Chubushnik (Philadelphus) is also called garden jasmine. It is directly related to a genus of semi-deciduous and deciduous shrubs, which are members of the hydrangea family. This shrub is called jasmine because the flowers of these plants are very similar in appearance and also have the same pleasant fragrance. Chubushnika philadelphus was so named in Latin in honor of the king of Egypt, Ptolemy Philadelphus. It is called chubushnik in connection with the fact that from a rather strong wood with a soft core made chubules and mouthpieces for pipes, designed for smoking.
Under natural conditions this plant can be found in Europe, North America and also in East Asia. There are 50-70 species of hickory in nature, but there are many varieties of this shrub in culture.
Peculiarities of hickory
The plant has many small trunks with gray bark on the surface, which is quite thin. On young stems, the bark is usually colored brown and peeling off. Such a shrub has very strong wood and a broad core.
The leaf plates are 2-7 centimeters long and their shape depends on the species and can be ovate, elongated or broadly ovate. Brush-like inflorescences are formed on the tops of young shoots. Flowers are fragrant and may be semi-maximum, simple or terry. The fruit is a three- to five-sided boll. Inside there are very small seeds.
Such a plant is frost-resistant, but you should keep in mind that different species of this shrub in the same climatic conditions can behave quite differently. If due to severe frosts in the winter time, the hickory tree will be severely damaged, it will not die. In this case, it is recommended to cut off all of its part above the ground. Due to its well-developed root system the plant will grow back quite quickly and will look beautiful again. Cultivation, care, planting, watering, propagation, flowering
Planting the chubushnik
When to plant the chubushnik
For planting this shrub, we recommend choosing a well lighted area away from trees, large bushes and buildings.
In a shaded place, the flowers of the hickory grow shallower and the stems become elongated. It will grow best in soil consisting of sand, humus and leaf soil (2:1:3). If the soil is poorly drained, a good drainage layer should be made at the bottom of the planting hole. Planting is recommended in autumn from the second half of September to mid-October. It can also be done in the spring but this must be done before the leaves sprout.
How to plant correctly
The distance between the bushes to be planted should vary according to the variety and can be between 0.5 to 1.5 meters. If a green hedge is created with this shrub then the gaps between the bushes should be about 0.5 to 0.
7 meters. The size of the hole should be 60x60x60. At the bottom you should make a fifteen-centimeter drainage layer of sand mixed with broken bricks. After that, it is necessary to pour a not very large amount of suitable soil mixture, its composition is mentioned above. It is recommended to prepare the pit in advance, namely 7-15 days before planting.
After settling the soil in the hole in it the seedling is placed so that the root neck was at the same level with the surface of the ground. After that, the hole should be filled with nutritious soil. When the plant is planted, it should be watered, with 20-30 liters of water per 1 bush. When the water is absorbed, the soil will settle, and then the necessary amount of dry soil should be poured into the hole. If suddenly after planting, the root neck will be under the ground at a depth of about 3 centimeters, then you should not worry.
But if it will be deeper, in this case, rot may appear on it. After 1-2 days, cover the planting circle with a layer of mulch (sawdust or peat), which should be 3-4 cm thick.
How to care for your hickory
You can tell if your hickory needs watering by its leaf plates. These shrubs react negatively to drought, and during a long dry spell, their foliage becomes sluggish and sagging. Once a week, 20-30 liters of water should be poured under each shrub, and when the plant blossoms, it will need almost daily watering.
When it is watered, you need to loosen the top layer of soil and pull out all the weeds in the process. In order to significantly reduce the number of watering, weeding and loosening, in the spring time the root circle should be covered with mulch. Once a year, experts advise, under each bush to pour one bucket of slurry (1:10), and it is better if you feed chubushnik in the spring. When the plant blossoms, then the surface of the root circle will need to pour wood ash, and then water. When the bush will be 4 years old can begin to fertilize it with mineral fertilizers, for this purpose for 1 bush takes 5 liters of water, 15 grams of potassium sulfate and urea, 30 grams of superphosphate.
When the plant blossoms, then 25 grams of superphosphate and 15 grams of potassium sulfate per 1 square meter of soil. If desired, instead of potassium, 100 to 150 grams of wood ash can be poured under each bush. Nitrogen fertilizers can only be used in the spring.
For the annual flowering to be abundant, the bush should be cut back regularly. Remember that a large number of flowers grow only on last year's relatively strong shoots, and fewer flowers appear on older stems.
Because of this, the shrub takes on an untidy, disheveled appearance. In this regard, you should cut off the branches on which there were flowers to the strong shoots of the current year, located below. Over time, these shoots gain strength and strengthen, and the next year they will produce many beautiful flowers. During the autumn pruning is also of a sanitary nature. So, you need to remove all branches that have been broken, sick and dried out, and also need to cut those of them that thicken the crown.
The same applies to the shoots. Once every 3 years, it is necessary to prune those stems which are more than 12 years old. Rejuvenating pruning is done early in the spring. A few trunks are selected and they are cut to a height of 30 centimeters, the remaining ones should be cut completely. Garden varnish is used to treat the cuts, and the root circle is covered with a layer of mulch (peat).
By autumn time, young rather strong shoots will grow from the dormant buds. During the sap movement, pruning is prohibited.
Trimming shrubs (Chubushnik). Site sadovymir.ru
How to transplant
The transplanted shrub takes root quite quickly especially if you have transplanted it following all the rules.
But it is worth remembering that the crown of the chubushnik will have to be cut completely, and for a whole year it will not be able to flower. About half a month before transplanting, you should prepare a hole, because the soil should settle. The day before transplanting it is necessary to water the bush well, and a day later it is necessary to cut off completely ½ of the old stems, while the remaining shoots should be shortened. The dug bush is placed in the prepared hole. After planting, the chubushnik should be abundantly watered.
Transplanting can be carried out from mid-September to the second half of October or in the spring before the buds open. It is worth considering that it is much better to transplant the shrub in the autumn because then you will not have to rush.
Pests and diseases
The spider mites, bean aphids, and green leaf weevil can settle on this plant. Rogor or Carbophos can be used to control the aphids. A solution of Fosfamide (2%) and Keltan emulsion (3%) should be used to kill spider mites.
The treatment should be repeated 2 or 3 times at 7-day intervals. Spray the bush with Chlorophos and this will kill the weevils as well as their larvae.
Cultivation features in the Moscow Region and Siberia
This plant is completely unpretentious, so it can be grown in the Moscow Region or other southern areas because it is winter-hardy. For growing in Siberia, it is best to choose special varieties of perennial chubushnik, which has a very powerful system of roots. Such a plant is distinguished by its high frost resistance, so it can withstand frost up to minus 35 degrees without covering.
In areas where there is a lot of snow, less frost-resistant varieties can also be cultivated.
Propagation of the hickory
This plant can be propagated very simply by seeds, cuttings, grafts and bush division. Growing hickory from seeds is relatively easy, but this method of propagation is not recommended for cultivars. The reason is that the seedlings you plant may not inherit their parental characteristics.
Before sowing the seeds, they should be subjected to stratification, which takes eight weeks, with the required temperature being 2-3 degrees.
In January the seeds are mixed with a moistened mixture of sand and peat, poured into a container and stored in the refrigerator in the vegetable compartment. In March, the seeds are sown in boxes filled with a soil mixture consisting of 2 parts peat, 1 part leaf soil, 1 part humus and ½ part sand. A thin layer of sand is poured over the sown seeds, and the container is covered with glass. The soil all the time should be a little humid, so its spraying will have to conduct 2 or 3 times a day. After 7-10 days the first seedlings should appear.
Once they have a few true leaves, they can be transplanted into open soil. The first time the transplanted seedlings should be protected from direct sunlight.
Propagation with green cuttings
Green cuttings root absolutely everything. Rather large developed shoots are used for cutting cuttings. At the same time, it is worth noting that growth shoots, which have a rather wide hollow core and at the same time the distance between their buds is quite large, are not suitable for this purpose.
The fact is that in these voids rot may well appear. The best and fastest rooting is the green cuttings with a heel (one-year shoots with a part of the last year's shoot). The bottom cut of the cuttings should be treated with a product that stimulates root growth. Planting is made in a container filled with a mixture of soil and sand, enriched with nutrients. Planting is done at a half-centimeter depth, adhering to the scheme 40x10.
On top of them must be covered with a hood of polyethylene or glass, put the container in a place where there is diffused light. Cuttings should be moistened quite often with a sprayer.
Springs are formed quite quickly and take root in 5-7 cases out of 10. This method of propagation is recommended after rejuvenating pruning, and the bush should be cut to a height of 5-7 centimeters from the surface of the ground. Around the bush, the soil should be dug up, fertilized and leveled.
The young shoot with a soft wire should be pulled next to the bud at the very bottom, then it is placed in a small groove (15 mm depth), fixed and covered with soil. From one bush it is quite possible to get several offshoots in one season if you place them radially. With the onset of spring, they should be cut off from the parent bush and dug up. They will have to be reared for a couple of years more.
Bush division multiplication
Before the sap starts to move in the spring or after all leaves have fallen from the sprawling bush in autumn, the hibiscus should be dug up.
Then it is divided into several divisions and in the shortest possible time planted them in prepared wells, so that they did not have time to dry out. In the process of dividing the bush, old branches should be cut off, and young shoots should be dug up.
Preparing for wintering
In the fall, when the plant is in bloom, thinning and sanitary pruning is done. The hibiscus is fertilized with potassium-phosphorus fertilizer and the soil surface around the bush is covered with a rather thick layer of mulch (sawdust or peat).
Wintering the bush is not necessary.
If any shoots are damaged by frost, the shrub will regrow in spring after pruning. There is no need to care for the shrub in winter.
Main species and varieties of hickory
Gardeners cultivate only a few species of hickory as well as many different varieties that have appeared thanks to breeders.
Chubushnik common, or pale (Philadelphus pallidus)
Her homeland is the Caucasus and the south of Western Europe. This species, grown in the suburbs of Moscow, is the very first to bloom.
This shrub is about 300 centimeters tall and its erect stems are glabrous. The simple elliptical oblong leaf plates are about 8 centimeters long. There are sparse serrations on the edge, and there is a pointed point at the top. The front side of the leaflet is bare and deep green, while the underside is light green and pubescent. The creamy white, fragrant flowers are about 3 centimeters in diameter.
They are part of inflorescences in the form of brushes (5-7 florets each). The plant is frost-resistant and can withstand temperatures as low as minus 25 degrees. There are ornamental forms: large-flowered, silvery-caired, low, golden, terry, as well as willow-leaved. Popular varieties:
This variety originated in 1909 and its creator is Lemoine. The bush can reach a height of 200 to 300 centimeters.
It is broadly crowned and the peeling bark on the shoots is brown in color. The pointed leaflets are 7 centimeters long, oval in shape and dark green, turning yellow in fall. In July, inflorescences appear in the form of clusters, reaching 14 centimeters in length. The terry white flowers are about 5 centimeters in diameter. This variety can remain ornamental for two decades.
Chubushnik Belle Etoile
This variety, bred by Lemoine, is his chief pride. In the middle latitudes, this plant does not exceed 100 centimeters in height, but in France it is somewhat taller (about 150 centimeters). The leaves are small and have a pulled-off top. The fragrance of the flowers is reminiscent of strawberries. They are simple have a bell shape and have a large carmine spot in the center.
They are about 4 centimeters in diameter.
The single flowers are about 5 centimeters in diameter. They grow on the tops of a lateral axillary shoot. The fluffy bush has a height of about 200 centimeters. It is often used in landscaping.
Chubushnik coronarius (Philadelphus coronarius)
The height of this southern European species is 300 centimeters. In the wild it can be found in Asia Minor, the Caucasus and southern Europe. Young shoots are covered with cracked bark colored brownish-red or light yellow. They are covered with dense foliage. Sparse denticles are arranged along the edge of opposite petiolate oval leaf blades.
Their front side is bare, while the reverse side is pubescent, located on the veins. Fragrant florets are about 5 centimeters in diameter and light white in color. They are part of the inflorescences that have the form of brushes and are located at the ends of shoots (5-7 pieces each). Flowering lasts about 20 days. Gas- and smoke-resistant.
It withstands frosts up to minus 25 degrees. Popular varieties:
This shrub is about 200-300 centimeters tall. It is fast-growing and has a globular crown consisting of rich yellow leaves. In summer they are yellow-green in color and do not change their color until they fall off in the fall. There are many flowers, which are difficult to distinguish against the background of the leaves.
However, you can guess flowering by the very pleasant smell emanating from the flowers.
Bowles Variety or Variegatus
The bush is about 300 centimeters tall. There is an irregular, rather wide, cream-colored band around the edges of its leaf plates.
The compact bush is not more than 200 centimeters tall. There are fragrant single, simple cream-colored flowers.
There are irregular spots of cream color on the leaf plates.
Lemoine's bush (Philadelphus x lemoinei)
This is a hybrid plant created by crossing the common bush and small-leaved bush. It is very popular with gardeners in North America and Europe. The height of the shrub with spreading branches is about 300 centimeters. The ovate, lanceolate leaflets are about 4 centimeters long.
The white fragrant rather large flowers are gathered 3-7 at a time in a tassel-like inflorescence. Popular varieties:
Horny Mantle (Manto d'Hermine)
The bush is not over 100 centimeters tall. There are beautiful semi-flowered flowers, colored white. Blooms profusely for about 6 weeks.
This maiden chubushnik blossoms small (about 2-2.
5 centimeters in diameter) fragrant white-colored flowers that are part of the brush-like inflorescences. The large leaves are dark green in color, turning yellow in the fall. The bush is about 200 centimeters tall.
The bush is about 200 centimeters tall. Large, fragrant, white flowers bloom in bunches on this terry-like chubushnik.
Blooms last about 20 days.
It is among the most showy of the chubushniks. The two-meter tall bush has large, thickly flushed white flowers that are almost odorless. They are part of the inflorescences (from 9 flowers and more). It should be remembered that the lower part of this plant is bare and in order to make it always look beautiful, experts recommend planting a shrub in front of it not tall.
The bush is about 200 centimeters tall. The mahre florets are white in color and are part of the inflorescences (7-9 pieces each). The abundant flowering lasts about 20 days.
Gardeners also grow such chubushniks as: Gordon's, thin-leaved, downy, small-leaved, Caucasian, Schrenk's, broad-leaved, gray-leaved, nonpowdery, krpuno-flowered.
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