The herbaceous plant celery (Apium) is a member of the Umbrella family. The most popular vegetable crop among vegetable gardeners is such a vegetable crop as celery (Apium graveolens). This crop is native to the Mediterranean, it is still found there in the wild. In the wild celery can be found in the Indian subcontinent and other Asian countries as well as in America and Africa, and it prefers to grow in damp places.
This plant was cultivated by people long ago, for example in ancient Greece they had a special way of growing it and used only the leaf petioles as food.
In other countries of the ancient world, this culture was a sacred plant, for example, in the Roman Empire and Egypt, celery was used to make ornaments for tombs, and the food, which included such a plant, was used to commemorate the deceased. On European territory, such a culture became popular in the 18th century, and at first it was grown only for decorative purposes, and only after a while it began to be used as a food. Today, this plant is becoming more and more popular every year.
Brief description of growing
- Sowing. Root celery is sown for seedlings in the last days of February, and leaf celery half a month later.
The seedlings are planted outdoors in the first days of May.
- Lightness. A well-lit area.
- Ground. Suitable soil should be light loose and nutritious; loamy or sandy loam soil, which should be neutral or slightly alkaline, is best.
- Watering. Watered once every 7 days, 2 to 2,5 buckets of water per square meter. During the season it will be necessary to carry out 4 fertilizers: Nitrophoska solution fertilizes seedlings 7 days after picking; herbal infusion 7 days after transplanting seedlings into open soil; after half a month fertilize with cowpea solution or chicken manure; superphosphate solution in the last days of July.
- Propagation. Generative (seed) method.
- Pests. Celery (borscht) flies, carrot flies, bean aphids.
- Diseases. Rust, septoriosis (late blight, or white spot), cercosporosis (early blight), peronosporosis, and cucumber mosaic virus.
Features of celery
The herbaceous plant celery is a biennial, it reaches about 100 centimeters in height and has a thickened root.
During the first year of growth, the shrubs form a root crop as well as a rosette consisting of shiny, pinnately dissected, dark green leaf plates. And in the second year of growth, shoots are formed and flowering begins in mid-July. Forming umbrellas consist of greenish-white flowers.
This crop is moisture-loving and frost-resistant, germination of seeds is observed already at 3 degrees, and friendly sprouts appear at 15 degrees. Young seedlings can withstand frosts as low as minus 5 degrees.
The rounded, almost double fruit has thread-like ribs on each of the halves. There are three varieties of celery cultivated today: leafy, root, and stem (petiole). The most popular green crops are celery, dill, and parsley.
Root celery - growing in yielding beds
Growing celery from seed
What time to plant
Since celery has a vegetation period of 120-170 days, this crop should be grown through a seedling. Root celery seedlings are sown 70 to 75 days before transplanting them into open soil, for example, in the last days of February.
However, the sprouting of leaf celery seeds is made half a month later.
Seeds need obligatory pre-sowing preparation, as they contain essential oils that strongly hinder the swelling and appearance of sprouts; in some cases, the first seedlings appear 20-30 days later. To ensure that the sprouts from the seeds appeared as soon as possible, they need to be barbotage: the seeds should be kept for 24 hours in water saturated with oxygen, then they are pickled, for this purpose immersed for 45 minutes in a solution of potassium manganese (1%), then it should be well washed, using clean water, and dried. There is another method of preparing seeds for sowing: first, they are treated by immersing them in a solution of potassium manganese (1%) for 45 minutes, then they are washed and then immersed in Epin solution for 18 hours (2 drops per 100 ml of water).
The treated seeds should be spread in a thin layer on moistened cloth, there they will germinate at a temperature of 20 to 22 degrees.
Naked seeds are sown in a box, which is pre-filled with fertile substrate, its composition includes lowland peat, sod soil and humus (3:1:1), it is also added coarse sand. In 10 liters of substrate must be added 1 tbsp. wood ash and 1 tsp. urea. After some of the seeds have nodded off, they are combined with a small amount of sand and sown into containers with moistened soil mixture, in which you make furrows, and the distance between them should be 30 to 40 mm.
The seeds should be covered with a thin layer of sand using a sieve, then the box should be covered with glass or foil and placed in a warm place.
If done correctly, the first seedlings should appear 7 days after sowing. When necessary, the seeds should be watered with warm water using a fine sprayer. Before the seedlings appear, the boxes should be kept warm (22 to 25 degrees). After the seeds germinate, the cover should be removed, and the containers should be moved to a well-lit place, where it should be cool (about 16 degrees).
For the first 4-6 weeks, young sprouts are characterized by a rather slow growth. When growing leaf and petiole celery, when the seedlings grow 1 or 2 real leafy plates, thinning is done, and the distance between them should be 40 to 50 mm or they can be unpacked in a large container. In root celery, the seedlings are piked into individual peat-mulch pots, shortening the central root by 1/3. During the picking, the plants are planted in the soil in pots only up to half of the subseeded knee. When the seedlings will be seeded, they will need protection from direct sunlight for the first time, for this use moistened paper sheets.
During this period, the seedlings will need the following temperature regime: during the day - 15 to 16 degrees, and at night - 11-12 degrees.
Independent on what kind of celery variety is grown, the seedlings will need good care, which is timely watering and feeding, as well as loosening the substrate surface. The first time seedlings are fed 7-10 days after they will be thinned or unthinned, for this use a solution of Nitrofoski (10 l of water 1 tsp.), 1 bush takes 2-3 tbsp. nutrient mixture.
If rastenitsa excessively pale, they will need to feed 2 or 3 times a solution of urea with an interval of 10-12 days. So that the seedlings do not get burnt when they are fertilized, they need to be washed off the rests of the nutrient mixture, so use clean water and a sieve.
When you have 7-10 days before planting seedlings in the open soil, you should start hardening them. To do this, it is moved outdoors every day, with the duration of the procedure to be increased gradually until the seedlings can not be in fresh air all the time.
Sowing celery on gauze.
Great result! (02/21/16)
Growing celery on a windowsill
Sow celery seeds and grow seedlings in room conditions in exactly the same way as described above. Such a plant on the windowsill can also be grown from a root vegetable, in the end you can get the result much faster and easier. But you should consider that a plant that has been grown from seed will be able to last a little longer. You can plant a new root crop every 2 to 3 months if you like or you can wait a little longer and grow this plant from seed, such a bush will be able to provide you with aromatic greenery for over 1 year.
To grow such a plant from a root crop, you should take a pot that should be about 20 centimeters high.
Depending on the size of the root crop, 1-3 pieces can be planted in it, with their upper part rising above the surface of the substrate after planting. The pot is filled with a substrate containing coconut fiber and biohumus (2:1), it should be tamped and watered. A different soil mixture can also be used to grow celery.
Where to get the root vegetable for planting? It can be bought at the market or dug up on your own plot. The first fragrant greens can be harvested in half a month.
If the shrub is grown from seed, the first cut of herbs will only be available in about 6 weeks, but they will grow for a year, maybe even longer. Sowing the seeds of early-ripening varieties of root celery is recommended. When the seeds have been treated before sowing as described above, they should be sown into a moist substratum half a centimeter deep, then covered with a film or glass.
How to water
This crop is a humid one and in summer it should be watered often and abundantly. In winter, they are watered less frequently and with less water.
Tap water before watering should stand for 24 hours, and it must be room temperature. The pot with the plant should be placed on a tray and the excess water should always be poured off after watering.
Feed as much greenery as possible and as long as possible. Once every 15-20 days 1 tsp. of Agrolife should be put into the top layer of substratum or once every 7 days the bushes should be watered with a solution of Growth (1 capful per 2 liters of water).
When celery is well looked after, the bushes grown from root crops can stay green for 3-4 months, those grown from seed for over a year.
How to grow celery on a windowsill?
Planting celery in the open ground
When to plant
Planting celery seedlings in the open ground should begin after the plants have formed 4-5 true leaf plates, with them reaching 12 to 15 centimeters in height. At the same time, from the moment of seedlings appearance, at least 50-60 days should pass. When 2 to 3 hours remain before planting the seedlings in the open ground, they will need abundant watering. Seedlings should be transplanted into the open soil in the middle of the first decade of May.
Seedlings of root celery should not be overexposed, otherwise the chances of getting a quality and rich harvest are significantly reduced. Well-watered seedlings are very easy to remove from the container during transplanting, taking them together with the root ball.
Before planting seedlings in the open soil, you should be sure to prepare the plot well. This crop needs a light loose nutritious loamy sandy soil that is slightly alkaline or neutral. The plot should be open and well lit.
For such a plant perfectly suited plots, where previously grown crops such as cabbage, cucumbers, beans and tomatoes. And bad predecessors are parsley, carrots, dill and parsnip.
Preparation of the plot should be engaged in the autumn time. To do this, recultivate the soil to the depth of the bayonet of the shovel. 20 grams of double superphosphate and 3,5-4 kg of compost or humus per 1 square meter of soil should be added.
In springtime you should loosen the soil, adding 35-40 grams of compound fertilizer per 1 square meter of soil.
When planting root celery seedlings between bushes you should keep a distance of 0,4 to 0,5 m, and the distance between the rows should be the same. And when planting leaf and stem celery distance between bushes should be from 15 to 20 centimeters, and the width between the rows - about 30 centimeters. If you want celery bushes can be planted between beds of potatoes, garlic or onions.
In each of the planting holes should be poured a handful of wood ash and humus, fertilizer combined with soil.
Seedlings during planting are sunk into the soil to the seedling's cotyledon. Then the soil around the seedlings is well tamped, and the planted seedlings themselves are abundantly watered. The transplanted seedlings should be protected from direct sunlight for the first few days with paper sheets.
Celery seedling planting
Growing and caring for petiole celery should be different than for leaf or root celery. Any of these varieties should be provided with timely watering, weeding, feeding, mulching and loosening of the soil surface, as well as treatment against diseases and pests, if necessary.
For celery to retain moisture in the soil longer and to avoid crusting on its surface, the bed should be covered with a mulching layer (sawdust, peat or grass clippings). When there are 20 days before harvesting stem (petiole) celery, the bushes should be dipped high, this will whiten the petioles, reduce their bitter taste and reduce the amount of essential oils, which have a pungent aroma. If root celery is growing on the bed, the soil should be removed from its top in mid-summer, while also removing the lateral roots and pressing the leaves to the surface of the plot. If the leaves are broken in this process, it will not harm the bush in any way, but will contribute to the formation of a larger root crop. Petiole and root celery are removed completely at the time of harvesting.
And when harvesting the leafy variety, the bushes can be used for baking in room conditions in winter. To do this, the shrub is taken together with an earth clump before the first frost arrives and then planted in a pot.
How to water
This crop is a moisture loving one, so water it once every 7 days, using 2-2.5 buckets of water per 1 square meter of bed. You can not allow the soil to dry out.
In a dry period, watering should be done once a day. The soil on the bed should always be a little damp. Water the shrubs at the root.
For a good harvest of this crop, 4 fertilizers should be given throughout the season. For instructions on how to feed your seedlings, see above.
7 days after transplanting seedlings into open soil it is necessary to feed them with an infusion of grass, and after another half a month the plants are fertilized with the infusion of chicken manure or cowpea. Then at the end of July 30 grammes of superphosphate (per square metre of soil) should be added.
What to plant after celery
Where celery was grown last year you may plant garlic, tomatoes, onions, beans and potatoes.
Root celery - cultivation and care, secrets of good yields. How to form a large head
Diseases and pests of celery photos and names
In growing in open soil, celery can be affected by the following diseases:
The signs of this disease can be found early in the summer.
Brown-red pads appear on the surface of the underside of the leaves, petioles and shoots. Over time, the affected parts of the bush become yellow and wither, while they lose their taste. To get rid of the disease, the bushes shall be sprayed with a solution of Fitosporin-M (4-5 mg per 1 litre of water), 100 ml of the mixture per 1 square meter of area shall be enough.
White spot disease (septoriosis or late blight)
Bushes usually fall ill in the last weeks of summer period. Affected plants develop numerous yellow spots on the leaves and depressed brownish-brown, oblong-shaped spots on the petioles.
The disease is most active in damp, cold weather. Sick bushes will need treatment with a solution of Topsin-M or Fundazole. When you have 20 days before harvesting, stop all treatments.
Early blight or cercosporose
Cold rainy weather with rapid temperature changes promotes the development of this disease. Affected plants show numerous roundish spots on the leaf surface, which reach half a centimeter in cross-section, have pale central part and brown border.
Elongated spots appear on the surface of petioles, and if humidity is high, a violet stain will form on them. Over time, the affected leaves and petioles dry up. This disease is treated in the same way as septoriosis.
False powdery mildew
It affects the above-ground part of the bush and causes a whitish, spider-like film, which turns into a felt-like film with black spots on its surface. The disease actively develops at sharp changes of temperature and air humidity, and also at cold dews.
The best way to cure such a disease is an infusion of field sow thistle. To prepare it you need half a bucket of water and 0.3 kg of ground thistle, let it infuse for 8 hours.
This disease is viral. The signs of this disease depend directly on the type of strain affecting the bush: large rings may appear on the top of the celery, which contribute to its deformity, and very small rings may form, slowing the growth of the plant.
All diseased bushes should be dug up as soon as possible and destroyed. Since the disease cannot be cured, the crop must be protected from its main vectors: mites and aphids, in order to prevent it.
To avoid using harmful chemical substances for spraying the diseased plants the following preventive measures shall be taken:
- be sure to prepare the seedlings before sowing;
- to observe the crop rotation and farming techniques;
- avoid overgrown plantings;
- in the autumn time when the whole crop is gathered, all the residual vegetation shall be removed from the plot as well as deep soil recultivation.
The most common pests on celery shrubs are:
In the last days of May, this pest comes to celery from the borage to make egg-layers under the skin of the leaf plates, resulting in bumps on their surface. The emerging larvae gnaw out the leaf tissue, leaving long passages in their wake.
This causes the petioles to become bitter-tasting, so you can't expect a good celery crop. In order to prevent such pests from appearing on your plot, it is necessary to pull weeds in time, and you should also plant an onion near the celery bed, which is capable of repelling such flies.
The carrot fly
It appears in spring time and makes egg-breaks under celery bushes, and the larvae of this pest injure their shoots, roots and leaf plates. During a season, this fly gives 2 generations. This pest requires several treatments 7 days apart.
The inter-row areas must be covered with a mixture of sand, dry mustard, and tobacco powder (1:1:1).
This species is the largest of all aphids. It takes only half a month to develop one generation of such a pest. Aphids are sucking insects capable of biting the surface of the leaf plate and sucking the sap from it. You should also remember that this pest is the main vector of dangerous diseases for which no effective remedies have yet been found.
Therefore, as soon as an aphid is spotted on a plot, you need to start combating it immediately. For example, the shrubs can be treated with an infusion or decoction based on potato, tomato or dandelion haulm. Also for this purpose suitable infusion of citrus bark, for its preparation, you must combine water (10 parts) with peels (1 part), everything is well mixed and leave to infuse for 3-5 days. To prevent this, weeding should be done in time, and after harvesting, the area should be cleaned of plant debris, followed by deep recultivation of the soil.
Root and Stalk Celeriac Disease Prevention
Celery Types and Varieties
We already mentioned above that leaf, root and stem (petiole) celery are most popular with gardeners.
Such celery is usually cultivated to produce a root that has medicinal properties similar to those of ginseng root. Root weights range from 0.5 to 0.9 kilograms. The minimum length of vegetation period of this plant is 120 days, so it is only distinguished medium-early, medium and late varieties.
The following medium-early varieties are the most popular:
- Prazhsky Giant. It takes about 120 days from the time the seedlings emerge until the root crops are fully matured. The large root crops are turnip-shaped. Their fragrant, tender flesh is light in color and tastes good.
This variety is characterized by its productivity and resistance to diseases. Ripening time of root crops depends entirely on weather conditions and is 90-160 days. Weight of round root crops 80-140 grams. The sugar-rich flesh is snow-white in color. Roots are characterized by good storability.
- Gribovsky. The duration of the vegetation period in such celery is from 120 to 150 days. The shape of the root crops is rounded and their weight varies from 65 to 135 grams. The light, fragrant flesh has yellow spots. These root crops are eaten fresh and also dried.
- Globus. Large root vegetables have a rounded shape and weigh from 150 to 300 grams. Dense and juicy flesh of white color has small enough voids.
- Diamant. The variety is resistant to shoots and has a vegetation period of approximately 150 days.
Its smooth, rounded root vegetables have an average weight of about 200 grams. The flesh retains its white color after heat treatment.
Popular varieties of medium maturity:
- Albin. This variety has a high yield, its root crops mature in 120 days. Its roots are roundish and reach 12 centimeters across.
The juicy pulp has no hollows and is white in color.
- Egor. The fruit takes 170 days to ripen. The rounded, large and smooth rootlets weigh about 0.5 kilograms and are colored grayish-yellow with a greenness.
The white flesh is sweet and fragrant.
- Esaul. The whitish-gray, large round-shaped root crops weigh about 300 grams and take 150-160 days to ripen. The root crops have spines at the bottom of them.
In this variety, the root crops are round-shaped, and they mature in about 170 days. They are yellowish-white in color and weigh about 0.4 kg. The white flesh is fragrant and sweet.
This high-yielding variety has roots colored pale beige and weighs about 0.7 kilograms.
Popular with gardeners are the following late-ripening varieties:
- Anita. The variety is characterized by its yield and resistance to sprouting. Roots are fully ripe in 160 days, they are pale beige in color and have an oval or rounded shape and weigh about 0.
4 kilograms. The snow-white flesh does not lose its color after heat treatment.
- Maxim. The round-shaped root vegetables take about 200 days to ripen and can weigh up to 0.5 kilograms.
The flesh is cream-colored and has a tangy, delicate taste.
Leaf celery is cultivated for its fragrant, vitamin-rich leaves that are harvested throughout the summer. This variety does not form root crops. The following varieties are most popular:
- Kartuli. A medium-early variety of Georgian selection, it is drought- and cold-resistant.
The dark green petioles have fragrant leaf plates that grow several times during the summer. The leaves are eaten fresh and dried.
- Gentle. In this medium-early variety, the onset of technical ripeness occurs 105-110 days from the time the seedlings appear. The leaves can be eaten fresh or dried.
- Parus. This early variety, distinguished by its yield, matures in only 85-90 days. The foliage is tasty and very fragrant.
- Zakhar. The medium maturity variety has a very high yield.
It produces 2-3 times more greens during the vegetation period compared to other leafy celery species. The tender foliage is quite fragrant.
- Boost. A versatile medium-ripening variety, it is drought- and cold-tolerant. It matures in 65-70 days.
The shiny, highly dissected leaflets are quite fragrant.
- Samurai. This medium ripening variety is the most popular with gardeners among all leafy celery varieties. The leaves on the bush are strong-fluted and fragrant and resemble curly parsley. This variety reaches maturity in 80-85 days.
- Spartan. This variety matures in 80-85 days, the large, fragrant leaf plates are dark green in color.
Stem celery (petiole)
The petiole celery is appreciated for its fleshy petioles, up to 40-50 mm thick. This variety does not form root crops. Popular varieties of petiole celery:
This medium-early variety has juicy, thick, fleshy petioles that take 80 days to grow. The color of the foliage is dark green.
- Golden. This medium-early variety matures for 150 days. The feature of the very tasty petioles is that they can bleach on their own.
- Tango. This medium-late variety takes 170-180 days to ripen. The strongly curved green-blue long petioles are special in that they have no coarse fibers.
- Triumph. This medium-late variety grows fleshy and juicy dark green petioles that can reach 25-30 centimeters in length.
In addition to those celery varieties described above, gardeners still grow such varieties as: Yudinka, Snowball, Pascal, Ojansky, Non Plus Ultra, Cascade, Zwindra, Delicates, etc.
🌿 Celery varieties. #Root celery and petiole celery.
The properties of celery: harms and benefits
Beneficial properties of celery
The root vegetables as well as celery leaves contain very valuable substances for the human body, such as: Amino acids, carotene, nicotinic acid, essential oils, boron, chlorine, calcium, iron, manganese, magnesium, zinc, potassium, selenium, phosphorus, sulfur, vitamins A, C, E, K, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 and fiber.
The array of vitamins, minerals, proteins and acids in this plant is unique, thanks to which celery helps ensure cell stability in the body and slow down aging processes.
The herbs of this plant are used in the treatment of nervous disorders resulting from overwork because they have a sedative effect. The essential oil contained in the plant helps stimulate the secretion of gastric juice. The leaves of celery contribute to the normalization of metabolic processes in the body, so it is recommended to include it necessarily in the diet of diabetics. It is also recommended to eat it for people at an age who need to stimulate water-salt metabolism in the body. The composition of the bush includes coumarins, which help to eliminate painful sensations in the head in migraines.
It has an anti-inflammatory effect, with the culture helping to reduce swelling and eliminate joint pain in arthritis, gout and rheumatism. This plant also has wound healing, antimicrobial, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and laxative effects. It tones the body and promotes physical and mental performance. Celery juice helps cleanse the blood and get rid of diseases of the skin the more so when it is combined with nettle juice and dandelion. It is used for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, hives, diathesis and urolithiasis.
Celery is also used externally for wounds, inflammations, ulcers and burns, for this purpose the herbs are chopped with a meat grinder and mixed with melted cow oil (1:1).
Medications made on the basis of celery help increase male sexual function, eliminate insomnia, normalize metabolism and liver and kidney function, get rid of various pains, reduce weight, and are also used to prevent atherosclerosis. During the therapy of diseases of the heart and blood vessels celery root is used, thanks to it the amount of cholesterol in the blood is reduced, blood pressure is reduced and the activity of the heart muscle is normalized. This plant contains a lot of fiber, which helps to improve intestinal peristalsis and get rid of constipation. The use of the root of this plant in food is recommended for men suffering from chronic prostatitis, because it contributes to a significant improvement of the prostate gland by improving blood circulation.
In addition, this culture is one of the most powerful aphrodisiacs that enhance libido.
The medicinal properties of this crop are as follows:
- does away with heart and vascular diseases;
- makes the immune system stronger and protects the body from infections;
- does away with anxiety and has beneficial effects on the nervous system;
- helps cure hypertension, kidney and genitourinary diseases;
- helps stimulate the digestive system;
- cures intestinal putrefaction;
- with gastritis and stomach ulcers it eliminates inflammation and pain;
- makes proteins easier to digest.
Celery - incredible benefits and medicinal properties
Celery helps stimulate the digestive system, so it is not recommended for stomach ulcers, excessive gastric acidity or gastritis. It should not be eaten with varicose veins or thrombophlebitis. It should not be eaten by pregnant women.
It is also not recommended to eat it while breastfeeding because the essential oils can get into the milk..