The plant Cyrtomium is a member of the family Aspidiaceae. This genus includes more than 10 species, and the most common in indoor culture is Cyrtomium sickle-shaped (Cyrtomium falcatum). This plant is native to southern Africa, Hawaii, Korea, South America, India, Japan and the Himalayas. However, Cyrtomium prefers to grow in subtropical and tropical latitudes. Although it is tolerant of cold, the fern can only be cultivated outdoors in regions with a warm climate.
In temperate latitudes it is recommended to grow it only in indoor conditions, as in the open ground it will freeze to death in winter even if covered.
This plant is also often called Phanerophlebia. However, it still has several names in the people, namely: "Haddock", "holly fern" and "holly leaf".
This perennial herbaceous plant can reach a height of 0.4 to 0.
6 meters. It has an ascending or erect rhizome, which is rather short. Its surface, along with its basal parts, has a dense coating of scales. These scales are usually bicolored, but can also vary in color from brownish-black to dark brown. The scales are tapered at the top, and their shape may be broadly lanceolate or ovoid, with a fringed, solid, ciliate or serrated edge.
The leaves of ferns are called bracts and form a broad rosette. The peristyled leaf plates have suproposed lobes (leaflets). The successive leaflets are saber-shaped and vary in length from 0.35 to 0.5 metres.
The leaves are bright green and leathery to the touch. The lobes of the leaf blades are acuminate at the apex and can be lanceolate, broadly lanceolate, linear-lanceolate, oval-lanceolate or deltoid-ovate in shape. Their edge is, as a rule, wavy, and 1 or more leaves at the apex have 2 teeth at the base.
The surface of leaf laminae has clearly visible veins, which form a reticulate pattern. Their front surface is glossy, they have short petioles, which are often pubescent with hairs.
In specialized stores, the most common variety is 'Rochfordianum', the edges of its leaflets being serrated.
On the surface of the leaflets there are roundish sporangia, which are special organs whose task is to form spores. The same organs are present in fungi and algae. The sporangia of Cyrtomium are orange or brown in color. Sporangia are located on the underside surface of the leaf plates, and they cover the leaf evenly.
This fern is suitable for both experienced and novice growers. The fact is that it differs in its unpretentious care. The only thing to consider is the fact that chrysotomium refers to slow-growing plants. The fern grows especially slowly when it is young, and even the adult bush only grows a few leaf plates during the year.
Care. Cyrtomium falcatum Rochfordianum Japanese.
Home care of Cyrtomium
In natural conditions, Cyrtomium prefers to grow under trees in the lacy shadow of their branches. That is why at home, it is recommended to choose a place with diffused sunlight for such a plant. Also, the bush can be put in a shady place.
It is best suited for it a window sill with a northern orientation. If you put the fern on some other window, it will need shading from direct sunlight. If you only have room for the flower near the south window, then place it as far into the room as possible, trying to keep it in the shade.
In the spring and summer months the plant feels most comfortable in the warmth of 23 to 25 degrees. However, if the room will be very hot, it will be necessary to increase the level of humidity.
Specialists advise, in winter put the bush in a cool room (15 to 18 degrees). Be extremely careful during airing at any time of the year, because the cirtomyum reacts extremely negatively to a draft.
This plant does not need increased air humidity. It is quite comfortable in a room with dry air. But on hot summer days, when the room is very hot, the shrub needs a mandatory increase in air humidity.
You can do this by humidifying it systematically with a sprayer or by using a household humidifier.
Although in nature cirtomyum prefers to grow in shaded places with high humidity, you should not moisten the potting soil too much because this can lead to rotting of the root system. But watering should be abundant and regular.
In spring and summer, moisten the potting soil once every 2 or 3 days on average. When the plant is cool in winter, it does not need much moisture and is watered about once every 7 days.
Water must be soft and at a temperature slightly above room temperature.
Feeding is done once every 3 or 4 months during the growing season. Mineral complex fertilizers are used, which are applied to the soil mixture in the form of a solution. Its concentration should be 2 times weaker than that indicated on the package by the manufacturer. Organic fertilizers can also be used to fertilize the shrub, e.
g. cowpea solution.
Planting of cirthomium
Planting ferns is usually done in the springtime, but only if necessary, for example if it has become very overgrown. The fact is that its root system is quite fragile. Make a layer of drainage at the bottom of the flower pot, the thickness of which should be equal to 20-30 mm.
To do this you can use pieces of bricks, medium-sized pebbles or expanded clay, as well as shards of ceramic or clay products. Transplant cirtomium method of transplanting: in this case, the bush is pulled out of the old container very accurately and planted in a new pot, while trying not to destroy the soil clod. Next, all the voids are filled with fresh earth mixture. After transplanting, check the root neck, it should not be buried, it should definitely be left at the same level. During transplanting, you can use commercially available ready-made soil mixes made specifically for ferns.
They should be loose and well-drained. If you want, the substrate can be made your own hands, for this purpose combine leaf soil, peat and sand in the proportion 1:2:1. To increase the drainage qualities of the substrate, it is recommended to add small amounts of small pieces of pine bark and charcoal, as well as chopped sphagnum.
You can propagate the indoor fern by splitting its rhizome or by growing it from freshly picked spores.
Root division multiplies the fern in the spring and this procedure is combined with re-potting.
A mature and very overgrown shrub is suitable for this purpose. To begin with, take the flower out of the container and remove excess soil from its rhizome. Take a very sharp knife and carefully divide the rhizome into several parts. In this case, the cut parts of the bush should be quite large: on the dividers should be several leaf plates, root shoots and at least three points of growth.
Further, all the cuts should be treated with charcoal powdered to a powdery state.
If necessary, normal activated charcoal tablets can be used instead, and these are also crushed very thoroughly. Plant the dividers in individual containers, and be sure to make a layer of drainage at the bottom. For the first few weeks, do not expose the pieces to lots of sunlight and keep them in the shade.
Growing from spores
Growing Zyrtomium from spores is quite difficult. First, carefully scrape off the mature spores onto a paper leaf from the underside of the leaf wyes.
Carefully make an envelope out of it and leave it in the open air to allow the spores to dry out. For them to germinate successfully, you will need to construct a mini greenhouse with bottom heating. Take a tall and wide container with a lid (preferably made of plastic) and put an ordinary brick on its bottom. Then top it with a layer of clean peat. Pour distilled water into the container so that its height is about 50 mm.
When the container is prepared for sowing, take the spores and spread them evenly over the surface of the peat. Cover the crops with a lid on top (you can use clear glass or film instead). In order to be successful, the water level must not be allowed to drop and the air temperature must be kept between 20 and 22 degrees Celsius. Put the container in a shaded area.
A few months later the surface of the substrate will be covered with green moss.
When this happens the water level should be raised slightly. For some time the sprouts should be under a thin layer of water. If everything is done correctly, after a while the seedlings will form small leaves. Once the seedlings have reached a height of 50 mm, they should be transplanted into individual containers.
Seeding spores from the Ceratomium fern
If you did not provide optimal growing conditions for your Zyrtomium at home, it is very likely that mealybugs, spider mites or scale mites may settle on the plant.
To get rid of such pests, several treatments with a suitable insecticide will be needed.
The florist may also have the following problems with such ferns:
- Slow growth and faded leaf plates. The bush is suffering from excess sunlight. Move it to a more shaded location.
- Brownish spots appear on the upper boles and the lower boles turn yellow.
This is due to excessive watering and stagnant water in the substrate. Moss can also appear on the surface of the soil mixture.
- Drying and curling of the leaves. This is caused by a drying out of the root ball in the pot. Remove all the leaf buds and water the fern well.
After a while, young green leaves will grow on the bush.
- The bush begins to grow more slowly, the leaves will wilt and salt stains will appear on the surface of the pot. The fern is watered with excessively hard water.
- Slow growth. This may also be because the bush needs feeding.
Cyrtomium and superstitions
As with many other ferns, there are many superstitions and omens associated with the cyrtomium. For example, there is an opinion that such a fern will make its owner more enduring and stronger.
But most superstitious flower growers believe that absolutely all ferns are energy vampires, and therefore they must not be kept in their apartment in any way. There is an opinion that for the normal well-being of the plant requires a large amount of energy. That is why it takes it away from everyone possible, and people are no exception.
However, flower growers with experience are sure that this property is easy to neutralize: simply move the bush to a place that is considered energetically unfavorable, for example, place it near the TV or computer.
Scientists have long studied such a plant and can tell you exactly why when growing cirtomium in room conditions residents can feel bad. First, allergy sufferers may have an allergic reaction to the spores that form on the underside of the leaves. Secondly, if the bush is in the bedroom, a person in the morning can feel severe headaches. The fact is that in the dark time of the day, the plant absorbs a large amount of oxygen from the air and contributes to the release of carbon dioxide.
If a person was born under the constellation Gemini, then for him the cirtomium can become a real "living" amulet. The fact is that such a fern improves its owner's sociability and also helps him to find a common language with other people quicker.
The species of Cyrtomium with photos and names
Cyrtomium sickle-shaped (Cyrtomium falcatum)
Like Phanerophlebia sickle-shaped (Phanerophlebia falcata). Under natural conditions this species can be found in Japan and also in the African continent (in its southern parts, e.g.
South Africa). This perennial spectacular plant forms a lush, spreading shrub consisting of a number of leafy plates. Its height is usually not more than 0.6 meter and it can reach about 0.2 meter in diameter.
It is fairly tolerant of low humidity and cold.
The leaflets are pinnately dissected, consisting of rich green leaf lobes covered with a pale gray patina. These unpaired leaves have short petioles. The leaf blade is about 10 centimeters wide on average, but can be as long as 0.35-0.
5 meters. The irregularly parted edges of the leaves have small, sparse teeth.
This species has a variety, "Rochfordianum". It is more showy because its surface is glossy and dense. However, this variety is not as resistant to cold as the basic species.
That is why it is not grown outdoors but often cultivated at home.
Cyrtomium fortunei (Cyrtomium fortunei)
This plant is native to the Japanese islands, Korea and China. Most often the foliage of this fern is lodging-like, it gradually grows to form low, dense thickets (clumps). Such thickets can grow to 100 cm in diameter and vary in height from 30 to 60 cm. The ovate, oblong or triangular leaf lobes are pale gray, dark green or greenish.
Unlike other species, the leaflets are relatively far apart on the petiole. The petiole may be dark brown or brownish-brown in color and up to 10 centimeters long. The surface of the middle vein has pubescence, and one leaf lobes consist of 20-30 leaf lobes.
This species differs from the others in its frost-resistance, that's why it is often cultivated in the open air. However, in order for the bush not to die out in winter, it should be well covered.
But it should be taken into account that with the onset of spring the fern will lose its former attractiveness. And in regions with frosty winters, the bush does not survive until spring.
The most common variety among florists is "Civicola". Its narrow greenish-silvery leaf lobes have serrated edges.
Cyrtomium caryotideum (Cyrtomium caryotideum)
The rhizome surface is covered with brownish scales.
The dense bush is composed of many upright leafy wyes, and it can be up to 0.7 meters tall. The pinnate leafy bush consists of fairly large leaflets, with short denticles on the irregular edges. As a result, the leaf is prickly to the touch.
The leaf plate is composed of 3-6 pairs of broad-lanceolate leaf lobes.
They are covered with a grayish-green bloom, and there is a pointed tip on top of them. Due to their unusual shape, the leaflets resemble a feather. The surface of the petioles is covered with a dense layer of greenish-gray scales. There are also scales on the underside of the willow, but they are filiform in shape. Externally, the bush bears little resemblance to a fern.
Cyrtomium macrophyllum (Cyrtomium macrophyllum)
The vail has large, glossy leaf lobes placed on a rigid petiole. The leaf laminae are feather-like in shape. They are about 0.3 m wide and up to 0.7 m long.
Narrow, paired leaf lobes are oblong-lanceolate in shape and have a pointed apex. One leaf blade consists of 2 to 8 pairs of leaflets. On the underside surface of the leaflets pale grey or dark green sporangia can be seen, rounded in shape.
A sprawling shrub forms a spreading shrub over time. One bush may contain 10 to 15 pairs of greenish leaflets, which are broadly lanceolate in shape.
The leaf lobes are a maximum of 5 centimeters wide and can grow to 12-15 centimeters long. This species is least commonly found in room culture.
Part 1 | fern | cirtomium