Carrots: Planting And Care In The Open Field, Diseases And Pests

The carrot (Daucus) is a member of the Umbrella family. The name "carrot" comes from the Proto-Slavonic language. In the wild this plant is found in New Zealand, America, Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean. In agriculture grow a type of cultivated carrot, or carrot plant (Daucus sativus), and he distinguished between table and forage varieties. Cultivate such a culture for about 4 thousand years, and for such a long period has appeared a large number of diverse varieties of the plant.

It is believed that this crop is native to Afghanistan, as even to this day in the nature there are most species of carrots. At first, carrots were grown for their seeds and fragrant foliage, not as a root crop. The plant came to Europe in the 10th-13th century AD. The Domostroy mentions the carrot, indicating that in the 16th century it was already cultivated in Russia.

Peculiarities of the carrot

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

The carrot is a herbaceous plant that is an annual, biennial or perennial.

In its first year of growth, it develops only a rosette of pinnately dissected leaf plates and a root crop, and seeds do not form until the second year. The shape of the fleshy root crop is spindle-shaped, truncated-conical or cylindrical, and its weight varies from 0.03 to 0.5 kg or more. The 10-15-beam, compound, umbrella-shaped inflorescence consists of small flowers in pale yellow, white or pale red, with a red flower in the middle.

The fruit is a small elliptical two-seeded seed, about 40 mm long. The root crop contains carotenes, lycopene, B vitamins, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, sugars, ascorbic and pantothenic acids and other useful substances that the human body needs.

Carrots. Basic cultivation secrets / Seven rules for a rich carrot crop

Sowing carrots in the open field

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

What time to plant

Carrot seeds begin to germinate at soil temperatures of 4 to 6 degrees. Therefore, the seeds can be sown when the soil has warmed up to this temperature, usually as early as the last days of April.

Medium- and late-maturing varieties can be sown from April 20 to May 7. If the soil is medium, carrots can also be sown in the second week of May, and in light soils, until the last days of spring. Seeds that are in the ground can withstand frosts as low as minus 4 degrees. It is very good if it rains for several days in a row after sowing. You should not sow the seeds too late, because then the sprouts will not appear for a relatively long time.

Suitable soil

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

The plot for carrots should be chosen sunny and flat. However, a site with a slight slope is also suitable for this crop. Bad predecessors for this crop are: fennel, parsnip, beans, cumin, parsley and carrot, because these plants quite actively absorb the necessary nutrients from the soil, thus depleting it. Such areas are suitable for planting carrots after at least 3 years. And the best predecessors are: cucumbers, cabbage, garlic, potatoes, zucchini, tomatoes and onions.

After a suitable plot is found, it should be engaged in its preparation. Its digging should be carried out in advance, and more precisely, in the autumn time, then before the spring it will have time to settle down. It is necessary to dig over the soil at 1.5 bayonet of a spade, the fact is that if the root crop begins to grow actively, then, having rested against a solid layer of soil, it will change its direction, resulting in the vegetable being crooked. Removing a crooked root vegetable from the ground is relatively difficult.

Before you begin planting, the soil should be fertilized, do it during the autumn digging, so, for 1 square meter plot takes 15 grams of potash fertilizer, 2 to 3 kilograms of humus, 25-30 grams of superphosphate and 15-20 grams of nitrogen fertilizer. In the spring time the plot should be leveled using a rake.

Sowing

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Before sowing carrots in the open ground the seed should be pre-seeded in order to improve the germination. There are several ways to prepare the seeds for sowing:

  1. For 1 day they should be immersed in warm water (about 30 degrees), and the liquid should be changed at least 6 times during this time. If desired, the water can be replaced with a solution of wood ash (1 tbsp.

    of the substance is taken per 1 liter of tepid water). After 24 h, the seeds should be rinsed in clean water, and then they are placed in a cloth and put on the shelf of the refrigerator for several days.

  2. Seeds should be poured into a cloth bag, which for a third of an hour is immersed in hot water (about 50 degrees). Then it is immediately dipped for 2-3 minutes in cold water.
  3. Seeding material is poured into a cloth bag, which should be buried in the soil to the depth of the bayonet of the spade.

    There it should lie 1.5 weeks.

  4. It is possible to barb the seed with a barboter. For that, the seeds are dipped into an oxygenated solution of Silk or Epin, where they should stay for 18 to 20 hours

After the pre-sowing preparation, the carrots can be directly sown in the open field. If the soil on the plot is light, you should embed the seeds 20-30 mm deep into it, but if the soil is heavy, you should reduce the embedding depth to 15-20 mm.

The width between the rows is about 20 centimeters. Between the seeds in the row should be kept a distance of 30 to 40 mm. To ensure that the crops were not dense, gardeners often resort to the following trick: cut toilet paper into thin strips, they should be spaced at 30-40 mm drops of mastic (made from flour or starch), and then spread the seeds in them. Once the glue dries paper should be bent in half over the entire length and wrap it in a roll. During sowing, paper with seeds is unfolded and placed in the furrows, which must first be well moistened.

When the seeds are embedded in the soil, the surface of the bed should be covered with a three-inch layer of mulch, this will prevent the appearance of a crust on it, which can hinder the germination of seedlings.

There is another method of sowing this crop. For this purpose, toilet paper or paper towel should be cut into small squares, where each one should be covered with a drop of paste, on which one or two seeds and one granule of complex mineral fertilizer should be put. Squares should be rolled to form balls, when they dry out, they are stored until sowing. When sowing, these balls are placed in the furrow at a distance of 30-40 mm.

Sowing carrots for winter

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Wintering carrots allows the gardener to harvest them half a month earlier than spring sowing. However, only early-ripening varieties are sown in the fall, and these carrots are not suitable for long-term storage. Sowing should be done in the last days of October or the first days of November, and the area under this crop should be prepared 20 days before sowing. When the sowing is done, the surface of the bed should be covered with a three-centimeter layer of peat. With the onset of spring the bed should be covered with a film, and it should be removed immediately after the emergence of seedlings.

Please note that only light soils are suitable for sowing carrots in the winter.

Carrot care

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

To grow carrots in your vegetable garden, you should water them in time, thin out the seedlings if necessary, systematically loosen the surface of the bed and also pull out all weeds immediately after they appear, because some diseases may infect this plant.

Thinning

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

The first time seedlings should be thinned when they have two true leaf blades each, in which case keep a distance of 20-30mm between the plants. After the seedlings have formed two more true leaf plates, they need to thin again, and between the seedlings should be observed at a distance of 40-60 mm. In order not to thin the carrots, you should sow them using balls or paper tape (see above).

Remove weeds from the plot at the same time as thinning the seedlings. Weeding is recommended after the bed has been watered.

How to water

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

The best way to harvest quality carrots is to water them properly so that they will be sweet, large and juicy. If the plants do not get enough water, they will become sluggish and taste bitter. This crop should be watered properly from the time of sowing until harvest.

The soil should be soaked with water to a depth of not less than 0.3 m, which corresponds to the maximum size of the root crops. If the bushes lack water, they grow lateral roots, which seek additional sources of moisture, because of this the root crops lose their marketable appearance, and their flesh becomes hard and coarse. If you water the carrots too much, it will cause cracking of the roots, on their surface there will be small shoots, as well as increased growth of the haulm. As a rule, water a bed of carrots once every 7 days, keeping to the following scheme:

  • after sowing at first for watering use 3 liters of water per 1 square meter of the bed;
  • when the sprouts will be thinned the second time, the abundance of watering should be increased, so, for 1 square meter of plot now need to spend 1 bucket of water;
  • after the bunches of carrots have sprouted, the roots will actively grow, and at this time the watering has to become even more redundant (two buckets of water per square meter of plot);
  • when the harvest time will be 6-8 weeks, the watering reduces to once per 10-15 days, taking 1 bucket of water per square meter of bed;
  • and when the harvest time is 15-20 days, the carrots have to be totally stopped.

Feeding

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Feed twice throughout the growing season: the first feeding is done 4 weeks after the seedlings appear and the second after 8 weeks. To fertilize, use liquid fertilizer, which should consist of 1 tbsp of nitrophoska, 2 tbsp of wood ash, 20 grams of potassium nitrate, 15 grams of urea and the same amount of superphosphate per 1 bucket of water. Fertilize only after the bed has been watered.

BORN ACID SUPER FERTILIZER FOR THE GROWTH OF CARPETS

Pests and Diseases of Carrots with Pictures

Main Carrot Diseases

Marrots can be damaged by various pests and diseases, so every grower must know what to do in order to preserve the harvest. This crop is most threatened by diseases such as: fomosis, bacteriosis, gray, white, red and black rot.

Bacteriosis

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Bacteriosis - its spreading occurs with crop residues and seeds. Therefore after harvesting the crop, the haulm remnants must be removed from the field and the seed must be prepared before sowing by warming in hot water (about 52 degrees).

Gray and white rot

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Gray and white rot - almost all vegetable crops are affected by these diseases. Their symptoms usually appear during the storage of vegetables. To prevent this, it is necessary to lime the acidic soil, not to overdo with nitrogen fertilizers, remove all the grass in a timely manner, and before putting the vegetables in storage, they are powdered with chalk.

It is also very important that the roots be stored in optimal conditions and well ventilated.

Felt disease (red rot)

Felt disease (red rot) - At first purple or brown spots appear on the affected roots. As the disease progresses, they disappear and are replaced by black sclerotia of the fungus. All root crops such as carrots, turnips, beets, rutabaga, parsley, etc. are susceptible to this disease.

The reason for the development of this disease is the application of manure to the soil as an organic fertilizer. Affected root crops are stored separately from healthy ones.

Black rot

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Black rot - coal-black rotten areas appear on the affected root crops. The greatest danger of this disease is to the testicles of carrots. Affected carrots must be removed and destroyed as soon as possible.

As a preventive measure, the seeds are treated with Tigam solution (0.5%) before sowing.

Septoriosis

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Septoriosis - small chlorotic spots appear on the leaves of the diseased bush. As the disease progresses, they turn brown and have a red rim. The rapid spread of the disease is promoted by high air humidity.

At the first symptoms of the disease, treat the bed repeatedly with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%) at intervals of 1.5 weeks. Those bushes that are severely affected should be dug up and destroyed. When the crop is harvested, the plant remains should be burned. As a preventive measure, the seeds should be warmed in hot water before sowing, and then immediately cooled in cold water.

And also preparing the plot for sowing carrots, potassium-phosphorus fertilizer should be put into the soil under the digging.

Phomosis

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Phomosis - it damages the stems of the seedlings, as well as their inflorescences. Then the rootstock has brown spots at the top, which deepen with time, and the whole rootstock is affected. On light soil, this disease develops more rapidly. As a preventive measure, the seed should be treated with Thigam solution (0.

5%) before sowing, and the infested root crops should be removed immediately.

How to protect carrots from soil pests and diseases with your own hands

Pests of carrots

Harm this crop can be caused by winter moths, slugs, carrot flies and wireworms.

Slugs

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Mites-if they are few, then you can collect them by hand. If the gastropods invade the plot, you have to fight them with the help of home-made traps. To do this, dig small jars in several places on the plot and fill them with beer; its aroma should attract a large number of slugs to the traps.

If you have watermelon or pumpkin, it should be cut into pieces, which are placed on the surface of the site, in the morning it will remain only to collect pests who crawled to regale themselves with "treats" left by you. You may also cover the surface of the plot with a layer of wood ash, dusty superphosphate, or pine needles.

Wormflies

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Wormflies are actually the larvae of the dark titmouse. They can harm not only carrots, but also crops such as: cucumbers, celery, strawberries, cabbage, tomatoes and potatoes. This beetle is about 10 mm long, has a brownish-black coloration, and its elytra are light red.

The female click beetle makes an ovipositor with about 200 eggs. Cylindrical, brownish-yellow larvae hatch out, about 40 mm long, and take 3-5 years to develop. In order to clean the plot from wireworms, you will also need traps. To do this, it is necessary to make several not very deep holes in the plot, in which pieces of any root crop (potatoes, carrots, beets, etc.) or semi-prepared grass are placed.

Then the hole is covered with earth and a peg is placed so as not to forget where it is. The hole must be dug up after a few days and the bait must be destroyed with the pests in it.

Winter Moth Caterpillars

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Winter Moth Caterpillars - they injure the above-ground parts of the bush and also damage shoots and roots by gnawing through them. They also damage tomatoes, parsley, onions, kohlrabi, beets, cucumbers and potatoes. To get rid of the caterpillars, the bed should be sprayed with an insecticide following the instructions included, such as Cyanox, Revicurt, Ambush, Anomarin or Etafos.

To prevent carrot flies, plant onions between rows of carrots.

Harvesting and storage of carrots

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Harvesting carrots involves several steps. First, there is a gradual thinning of the plantings, for which carrots may be pulled for cooking during the season. As a result, the remaining vegetables will get a lot more nutrients, and the build-up of their mass will be more active. Early-ripening varieties of this plant are harvested in July.

Root crops of varieties of medium maturity are dug in August. Late maturing varieties, which can be stored for a long time, are harvested in the second half of September.

Harvest on a sunny, dry and warm day. If the soil is light, the carrots can be yanked up by grasping the tops. And if the soil is heavy, the carrots should be pulled out of it with a shovel.

Excavated roots should be sorted, with all traumatized carrots put aside for further processing. For those carrots that are suitable for storage, remove all foliage down to the head, then they are placed under a roof and left to dry for a few days. Then the crop can be put in storage. For storage of this vegetable is ideal for the cellar or basement, carrots are placed in boxes made of plastic or wood, it should be overlaid with dry sand so that the roots do not touch each other. The sand can be replaced with moss if desired.

Some gardeners use chopped chalk and onion husks for this purpose, thanks to such shoveling, the crop will be protected from the appearance of rot. There is another method of storing carrots, which is to glaze carrots with clay. The clay is mixed with water to a sour creamy consistency, after which the root crops are immersed in this blotch one by one and spread out on a lattice. When they have dried, they are carefully put away in storage. These carrots, when stored in a dry cellar at about 0 degrees, retain their juiciness and freshness until spring.

MORNING AND STORAGEING THE CARROTS BEFORE THE NEXT YEAR!!!

Carrot types and varieties with pictures and names

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Most people think that carrots should necessarily be orange-red in color and cone-shaped, but this is far from true. Carrots became orange only in the 17th century, but before that they were different, for example, in the Roman Empire such a vegetable was white, in some countries of Western Europe - black, and in Ancient Egypt - purple. Dutch artists in early paintings can be seen depicting yellow and purple carrots. When the first orange-colored carrot appeared, it was very light in color because it contained a small amount of carotene (3-4 times less than modern varieties). In 2002, the purple carrot variety was recreated and can now be freely purchased.

Purple pigments are anthocyanidins, in addition to such carrots, these substances are contained in beets, purple basil and red cabbage, they help improve the brain and cardiovascular system, help cleanse the blood of fats and cholesterol. More breeding work is underway to change the size and shape of the root crops, so today there are varieties with an almost round, spindle-shaped, conical, pointed shape, and also with rounded tips.

The majority of varieties of this vegetable are divided into variety types. The main varieties are:

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

  1. Paris Carotel. This very early variety is a high yielding variety, even if grown on clayey or poorly cultivated soil, the grower will still not be left without a crop.

    Its sweet and tender root vegetables have a rounded shape similar to radishes and reach a length of 40mm. This early-ripening variety series is not intended for long storage. The sweet juicy and tender root vegetables have a small heart and a cylindrical shape with a rounded end, their length is 15 to 17 centimeters, and they reach 20-25 mm in cross-section. However, please note that these vegetables are very delicate and if handled carelessly during harvesting, they are easily injured.

  2. Nanthus.

    The shape of the juicy and sweet root vegetables is cylindrical with a rounded end, they are about 22 centimeters long and reach 30-40 mm in cross-section. Suitable for eating in summer and also for storage.

  3. Berlikum nantes. The cylindrical root vegetables have sharp ends and a larger size when compared to Nantes. These rootlets are well suited for long term storage, but their taste is somewhat lower than that of the varietal series described above.

  4. Imperator. Roots are about 25 centimeters long and have a conical shape with a sharp end. The varieties in this series differ from each other in taste (some of them sweet, some not so sweet), fragility and sturdiness of the heads, which can easily be damaged if handled with care.
  5. Flakke. This variety has the strongest and longest roots (about 0.

    3 m). The weight of the root crop can reach 0.5 kg or more. The vegetation period of these varieties is quite long, and these roots are suitable for long storage, but they are inferior in taste to Carrots of Amsterdam and Nantes.

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

Also all varieties intended for open ground are divided according to the purpose of cultivation.

Quite exotic are the following varieties:

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

  1. F1 Purple Elixir. The top of the root crop is purple with a purple hue, while the flesh is orange. They reach a length of 20 centimeters. Such carrots are suitable for salads and also for pickling.
  2. Russian Size.

    This variety, which is a representative of the variety series Imperator, stands out among the others by the size of the root crops. When grown in light soil, they can be up to 0.3 m long and weigh up to 1 kg. These large root crops have very juicy and tasty flesh, a rich orange color and a small core.

  3. Polar Cranberry.

    This variety belongs to the Paris Carotel variety. Root crops, which have an almost rounded shape, resemble cranberries in appearance and are high in sugars and dry matter. Suitable for long-term storage and for canning.

  4. Minicor. This early-ripening variety belongs to the Amsterdam variety series.

    The small, juicy root vegetables are 13 to 15 centimeters long and have a cylindrical shape and delicate flavor. Such carrots are suitable for whole-fruit canning.

If the horticulturist is concerned about the taste of the root crops as well as the amount of nutrients in them, he should consider the following varieties:

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

  1. Helzmaster. This variety, belonging to the Flacke variety type, was created quite recently and it contains a large amount of beta-carotene. Compared to other varieties, it has at least 1/3 more beta-carotene.

    The red-purple, smooth root vegetables have a brighter heart and average length of 22 centimeters. This hybrid belongs to the Imperial variety series. The dark orange root vegetables are about 25 centimeters long, with a small core and smooth surface.

  2. Praline. The variety belongs to the varietal series Nantes.

    The orange-red root carrots are high in carotene, have virtually no core, and are about 20 centimeters long. Such carrots are very tasty, tender, sweet and juicy.

  3. Losinoostrovskaya 13. Medium-ripening variety, suitable for long-term storage. The length of the root crop is from 15 to 18 centimeters.

Some gardeners prefer varieties characterized by resistance to diseases, yield and good storability. They should consider varieties such as:

Carrots: planting and care in the open field, diseases and pests

  1. Samson. A high yielding, medium ripening variety that is a member of the Nantes varietal series. The shape of the rich orange root crops is cylindrical, and the flesh is sweet, juicy and crisp.
  2. Mo.

    This late-ripening variety of the Imperator variety has a high yield and good shelf life. The shape of the rich orange juicy roots is conical and they reach about 20 centimeters in length.

  3. Flacke. A medium-ripening variety, it grows well even in heavy soil. The roots are spindle-shaped, have barely noticeable eyelets, and are about 30 centimeters long.

  4. Forto. This medium-early variety belongs to the Nantes variety series. The shape of the smooth, tasty root crops is cylindrical and they are 18 to 20 centimeters long. It is a high yielding variety suitable for long term storage.

The same varieties of this crop are also classified according to their growing period:

  • early or early: harvesting takes 85-100 days;
  • mediately ripe: harvesting takes 105-120 days;
  • late: ripe for about 125 days.

The best early maturing varieties are Alenka, Belgian White, Dragon, Zabava, Bangor, Kinby, Colorite, Laguna, and Toucheon. Popular mid-ripening varieties are Vitaminny, Altair, Viking, Callisto, Canada, Leander, Olympian and Chantenay Royal. Best late-ripening varieties: Queen of Autumn, Vita Longa, Yellowstone, Selecta, Perfection, Totem, Tinga, Olympus, Scarla.

Best carrot varieties, photo and description

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