The herbaceous perennial plant cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) is a member of the Rubus genus of the Pink family. It produces fruits that can be consumed as food. The scientific name of this plant was formed from the ancient Greek word for "on the ground" and the Latin word for "mulberry", resulting in "ground mulberry". Cloudberry is called both the bush and its berries. Other popular names for this plant include swamp fire, marsh guardian, north orange, arctic raspberry, mossy currant, gloshin' and tsar's berry.
Where can I find cloudberries in the wild? This crop is widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere. This perennial prefers to grow in mossy bushes, in the northern forest belt, in peat bogs and in the tundra. Cloudberry can also be found in Siberia, Belarus, the middle belt of Russia, and the Far East. Cloudberry is cultivated for its fruits, which are used to make juice, jam, marmalade, compote and other preparations for the winter. These fruits also have medicinal properties which are used for medicinal purposes.
In Scandinavia and the U.S., this crop is grown on an industrial scale. And in Finland on a coin in two euros is the image of cloudberry, and in this country at the moment is carried out an experiment on greenhouse cultivation of such plants. The popularity of this culture is due to the fact that in its fruits is a large number of biologically active substances.
And also, because these berries have medicinal properties, which are used in the treatment of certain diseases. Moreover, cloudberry is used in both traditional and folk medicine.
Peculiarities of cloudberry
The cloudberry is a herbaceous plant or semi-shrub. The bush is about 0.3 m tall.
Its long, branched rhizome is creeping. Shoots thin upright. The alternately petiolate five-lobed leaf laminae are irregularly cupped along the edge and have a wrinkled surface painted greenish with brown spots. One shoot usually has 2 or 3 leaflets. The flower is apical and colored white.
Flowers are unisexual, which means that only the pistil is observed to develop on some and stamens on others. The fruit is a assemblage knuckle, reaching 15 mm in cross-section, similar in appearance to a raspberry. Immature berries are red-yellow in color; when ripe, their color changes to orange and the berries become almost transparent, as if made of amber. They ripen in July and August.
Cloudberry Useful properties
Propagating cloudberries in the open ground
The seed method as well as the vegetative method of cuttings are used for breeding cloudberries.
But both of these methods are time-consuming and ineffective. A more reliable and simple method is to buy a seedling from a reputable seller, and the bush can also be dug in the forest if possible and planted in your plot. Found in the forest, a good cloudberry bush with large fruits pleasant to the taste in September can be carefully dug out together with an earthy root ball. The root system should be carefully packed in a bag of paper. It is best to plant the bush in a new place without removing this sack, because cloudberry is quite difficult to transplant, and there is no need to stress the plant by wrapping its roots in sackcloth, and before planting - unwrapping.
The paper sack should be wrapped in polyethylene to keep the root system moist, but it is best not to plant too long.
A site suitable for planting should be open and sunny. And the soil should be well-drained, moist, rich in nutrients and slightly acidic (pH 4.5-5).
Prepare a hole for planting, the approximate size of which should be 0.
5x0.5 m. Man-made marsh slurry is used to fill it. To do this, the walls of the pit should be surrounded by waterproofing material, for example: roofing felt, clay or thick film. The bottom should also be lined with clay film, with a few holes in it.
Then fill the ready-made pit with substrate, which consists of high peat and forest floor (3:1), it contains necessary mycorrhizae. The substrate should be well compacted and abundantly watered. Do not fill the hole up to the top, the substrate should be below its edge by about 10 centimeters. The seedling should be placed in the pit, without removing the paper bag (it will eventually decompose). Fill the pit with the same soil mixture, and there should be so much of it that it rises as a small hill above the surface of the plot.
The plant plant planted should be watered. After the substrate has settled, the surface of the root zone should level out.
Garden care for cloudberry
If you planted the cloudberry in autumn, start caring for it in spring when it starts to grow. It will need to be systematically watered abundantly, weeded, and loosen the surface of the plot around the bushes. The plant should be watered only with lukewarm water, which needs to be removed from chlorine.
It's recommended to water in the evening every day, taking 50 to 80 liters of water per 1 square meter of area. At times in the water for irrigation need to add a couple of grams of citric or acetic acid. To reduce the number of waterings to 2 or 3 every 7 days, the surface of the plot should be covered with a thick layer of mulch (peat).
In the first 2 or 3 years of cloudberry growth special attention should be paid to systematic weeding and loosening of the plot. As the culture grows, weeds cannot harm it.
The bushes will bloom in the 2nd or 3rd decade of May. Care should be taken to ensure that the flowers are not affected by frosts, for this purpose, cloudberry should be covered with spunbond at night.
In the second year of growth, after the bushes have ovaries, they need fertilization. A solution of complex mineral fertilizer (1 big spoon per half a bucket of water) is used for this purpose. Organic fertilizer is not recommended for nutrition.
Collecting and storing cloudberry
Collect the fruits as they ripen, starting in July. Harvest within half a month, after which the overripe fruits will fall apart in your hands and are unfit for processing. Pluck orange, half-transparent berries with sepals, and put them in not very high cans or buckets. Later cut sepals are used as medicinal raw material. They should be protected from direct sunlight during the collection and also during transportation, so containers should be covered with burdock leaves or a clean cloth, but never with polyethylene.
This berry is very badly stored, especially if it is overripe. In connection with this knowing people recommend to prepare sugar syrup before you go to get the berries, which will be good for making jam from the over-ripe Cloudberry. It is recommended to make compote from those berries, which are not ripe. As medicinal plants the fruits, leaves and roots of Cloudberry are all extracted in October or November.
Main species and varieties
A lot of gardeners think that Cloudberry and its relative Polenica are one and the same plant.
Despite the fact that the cocklebur and cloudberry belong to the same genus, they are different. Today, there are no garden varieties of cloudberry.
The properties of cloudberry: harms and benefits
Beneficial properties of cloudberry
A plant like cloudberry is considered unique and its effect on the human body is impressive. It contains such substances as: proteins, pectins, organic acids, fiber, sugars, tannins, phytoncides, antioxidants, fatty acids, plant sterols, vitamins C, A, PP, B1 and B2, as well as microelements of the hematopoietic series potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, aluminum, cobalt, calcium, iron and silicon. As a result of this rather diverse composition, this plant is distinguished by its diaphoretic, rejuvenating, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, anticancer, fixative, wound healing, astringent, anti-inflammatory, general strengthening, immunomodulatory, diuretic, regenerative, choleretic, antichingotic and anti-fever effects.
The use of the roots, fruits and leaves of this crop can get rid of serious diseases, such as: intestinal and liver diseases, kidney pathologies, and there is also a normalization of the cardiovascular system, as well as the disappearance of biliary tract problems. Eating the fruit helps to prevent the development of fermentation and putrefaction processes in the digestive tract, eliminate avitaminosis, restore biochemical processes, and also helps to cure skin diseases and colds, and stop internal bleeding. More fruits are recommended for use in chronic fatigue, disorders of digestion, cystitis, diarrhea, dropsy, gout, ascites, scabies and angina. Cloudberry can cure tuberculosis and cough, and it is also used as a tonic people who have suffered a serious illness. This fruit is also used in cosmetics, for example Lumene makes a regenerating cream with vitamin C and cloudberry.
Why is cloudberry so expensive? Diary of a mushroom grower July 22, 2017.
The cloudberry fruit should not be eaten by people suffering from gastritis with high acidity, duodenal and stomach ulcers, especially during the exacerbation of the disease. Also, they should not be eaten if they are individually intolerant..