Canadian Maple: Description, Where It Grows, Planting And Care, Species

Many people have heard of the spectacular beauty of the Canadian maple (Acer saccharinum). This tall and beautiful tree is distinguished by its slender and graceful appearance. As autumn arrives, the leaves change their color to reddish-yellow, which looks spectacular against the background of other deciduous species with greenish-yellow foliage. This plant is native to Canada, where it is considered a symbol of the country. And the maple leaf is even depicted on the Canadian flag.

This maple is also commonly known as silver or sugar maple.

Features of Canadian maple

Canadian maple: description, where it grows, planting and care, species

If Canadian maple will grow in conditions favorable for it, it can live from 300 to 400 years and its height can reach up to 40 meters. It grows best in sunny areas, but a little shade is also suitable for it. In nature, reproduction of such a tree is by seed.

Description:

  1. The surface of the trunk is covered with brownish bark.

    Over the years it changes its color to a darker one.

  2. The lush, dense crown has a spreading shape.
  3. The root system of this maple tree is well developed, branching and yet goes deep into the soil.
  4. The leaf plate consists of several lobes with pointed tops. They have a long petiole, with a serrated edge.

    There are some very large leaf blades. They can be up to 20-22 centimeters wide. In autumn the leaves take on a scarlet hue with flecks of green or yellow.

  5. In spring, small greenish-yellow flowers appear on the tree. They form clusters, each containing 8-14 flowers.

  6. After flowering, fruit, which are winglets, are formed on the branches. They consist of two halves that look like wings. These winglets contain seeds.

Species of Canadian Maple

There are many different varieties of Canadian Maple. The following will describe those which are the most widespread in Russia.

Sugar Lacyanatum Vieri

Canadian maple: description, where it grows, planting and care, species

If you compare this variety with others, it can be called a low-growing one: A mature tree can reach a maximum height of 15 m. The wide, spreading crown is spherical in shape. The bark is green in color, with many small cracks on its surface. The foliage is characterized by its diverse and inconstant coloration: pink during opening, green-silver during summer and lemon in winter.

Adirondack

Canadian maple: description, where it grows, planting and care, species

It is about 20 m tall.

It is adorned with a branched and wide crown. The leaf plate is cut into 5 separate segments with pointed tops. The leaves turn yellow in autumn and turn orange or scarlet yellow. The variety is not afraid of frosty winters. However, it is afraid of strong gusts of wind as they can damage branches that are relatively fragile.

Pyramidale

Canadian maple: description, where it grows, planting and care, species

The oval crown is highly dense. The tree can reach a height of about 20m. It blooms in March with reddish-orange colored flowers on the branches. The bark is colored gray and its surface is covered with small grooves. The leaf plates are split into lobes.

The foliage turns yellow in early fall.

Freeman's Otom Blaze

Canadian maple: description, where it grows, planting and care, species

This is a hybrid that used red maple and Canadian maple to create it. While the plant is young, the trunk is covered with smooth, gray-colored bark. Over the years, it becomes darker and cracks appear on its surface. The deep-cut leaf plates have a deep green color.

In autumn they turn purplish-orange.

It is not uncommon for inexperienced gardeners to mistake red maple for Canadian maple. And not surprisingly, as they look almost identical in appearance. The only difference is the sap:

  • Canadian maple has a clear and sweet sap;
  • red maple has an unsweetened white sap.

Where does the Canadian maple grow

Canadian maple: description, where it grows, planting and care, species

Canadian maple is native to North America.

It is most widespread in Canada and the eastern United States. This is why the maple is called the Canadian maple. This tree prefers to grow in lowlands with high humidity on the banks of various water bodies, as well as in mixed and broad-leaved forests. It is rarely found at higher elevations. It is unpretentious to the landscape.

It can even withstand flooding. It feels fine in the neighborhood of poplars, beeches, birches and lindens.

The majority of Canadian maple varieties are also grown in Russia. They are widespread in its various regions. Most often there are varieties with high frost resistance.

Since maple reproduces very quickly by self-seeding, in some regions it is equated with weeds. At the same time, small shoots of such a tree are actively fought there.

Planning and care

Canadian maple: description, where it grows, planting and care, species

For growing Canadian maple seedlings, annual shoots are used. They adapt quickly to a new location and are virtually disease-free. Instructions for planting a seedling in the open ground:

  1. For planting, young seedlings with a closed root system (in containers) are used.

    The plant should be hardened beforehand. For this purpose, it is regularly taken outdoors, and the duration of procedures should be increased gradually.

  2. The depth of the planting hole should be at least 0.3 m. Experts do not advise, deepen the trunk into the soil more than 50-70 mm.

  3. If you plant several seedlings at once, the minimum distance between them should be 4 m, because the tree has a spreading wide crown. If the variety is not too tall, then the distance between the seedlings can be reduced.
  4. The seedlings just planted need abundant watering: about 1.5 buckets of water (15 liters) are poured under one bush.

Care for this tree is not difficult.

It is watered during prolonged drought, as well as regularly fertilized. While the plant is young, it should be protected from frost and strong winds.

Propagation methods

Growing from seed

Canadian maple: description, where it grows, planting and care, species

The Canadian maple can be propagated in several ways, and one of them is by seed. The seed material collected should always be stratified. This will help to increase the germination of the seeds several times.

In the autumn, seeds are poured into a mixture of peat and sand. And then the mixture is put away in a cool place (about 3 degrees).

Sow the seeds in April. Winged seeds should be placed in shallow furrows (40 to 50 mm). The first seedlings should appear after 2 weeks.

Seeding

Preparing cuttings is done in the fall, and a mature healthy tree is selected. The length of the cuttings should be about 25 centimeters. Over the winter they are buried in a box with sand and removed to a cold room. They are planted in the spring time in the soil, which should be prepared in advance. If the preparation of cuttings and planting them in the ground is carried out in the spring, they must be treated with a tool that enhances the growth of the roots.

The cuttings planted in the ground should be covered, using clear plastic bottles with the neck cut off.

Diseases and pests

Canadian maple: description, where it grows, planting and care, species

The most common pest of Canadian maple trees is the Asian moustache (Anoplophora glabripennis). It can kill not just one tree, but hundreds. The matter is complicated by the fact that it is very difficult to exterminate it. In addition, aphids, larvae of various species of scale insects, and bark beetles can also harm such a plant.

It is possible to try to save the plant with insecticidal and fungicidal treatments.

The most common diseases of such maples are verticillosis, rot, pepelitsa and leaf spotting. To cure the plant, all diseased parts must be cut off and the diseased parts must be destroyed. This is followed by a treatment with a copper-containing agent.

Application and values

Canadian maple has very strong wood.

Even oak is superior to Canadian maple. It is often used for trim, musical instruments, furniture, dishes, skis, etc.

Clear maple is a light-colored wood. But it can be made darker during processing and can also have a beautiful pink or yellow shade with a shimmering sheen. That is why maple finishes and products are so popular with designers.

At the same time, maple parquet is in particular demand. This wood can easily be painted, polished and lacquered. But since it is very dense, it is difficult to carve a pattern or hammer a nail into it.

The sap of this plant is used to make sugar. It is widespread in culinary production, and it is also used to give gourmet dishes an unusual flavor.

Maple syrup is particularly popular in Canada and the United States.

Use in landscaping

Canadian maple: description, where it grows, planting and care, species

Culturally, Canadian maple is very common. It is used for landscaping in front yards, gardens, city parks and school gardens. It is used to decorate recreation areas and various plots, as well as to create walking alleys. This maple looks most decorative in the autumn, when its crown is painted in a fiery yellow hue.

It looks especially spectacular against the background of other deciduous and coniferous trees.

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