be sunny and well protected from draughts. It can also be grown in a shady place, but the shade is not suitable because the cilantro grows weak and has few leaves and early flower arrows, but the fruit is small and takes a long time to ripen. Lowland growing areas are not suitable for cilantro because they would get soaked before it had time to ripen.
This crop thrives very well in slightly alkaline or neutral soils that should be loamy or sandy loam. The plots should be prepared before sowing coriander by digging the ground and mixing it with humus (about ½ a bucket per square meter) combined with a small amount of wood ash. Instead, complex mineral fertilizer (20 to 30 grams per 1 square meter) can be applied to the soil. Sowing is done in March-May. Sprouts begin to appear already at a soil temperature of 4 to 6 degrees, but the warmer the soil, the faster the seedlings will appear.
We should make not very deep furrows, with them to place dry seeds in 2 or 3 pieces, between which the distance from 80 to 100 mm. The distance between the furrows should be 10 to 15 centimeters, in this case the growing bushes will not cover each other from the sun. The seeds are buried in the ground for 15-20 mm. Then the seeds should be watered. The time it takes for seedlings to emerge depends on the variety of coriander, storage conditions and weather, and varies from 7 to 20 days.
SOWING CORIANDR - KINZA Video Lesson by Olga Chernova April 13, 2017
After the seedlings have grown up, they will need thinning, in which case each plant will have enough space to grow and develop normally. Of those seedlings that have grown in the same nest, the strongest should be left and the rest should be uprooted. Then you should water and weed in good time as well as loosen up the soil around the bushes.
How to water
Seeds should be watered often and abundantly because the germinating seeds should not lack liquid. Once the seedlings appear, watering should be reduced, but the soil on the bed should be slightly moist all the time.
After the active growth of green mass, the abundance of watering increases, if this is not done, the bushes too early will go into flower. After the ripening of fruits, watering should become very sparing. When the bed has been watered or it has rained, the surface must necessarily be loosened, or else the greens will be few and the inflorescences will grow quite early.
Fertilizing the cilantro
Fertilizer is recommended to be applied to the soil before sowing the seeds. No fertilizing is done during the growing season.
The site for sowing should be prepared in the autumn, for this purpose during the digging of the soil potassium-phosphorus fertilizer and compost, while in the spring just before sowing the seeds - nitrogen fertilizers.
Greens are collected as they grow. After the flower stalks are formed, the greens will become much smaller, the leaves will become coarser, and their nutritional value will decrease. If the crop is cared for properly and the rules of agrotechnics of cilantro are followed, 3 harvests of greens can be harvested per season.
In the area where this crop was grown, eggplants and other members of the Solanaceae family can be planted the following year.
The best coriander (cilantro) varieties, how to plant and care for coriander
Cilantro Diseases and Pests
If coriander is not cared for properly or if the cultivation practices are not followed, The shrubs may be infested with rust, ruminariasis or powdery mildew.
Ramulariosis is a fungal disease that develops actively in high humidity if it is very cold in the summer and there is heavy dew in the morning. Such a disease can destroy coriander bushes. On the surface of the leaf plates are formed spots of brown color, they eventually appear pale gray powder. Outwardly, the bush looks like burnt, and rather quickly dies.
To prevent this, seed should be dressed with a solution of Fitosporin-M before sowing, but it should not be sown in an area where cilantro grew last year this season.
Another fungal disease is rust, it is very common and can be very damaging to this crop. Affected shrubs develop dark red pustules on the surface of their leaf blades that over time tear and deposit fungus spores that are carried around by insects or the wind. To prevent the bush from getting rusty, you must take the same preventive measures as against ramuliasis.
Mildew is also a fungal disease.
A whitish patina forms on the above-ground part of the affected plant. After a while, this plaque becomes denser and turns brown. The disease is most active in dry and hot weather with rapid changes in temperature and humidity. Even a large amount of nitrogen in the soil can contribute to the development of the disease. All sick bushes should be removed from the soil as soon as possible and destroyed.
To get rid of the disease, you can resort to folk remedies, which are not toxic: treat the foliage with a solution of soda ash or fresh barnyard milk, yogurt or infusion of fermented weed.
The cilantro plant may be infested by Striped and Umbrella Bugs, Seed Beetles, and winter moth caterpillars.
Since spraying insecticides is not recommended, the seed must be pickled before sowing to prevent the seed beetles from getting on the bushes. In the autumn time it is necessary to clean the plot from all plant residues, and also the soil at this time will need deep recultivation.
If bed bugs or moth caterpillars appeared on bushes, they will need to be collected by hand.
If very many coriander plants grow, the bushes can be treated with a solution of either wood ashes or mustard, or with infusion of onion husks.
The following Coriander varieties that are most popular with vegetable growers are described below.
- Caribbean. This hybrid Dutch variety appeared relatively recently. There are very many leaves on the bushes, which have a strong and pleasant odor.
This annual plant is frost-resistant. Its leaves are very delicate and can be used to flavor first and second courses as well as in salads while its seeds are used in pastries and marinades.
- Amber. The variety is characterized by delayed sprouting. There is a large number of very fragrant leaves on the bushes.
This plant contains a lot of essential oils, its greens are added to first and second courses and also to salads, at the same time the seeds are used for preparation of sausages, confectionery and marinades.
- Borodinsky. This sort of medium-ripening can be eaten fresh or used for seasoning. Its flavor is very pleasant and its aroma is delicate.
This medium-ripening variety is resistant to stemming. It is used in marinades and various dishes.
- Stimulus. It is a medium-late variety. The bush has a compact rosette consisting of dark green shiny leafy plates, it reaches 25-30 centimeters across.
This cilantro can be added to meat dishes, salads and soups.
- Venus. This late maturing variety has a raised leaf rosette. The greens have a pleasant taste and exquisite smell, they are added to salads and used to decorate various dishes, the seeds are used to flavor bread and confectionary products, and also in the preparation of marinades.
A late-ripening spicy variety that has a large number of richly colored leaves, they have a not-so-common odor. The seeds are used as a condiment, and the herbs are added to a variety of dishes.
- Avangard. This medium-ripening variety is a low-growing variety. The leaf rosette is raised and has a strong odor.
The seeds are added to marinades, and dried and fresh leaves are added to a variety of dishes.
Some other popular cilantro varieties are Alekseevski, Market King, Early, Kirovogradski and October.
Properties of coriander: Benefits and Harm
Beneficial properties of coriander
The shoots and leaves of coriander contain rutin, carotene, vitamins, trace minerals and essential oils, while the fruits contain steroidal compounds, tannins, sucrose, fructose, glucose, polyphenols, fatty oils, pectin, alkaloids, starch and essential oil. This plant is made even more useful by the fact that it contains a mixture of organic acids: linoleic, oleic, isoleic, ascorbic, myristic, stearic and palmitic.
Coriander is noted for its anti-cinnamic, analgesic, diuretic, anthelmintic and expectorant effects.
It helps to increase appetite, lower blood pressure, disinfect the gastrointestinal tract, improve intestinal motility and vision, enhance potency, stimulate the kidneys, and cilantro also helps with insomnia, eliminates swelling and relieves nervous tension, energizes and tones.
The juice of this crop helps reduce bleeding gums and strengthen them, eliminate toothache and disinfect the mouth in stomatitis. The greens help to cleanse the human body of harmful cholesterol, and also have a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system. If you eat a few coriander leaves, you can reduce the effects of alcohol and get rid of hangover syndrome.
Coriander - use, treatment of many diseases
Coriander cannot be eaten in diabetes, coronary heart disease, thrombosis and thrombophlebitis, after a heart attack and stroke and also by pregnant and nursing women.
If you eat too much cilantro, it can harm even a completely healthy person: there is a violation of the menstrual cycle and sleep, as well as a weakening of the memory. In some cases, overeating greens can cause allergies: abdominal pain, vomiting, an itchy rash on the surface of the skin, nausea and stool disorders. As soon as the first allergy symptoms are noticed, an antihistamine should be taken immediately, otherwise complications such as Quincke's edema and anaphylactic shock may appear soon enough..