Cannes: Planting And Care In The Open Field, Growing In The Garden, Varieties

The monotypic genus Canna belongs to the family Cannaceae of the order Gingerbread, which includes about 50 species of herbaceous plants. Under natural conditions this flower can be found on the territory of South and Central America, China and India. Cannes came to Europe thanks to the Portuguese sailors only in the 16th century, but they began to grow it only in the 17th century. In Greek, "canna" is translated as "cane". The fact that the stem of this flower is very similar to that of a reed.

In Latin, the name of this flower is translated as "tube". There is a very old legend, which says that the flower canna first grew on the spot where there was a fire, in which the Indian chief had burnt a wampum with a peace treaty, rolled up in a tube. The result was a bloody war, and the blood-red flowers of the canna symbolize the blood that was spilled in that war or the flames of that very fire. It is prized for its attractive blooms and large, beautiful leaves that can be deep purple, purple, dark green or bronze red.

Growing Brief

Cannes: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, varieties

  1. Potting.

    Seeds are sown for seedlings in February, tubers are planted in mid-May, and germinated tubers are planted from the first days of March.

  2. Flowering. Starts in July and lasts until frost.
  3. Brightness. Needs plenty of light.

  4. Ground. Soil should be nutritious, rich in organics, well drained and warm.
  5. Pouring. It should be watered moderately but systematically. However, it should be abundant during the flowering period.

  6. Fertilizer. Fertilize twice or three times during the season, mineral fertilizers are used for this purpose.
  7. Propagation. Seed method and division of rhizome.
  8. Pests.

    Nematodes, butterfly caterpillars, scales, spider mites, aphids, slugs.

  9. Diseases. Rust, gray rot, mottle rot, cucumber mosaic virus.

Features of canna

Cannes: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, varieties

The canna bush is similar in appearance to an orchid or gladiolus and banana hybrid. This plant has a couple of disadvantages, namely that when grown in the middle latitudes, its flowers have no fragrance and it can also freeze out in too cold a winter.

But otherwise, this plant is completely satisfactory for gardeners.

Kanna has a high resistance to diseases, so it can be cultivated even by an inexperienced gardener. This plant is very showy and unpretentious, as well as drought-resistant. It blooms very long from the last days of June until the first frost. The branched rhizome of the canna grows wide.

Its upright flower stems are tall (60-300 cm) and thick. The powerful, large, pointed leaves are elliptical or oblong in shape and vary in length from 0.25 to 0.8 m and width from 0.1 to 0.

3 m. Due to the color and shape of the leaves, the plant looks very effective. But it looks most decorative after its incredibly beautiful flowers open. The obovolous, sharply asymmetric flowers measure from 40 to 80 mm and are red in color. Breeding has resulted in cultivars with pink, yellow and orange flowers; there are also fringed, bicolored and speckled ones.

The rarest are cannes with white flowers. The flowers are part of corymb-shaped or paniculate inflorescences. The fruit is a three-necked box.

Cannes. Planting.

Digging out. Storage.

Growing canna in the garden

Sowing seeds

Cannes: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, varieties

When sowing canna seeds, you should keep in mind that the resulting seedlings often cannot maintain the variety characteristics of the parent plant. Also, keep in mind that not all varieties are capable of setting seeds. In this regard, the most popular among gardeners is the vegetative method of propagation - division of the rhizome.

But if there is a great desire, it is quite possible to grow such a flower from seeds. Its seeds are covered with an extremely strong and dense shell, which should be softened before sowing. To begin with, the seed should be doused with freshly boiled water, and then it is placed in a thermos, in which warm water is poured, there it should stay for 3 to 4 hours. Instead, it can be placed on a hot radiator for 12 hours. Also instead of seeds can be frozen, for this they are placed in the refrigerator for 1-2 h.

Sowing the seeds should be carried out in February, using a light substrate, the air temperature should be 22 to 23 degrees, the seeds require penumbra. The first seedlings should appear after 20-30 days, their picking in individual pots should be held after the formation of 3 or 4 true leaf plate. Before transplanting into open soil seedlings should be kept in a cool place (about 16 degrees). A part of the seedlings will be able to flower during the current season and another part will not form flowers until the following year.

Berb propagation

Cannes: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, varieties

The more reliable method of propagation, which allows you to get bushes flowering in summer time, is the tuber splitting method.

In the first days of March, divide the tuber into parts with a few weak buds or a large one in each partition. The cutting places should be treated with charcoal powder and dried. Put the plants very closely together in a container and place them on the surface of the sand or soil, placing the buds horizontally. Above the dividers must be covered with a layer of sand, which should be periodically moistened with lukewarm water from a sprayer. The best way for the buds to germinate will be at an air temperature of 20 to 24 degrees, for this purpose, experts advise a little heating of the container from below.

After the dividers will show the leaves and they will be cramped, they will need to be planted in individual small pots, which are removed to a well-lit and cool place (about 16 degrees). There they will stay until transplantation into open soil, during this time they will have time to get stronger, 1 time in 10 days the bushes should be watered with a solution of potassium permanganate (2 grams per 1 bucket of water). Some gardeners prefer not to nurture the tubers of cannes, as a result of which the flowering starts much later, and in some cases the bushes do not bloom at all.

When to plant cannes

Cannes: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, varieties

After the spring return frost is behind, you can start preparing the site for planting. This flower prefers well-lit areas that are well protected from drafts.

The soil should be saturated with organics, nutritious and warm. Cannabis needs exactly the same growing conditions and care as the cucumber. Soil mixture consisting of leaf soil, peat, mulch and coarse sand (1:1:1:1) is perfect for its cultivation. At the bottom of the wells you should make a good drainage layer.

Specialists recommend planting such a flower in the open soil not earlier than May 9 because if in the spring time bushes will be exposed to sharp changes of temperature, then their growth will slow down, and they will bloom much later or will not bloom at all.


Cannes: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, varieties

Potting cannes should be planted from the middle to the end of May, but only after the frost is definitely behind them. In order for the bushes to grow and develop very well, you will need to make a "hot" bed for them. To begin with, make a planting hole, reaching 0.5-0.6 m in cross-section, and at its bottom make a good drainage layer of fresh manure, which should be about 20 cm thick.

Thanks to the manure, the root system of flowers will always be in heat, which will cause active growth and lush flowering of bushes. Manure must necessarily be covered with soil, and the thickness of the layer should be about 25 cm. After the soil will be abundantly watered, the bushes are planted in it, which are then buried. When planting a bulb that has not sprouted, it should be embedded to a depth of no more than 60-90 mm. The distance between the bushes and the width of the row spacing should be about 50 cm.

After planting, it will only take 6-8 weeks and the bushes will bloom.

Garden care

Cannes: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, varieties


Feeding cannes twice or three times during the growing season, using mineral fertilizers. When the shrubs have been watered, fertilizer in granules should be poured on the soil surface near them, then the soil should be loosened. Every 1 square metre of soil should be covered with 40-50 grammes of a nutrient mixture consisting of 12 grammes of nitrogen, 10 grammes of potassium and 25 grammes of phosphate fertiliser. Once flowering begins, the watering should be increased, but stagnant liquid should not be allowed to remain in the root system.

If there is regular overwatering, bacterial or fungal disease will develop, causing the buds to turn black and die.


Cannes: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, varieties

In addition to the diseases described above, nematodes can harm the root system of cannes and butterfly caterpillars can damage the foliage. To get rid of these pests, the bushes should be sprayed with insecticides.


Flowers that have already bloomed should definitely be removed. From the beginning to the middle of the growing season, weeds should be removed in good time.

When the bushes are finished blooming and before the first frost, they should be high up, this way you can protect the root necks from frost damage. When cannes growing in the garden finish blooming, you should start to water them less and less until the watering stops altogether.

Cannes - outdoor growing and care

Preparing for winter

Cannes: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, varieties

Before frost sets in, bushes should be dipped high to help protect root necks from severe frost, if not done, rot may occur on them during storage in the winter. As soon as the first frosts pass, the shoots of bushes are cut off at a height of 15 to 20 centimeters, and then the rhizome is dug up together with the root ball. Then the bushes are removed to a place where they will remain until the spring period.

A cool place with diffused light and moderate humidity is excellent for this.

The rhizomes should be placed in wooden crates, with a mixture of sand, peat, soil and sawdust of nonconiferous trees. It is best if the humidity of the mixture is about 50%, and the temperature should be from 6 to 8 degrees. During storage, systematically inspect the rhizomes, and as soon as rot appears on them, the affected area is cut out to healthy tissue, and the cuts should be treated with iodine. You should also try to maintain the recommended level of humidity and temperature, avoiding sudden changes in temperature.

If desired, the rhizomes can be placed on a refrigerator shelf until spring. To do this, the rhizomes taken out in the autumn time should be well washed using running water, then they are placed for 24 hours in a solution of manganese potassium, then dried and wrapped around each tuber separately in a paper sheet. Then they are put in the refrigerator on the vegetable shelf, and in winter they should be systematically checked for rotting.

You can also put dry rhizomes in a bucket of plastic, cover them with a layer of dry soil and put them in storage on the balcony. During severe frosts, the container with tubers is taken inside and placed near the balcony door on the floor.

Also tubers are perfectly stored in a container in the soil in a cool room (no more than 15 degrees). You can put the container in an attic, a loggia or a veranda. Water the soil once every 2 weeks with a little water.

In regions with mild, warm winters the rhizomes are stored directly in the garden. They are dug out and stored in an area that is not flooded by melt water in the springtime and is well protected from the wind.

They should be covered with dry sawdust and covered with a layer of about 20cm.

Cannas - when to dig out , where and how to store them

Cannas at home

Cannes: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, varieties

Foliars quite commonly cultivate cannes as a cauldron or potted plant. Varieties and species that can fit on a terrace, in a room or on a balcony are suitable. Indoor plants are highly decorative and can be the focal point in any winter garden. On top of that, it only has a dormancy period of about 8 weeks as a houseplant and will look very pretty the rest of the time with its pretty foliage and beautiful flowers.

Or you can dig a bush growing in the open ground in the fall and plant it in a pot or tub that reaches half a meter across. Do not forget to sprinkle the garden soil with an insecticide solution before planting the flower, which will reduce the possibility of the plant being affected by various pests.

General rules of care

Cannes: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, varieties

The indoor canna is much easier to care for than the one growing in the garden, because in this case it does not need spraying, weeding, fertilizing and loosening of the substrate surface. It is necessary to choose a sunny place for the flower, and for its watering use well-drained water, and the procedure itself is carried out only when it is necessary. It is also necessary to periodically remove dust from the surface of the foliage, using a moistened soft cloth for this purpose.

When the flowering is over, the bush will still look very impressive with its unusual leaves.

After flowering

After flowering, the bush usually needs a rest, so you should start to reduce watering and eventually stop it altogether for a while, but this should be done gradually. The foliage should be cut off at a height of 10 to 15 centimeters from the base of the bush. Then the flower is transferred to a dry place, where it should be cool enough (not below 10 degrees). In the spring time, the rhizome should be taken out of the pot, and then it is divided into several parts and replanted.

The resulting dividers can be grown on the balcony, at home or outdoors.

🌷 Cannas at home

Canna varieties with photos and names

Canna indica (Canna indica)

Cannes: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, varieties

Almost all the canna species that are popular with gardeners today came into being from the canna indica. The cultivated varieties of such canna are called garden canna. These hybrids are divided by gardeners into 3 groups:

Crozy cannes

Cannes: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, varieties

These are low-growing species that vary in height from 0.6 to 1.

6 m. Their flowers are similar in appearance to gladioluses. The surface of the bronze-purple or dark green leaf plates has a white patina on them. The petals of the flowers are deflected. The first hybrid was created in 1868 by the French breeder Crozy and is now called the French Cannes or Cannes Crozy.

The most popular varieties of such a canna are:

  • Livadia - One-meter tall shrubs produce crimson-red inflorescences that are 25 to 30 centimeters long, the foliage is purple, and flowering begins in July;
  • America - bushes 1.2 to 1.4 m high, cinnabar-red flowers reaching 12 centimeters across, inflorescences 0.3 to 0.35 m long, foliage color purple, flowering begins in July;
  • President - shrubs about 100 cm high, inflorescences consisting of deep red flowers about 0.

    3 m long, foliage color green, flowering begins in July.

Orchid Cannas

Cannes: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, varieties

The flowers of this plant are similar in shape to cattleyas. The height of this strong-growing plant is from 100 to 200 cm, the flowers are large (12.5 to 17.5 centimeters), and the edges of the petals are corrugated.

The foliage color is green-purple or green. The following varieties are the most popular:

  • Andenken an Pfitzer - Shrubs 1.1 to 1.4 m tall, inflorescences about 0.3 m long, they consist of deep orange-colored flowers with dashes of red, foliage is purple-brown and blooms in July;
  • Suevia - bushes reach about 100 cm in height, the size of the inflorescences is 12x15 cm, they consist of lemon-colored flowers, the foliage is green, flowering begins in the last days of June;
  • Richard Wallace - The plant is about 100 cm high, the inflorescences are 20 to 23 centimeters long, they consist of yellowish flowers with speckles of red on the surface, the foliage is green, flowering begins in June.

Small-flowered (deciduous) cannes

Cannes: planting and care in the open field, growing in the garden, varieties

The bush reaches about 300 cm in height and is decorated with very showy leaf plates of purple, green or green-purple color. However, the flowers of this plant are very small, not more than 60 mm in size, and are cultivated very rarely. The most popular variety is Durban: the color of flowers is orange-yellow, striped leaf plates are very decorative, their color is bronze-green-pink-yellow.

🌷 Types and varieties of canna: domestic and garden


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